Dora

The Dora, anchored off the waterways of Vlissingen.

Photo: De Maasbode Van Woensdag, 19 July 1939

The "Death Ship" Dora: An old coal boat that saved hundred of Jews

By: Chaya Brasz, Historian.
Former Director of the Center for Research on Dutch Jewry, Ben-Zion Dinur Institute for Research in Jewish History.
Originally published as "Dodenschip Dora; Een oude kolenboot redde honderden Joden ondanks Nederlandse tegenwerking" in Vrij Nederland, May 1, 1993, pp. 38-41.
Translation by Erik Post.
Condensed and edited for clarity.

The Dora was the only illegal boat (Aliyah Beth) to leave from Northern Europe with Jewish refugees before the war. Described at the time in the local press as a "Death Ship" and "practically falling apart", it managed to reach the shores of Palestine despite the British navy embargo and saved hundred of lives, including my mother's, Toni Katz.

The Refugee Situation

Since the begninning of the Nazis' takeover of power in Germany, the Netherlands had taken in about 15,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria. In 1933, The Deventer Association ("Vereniging tot Vakopleiding van Palestina Pioniers": "The Association for Professional Training of Palestine Pioneers"), along with the Committee for Jewish Refugees, had obtained visas for tens of young refugees in the Netherlands who were then placed among Dutch farmers, and in a laborer village ("Werkdorp") in Wieringer where a large group of youths received training for immigration to Palestine.

After Kristallnacht at the end of 1938, the Dutch government allowed 150 halutzim to enter the country on condition that they would leave the country within a year. By that time, there were a little over 1000 young people in hachshara - agrarian training in preparation for emigration to Palestine - in the Netherlands.

In the 30's, it was almost impossible for Jewish refugees to get visas to other countries, and as for Palestine, then under British mandate, Great Britain imposed restrictions starting in May of 1939, that striclty limited Jewish immigration to "Eretz Israel" to 75,000 over the next 5 years.

It was at that point that Jews in Palestine decided to organize illegal immigration from the Netherlands. Mossad LeAliyah Bet, a branch of the Haganah, started operating in 1938 to help thousands of Jews escape from Europe and sail to Palestine using clandestine immigration, despite the opposition of the local Jewish organizations, in particular David Cohen, the head of the Refugee Committee (and future head of the Judenrat during the German occupation of the Nederland).

The Haganah decided to organize the immigration of 300 halutzim from Holland, 150 from Belgium, and another hundred from France, and sent several representatives of Mossad leAliyah Bet to organize the clandestine departure. Their leader was the German-born Gideon Rufer (Later known as Gideon Raphael, he woudl become Secretary General of Foreign Affairs and Israeli Representative to the UN after the war.)

His assistant was Shmarya Tsameret, a young American-born member of Kibbutz Bet Hashita from the central office of the illegal immigration organization in Paris, who travelled on a US passport under his birth name of Grey

The Dora

In Copenhagen, Zameret arranged the purchase of the SS Tjaldur, a small boat (584 gross tons, 199 feet by 30 feet) built in 1898. She was soon renamed the Dora and would sail under Panamanian flag. Although previously used for the transport of coal, it held a certificate to transport passengers. With the help of two Greek sailors, the brothers Pierre and Kosta, he installed 175 iron bunk beds, a kitchen, lavatories, showers, cleaned the engines, and brought life jackets onboard.

Since funds from the Join could not be usef of illegal enterprises, Gertude's Dutch associates covered the £3,000 to cover expenses.

Early on, the trip had been delayed several times, and Zameret had to reassure the Dutch government that the Palestine pioneers would soon leave Holland as promised. As for the Refugee Committee, not all members new about the illegal nature of the immigration plan. Chief among them, the chairman, Prof. David Cohen, was not told anything, while Gertrude van Tijn-Cohn and other members of the committee were in the know, but didn't entirelly trust the Haganah.

A group of pioneers staying in the work village of Wieringermeer was supposed to go to France by train to board an illegal immigration ship there. However, a few Dutch members of the group decided not to leave after all because their family thought it was too dangerous, or unnecessary - they thought they were safe there. (Only a few of those who stayed behind would survive the war). Having changed their plan, the Haganah decided that they, too, would leave from Amsterdam. Uri Kochba (Walter Koch), the head of the Hechalutz movement, transfered them from Wierinermeer and hid them in Beverwijk, Assendelft and Heemskerk, small villages near the Dutch coast close to Amsterdam where they would remain and wait until they could board.

The halutzim usually stayed in hiding places for a couple nights only, but they had now been there for a couple weeks already, so there was a risk that people would start to wonder what they were doing there and that their plan would become known. In Antwerp, the situation was worse: 150 people who had crossed the Dutch/Belgian border illegally had now been there for more than six weeks. The police arrested them every day, after which they were released, because they promised they would leave the next day, as soon as the ship would enter the harbor.

My mother recalled that during her stay in Antwerp, she stayed with a groupd of young men and women in the empty house of a wealthy Jewish family who were away on vacation for the Summer. One day, a neighbour alerted the police of the presence of illegal aliens in the building. The police came and arrested the young men, but unaware that there were four girls on the second floor, never found them and they were not arrested. The young men would be released at the end of each day with the promise that they would soon be living Belgium. The following day, still there, they would be arrested again. This continued until they finally got ready to board the Dora.

When the Dora left Copenhagen, Kosta and Mr. Grey took the train to Antwerp to meet the Greek crew that would replace the Danish crew, to hire more sailors, and to buy more lifeboats.

Amsterdam

The Dora arrived in the Amsterdam harbor. Gideon Rufer needed the help of someone who could speak Dutch fluently, and met Flip Cohen in the harbor. Flip Cohen went with Rufer to the shipbroker on the Geldersekade canal to get the provisions they needed for the trip. Uri Kochba says: "I was sent to the bakery, and had them bake special kosher bread that would stay good for a long time. We ate that aboard until it became moldy. After that, we switched to biscuits."

The provisions were brought from the canal to the Dora in the harbor on a motorboat. That's where he saw the Dora for the first time and met Amiram Shochat, one of the three people from the Haganah who had organized the trip of the Dora, who told him in Hebrew: "Don't talk to anyone in the crew". The Danish crew didn't know about the illegal nature of the trip, nor were they supposed to know.

Everything was going well until people from the Refugee Committee came to see the boat. They had expected a luxury passenger ship. When they saw the Dora, they refused to let the Halutzim board the boat. The members of the Refugee Committee were mostly wealthy, assimilated Jews who "followed the rules" and represented the Jewish Community with the government. Their idea of what a boat should be didn't fit with the reality of illegal immigration. They were upset by all the delays so far and the problems they would cause with the Dutch Government, to whom they had promised that the halutzim would be leaving in an orderly fashion and without delay. They had contempt for "Ostjuden", the people who had organized the trip, and said "Ostjuden don't keep their word". They also suspected that the papers for the boat might be fakes bought on the black market.

Siegfried Kramarsky, a German Jewish banker who lived in the Netherlands, along with S.J. Florsheim and a few other members of the Refugee Committee, had paid the 115 000 guilders that the trip would cost, and felt responsible for the whole enterprise. The Refugee Committee blamed the Haganah for the poor quality of the ship, as they felt responsible for the voyage. In case the British captured the Dora, it was clear that the Dutch government would claim knowing nothing about the whole trip, and they would be fully responsible.

Zameret was astonished by these assimilated, law-abiding Jews who, with their haughty attitude, made decisions regarding the halutzim. In his report to the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, he noted that these people were so removed from the problems of the Jewish people. After the remark about the OstJuden, he pretended to be an American and would only speak English.

He convinced Gertrud Van Tijn, whom he saw as a woman with great capacities, to go to Kramarsky. Grey explained to her that the Dora was a solid ship; he also explained to her why the trip had been delayed so many times. Everything had been inspected by officials, and the insurance papers turned out to be in order, so in the end the Refugee Committee decided to let the trip continue.

At this moment, new complications arose. The harbor workers who had brought the coal aboard had noticed that there were beds aboard. Not meaning any harm, they called the editors of the Communist party's newspaper, and so, a day after the arrival of the Dora in Amsterdam, there was a big article in the Communist Volksdagblad (the People's Daily), in which the Dutch government was attacked for letting such a wreck of a ship with "slave traders quarters" and hundred of refugees aboard, whom they were sure would drown.

Other newspapers started to write about the "Ship of the Dead" ("Dodenschip"). Photographers circled around the Dora in the Amsterdam harbor in small boats, so the harbor master received the order to go inspect the ship.

Grey talked to the harbor master and explained the real reason of the transport, and the harbor master gave his approval, however he did make a list of improvements that had to be made. Because there were only 350 beds and 300 people were supposed to board from Amsterdam, Grey told the harbor master that there would only be 50 more people boarding from Antwerp.

Jacob Oppenheimer had come to Holland in 1936 from Frankfurt am Main. (He later lived in the moshav Kfar HaRoeh and worked for the Israeli Ministry of (?)). He said:

"The Dutch immigration police wanted to get rid of us, but they were afraid of the publicity. The relationship with England wasn't too good, and the British of course didn't want any immigration. So in 1939, all of a sudden we were brought to Heemskerk (15 miles from Amsterdam), where we had to wait for a couple of weeks. Of course we knew where we were going. On July 14th, I was brought to the house of Dr. Pinkhof in Amsterdam. I was very religious and couldn't travel on Shabbat. Dr. Pinkhof's house wasn't far from the harbor, so on Saturday, they came and picked me up and they took me straight to the Dora."

"It was a small ship, full of people, but we never felt unsafe on the ship. The only danger we feared would come from the British."

Flip Cohen was with another group of Halutzim in Beverwijk, a town about 15 miles from Amsterdam. He remembered:

On Saturday, I ordered some taxis. We went with the whole group. That evening, I was home for a just little while. My mother said, "Are you leaving today?" We said: "See you in Eretz Israel". I took my backpack and left.

Apart from my younger brother Samuel, I never saw them again. I came back to the Netherlands in 1945 as a soldier with the Jewish Brigade. I found Samuel in the Portuguese Israelite Hospital. He was just back from Bergen Belsen. All the others had been murdered.

Most of the halutzim were were shuttled with busses all day Saturday to the Lloyd hotel, which served as a refugee center.

Gertrud van Tijn, Florscheim, Kramarski, and Ru Cohen were all present. The heads of the immigration police from The Hague and from Amsterdam came to control the boarding with 35 civil servants. People sang, both those who were leaving, and the members of the Refugee Committee. A few of the civil servants of the immigration police even teared up. The immigration police were amazed that there were also some Dutch people among the halutzim, but they didn't ask any questions.

At dusk, the Dora was moved to the Handelskade (the pier). The police cordonned off the pier to keep the press away, but the authorities were afraid that the Communists would come to demonstrate. Everybody knew what was going on, and when a young woman without papers managed to move through the police cordon, they just let her go aboard without any trouble.

Before Grey left Amsterdam for Antwerp, Gertrud van Tijn came to visit him in the hotel where he was staying. He told her that the Haganah would let her know as soon as the ship arrived in Eretz Israel. But she had already thought of this herself and had given money to Eli Reens, so he could telegraph her as soon as he arrived.

The goodbyes between Grey and the Refugee Committee were not particularly cordial. Kramarsky announced that he planned to go to Antwerp to ensure that the lifeboats required by the Amsterdam harbor master were brought on board, and to ensure that too many passengers wouldn't go aboard. Grey and Rufer tried to tell him this wasn't necessary, but to no avail.

Antwerp

Kramarsky arrived in Antwerp before the Dora had moored, and found out that instead of the fifty people previously mentioned, a hundred and fifty people wanted to board the ship. When Kramarsky saw Grey, the two men started to argue, with Kramarsky complaining that there weren't enough beds onboards. Grey replied that there were just enough: beds were put side to side, two by two, so that three people could lie there. Grey also explained that these were refugees who were in Belgium illegally and had no other choice but to board the ship and leave regardless of the conditions. If they couldn't board, they would be sent back to Germany.In the meantime, Kosta had bought the additional lifeboats, and had brought one more captain along with some additional crew members.

When we visited the museum of Clandestine Immigration in Israel, my mother pointed to a replica (?) of an immigration boat, with the same bedding arrangement, and explained how three people slept, head to toes, each with about 12" (30 cm) of bed space.

Zameret wrote in his report: "I spoke to a high-level Dutch civil servant who said that he wasn't interested in the plans of the Haganah, and that the only concern of the government was that the boat would disappear with the refugees as soon as possible." Grey had ordered that the passengers from Antwerp should board the Dora as soon as possible, but didn't tell Kramarsky, and continued the negotiations with people from the Refugee Committee. When Kramarsky sent his chauffeur to the harbor to take a look, he reported that the boat was there and the refugees were already aboard.

Kramarsky went to the Belgian harbor master and demanded that one hundred people be taken off the boat. The Belgian harbor master, a devout Christian who saw the return of the Jewish people to the Promised Land as a Biblical fulfillment, became a spokesman for the Halutzim. He told Kramarsky not to worry, that it wasn't such an imposition if the refugees suffered a little for a couple of weeks if it meant that they would reach the coast of the Promised Land. Kramarsky threatened to call the Dutch Governement and ask them to take diplomatic action. This angered the harbor master and he refused to talk to the Dutchman any further.

As last resort, Kramarsky went to the ship and tried to convince the halutzim to not go on the trip, but the passengers explained that they were happy with the situation on the boat, so he finally gave up and left. Then, a tugboat from the Belgian Security Agency arrived to take the Dora to Vlissingen.

Vlissingen

. Meanwhile, Kosta was in a café with Grey, demanding more money for the trip. One of the engine mechanics had also missed the boat. A newly hired Belgian radio operator had found what the actual goal of the trip was and didn't show up. Kosta and Grey had to find a new radio operator and contacted a Spanish Communist who used to smuggle weapons to Spain. His ship was gone and he was stranded in Antwerp without papers.

In the meantime, the Haganah in Paris decided that the Dora would not pick up the hundred refugees in France after all because there had already been too many delays,putting the entire expedition at risk. Grey sent Kosta, the Spaniard and the mechanics to Vlissingen by taxi, but they were soon sent back to the Dutch harbor: the Greek didn't have a visa, and the Spaniard didn't have a passport. There was no other choice but for the four of them to leave Antwerp the next morning on a motorboat for Vlissingen.

By now it was already July 18th, the Dora was anchored off the coast of Vlissingen, and Grey wanted the Dora to leave as soons as possible. The captain however had ordered wine and brandy for himself, and these wouldn't be delivered until the next afternoon. Grey became very nervous that the Dutch press in Vlissingen would find them out, that the Refugee Committee would realize that the ship was again along the Dutch Coast, and that the Dutch government might decide, perhaps under public pressure, to take the ship because there were too many people aboard. The captain relented and promised to leave the next morning, without wine and brandy.

At five o'clock in the morning, Grey observed the Dora from the Vlissingen dike through his binoculars. There were fishermen and a little boy on the dike. The kid said: "You see the boat? That's a death ship. A ship full of Jewish refugees from Germany that will sink, for sure." It was as if everybody in the Netherlands knew about the Dora, even the children.

Meanwhile, the local press had been following up the Dora and many stories about the mysterious refugee ship appeared in the newspapers. While the Dora had been anchored off the coast of Vlissingen, a journalist from the Daily Herald had come aboard. He wrote that the passengers slept on the deck on straw mats, and that they had told him they were going to Bangkok, or Siam. The news drew the attention of the British government. The British representative Nevile Bland made inquiries at the Foreign office in the Netherlands, and pointed out that immigration to Palestine was illegal. The Foreign Office responded to the British that the ship had given its destination as Siam, and that they weren't aware of any another destination.

Today's Algemeen Handelsblad reports the departure of the Dora with "500 Jewish passengers". The destination of the ship is said to be Bangkok, yet the reporter doesn’t seem to believe that this is the real destination, but that the captain is awaiting "further instructions”.

The article describes the accommodations for the passengers:

"The passengers were hanging over the railing, talking to each other, and others were busy working. However, no answer was given to the questions we asked. The whole thing made a rather sad impression.”

"As there seemed to be no room for all passengers, many had to be satisfied with a berth in the straw on the fore or afterdeck. Large sails were stretched over these decks.”

On the same day, the Haagsche Courant also brings up the destination of the Dora:

"Little credence is given to the claim that the ship will go to Siam, and a veil of mystery surrounds the ship.”

Surprisingly, despite the secret nature of the Dora's voyage, a reporter from the Haagsche Courant is allowed onboard and reports that

"the crew was busy trying the lifeboats with the assistance from the passengers. However, it was very primitive and it took a lot of time and effort to lower a boat, and the boat was not even manned. Moreover, the unpainted lifeboats don’t give a reassuring impression.”

What the reporter witnessed was the passengers practicing the maneuvers they would have to take when arriving in Palestine. Since the Dora would not land in a harbor but on a beach,the passengers would have to be lowered into the lifeboats to get close to land.

Another reporter, this one with the Vaderland Staat reported what he saw on the Dora:

"The passengers were hanging over the railing, talking to each other, others were doing a bit of work. [...] The whole thing made a sad impression. As there was not enough room for all the passengers in the holds, many had to be satisfied with a berth on the fore or afterdeck in the straw. Large sails were stretched over these decks. It was particularly striking that so little noise was heard on board. One did not hear laughter or cry: it was as if all were feeling the pressure of an uncertain future."

Also today, the Volksdagblad (the Communist People's Daily) shared its belief that the ship was not seaworthy and that the government in the Netherlands should grant the refugee asylum. The journalist believes that the Dora is anchored in Vlissingen because of the rough weather from the previous days - confirming that the Dora is ill-equipped to take to the sea. In a dramatic fashion, he predicts that once it moves into the open sea, the Dora, being a wreck, will become a real "Death Ship” wandering from port to port, without a final destination.

Insisting that the Dora is too small to accommodate 420 passengers - for proof the dozens of refugees forced to sleep on deck on straw - it ends with a call to action:

"The public opinion in the country must be shaken... It is a shame that this ship left the Netherlands. The only solution is: right of asylum in the Netherlands... or the clear guarantee that these unfortunates can find accommodation in another country...”

One other newspaper, the Zaans Volksblad declares that "the veil of mystery around the refugee ship "Dora" is getting thicker”, and suspects that the ship may be waiting for more clement weather before taking to the sea. It adds that the passengers, who are not allowed to disembark, are lying on straw on the deck, because "on a boat of such dimensions, it is not possible to properly accommodate 400 people”. It also writes that "In the afternoon there was a boat drill on deck, which is somewhat comical, taking into account how absolutely inadequate the rescue material is. The women were washing and trying to create some order in the chaos on board, by sweeping and removing the worst dirt.”

After having spent almost two days anchored in Vlissingen for no clear reason, the Utrechts Volksblad explains that the delay had been caused by the captain waiting for the arrival of a crew member whom he could not miss and who could only get on board today. What that journalist sees from the shore with binoculars is "not an encouraging spectacle”, and that "the hundreds [...] now on this boat, are compressed on a much too small space.”

Following such reports in the press, Louis de Visser, The Chairman of the House of Commons, and a member of the Communist Party of the Netherlands, raised questions at the end of July to the Minister of Justice, Prof. Gerbrandy. Feeling pity for the refugees, and full of good intentions, he asked the minister if he had pushed the Jewish Committee to take such action. He argued that the refugees shouldn't leave if they couldn't secure a destination, and pleaded for them to be allowed to come back to the Netherlands if needed. Minister Gerbrandy denied having any knoweldge of the Dora. In the meantime, the government representative for refugees, Mr. B.G.A. Smeets, unhappy about the conditions on the Dora, sent a letter to the Justice Ministry, dated July 22, 1939, in which he accused the Jewish Committee of "irresponsible behavior":

"What I understand makes me ask if the government shouldn't have just prevented the ship from leaving. It was too crowded. Refugees are sleeping under sails on the upper deck, on straw. One storm and they will be gone. There isn't enough safety equipment, four little boats for 20 people each. In Amsterdam the boat was already overloaded, and in Antwerp another 100 refugees were added. [...] You should realize that illegal immigration with ships has already been causing much trouble everywhere. Ships that aren't allowed into harbors, that are at sea for months, that have the plague on board - for example the odyssey with the St Louis, which was actually a comfortable ship, while the Dora..."

On July 20th, in London, the "Daily Herald” publishes an article and two photos of the Dora. The Herald’s reporter describes having gone on board the Dora and reports:

"...Her holds packed with human cargo, she was a passenger ship, carrying 500 Jewish refugees to a destination that nobody seems to know... ...The Greek captain, whom I met in a Flushing hotel, was silent about the ships’ destination. He had "sealed orders", he said. "Go and talk to the passengers yourself if you want to,” he went on. "They don’t know either”.

The harbourmaster said "We accept no responsibility for that ramshackle boat. She got her certificate of seaworthiness in Amsterdam – so good luck to her.”

Here is what he saw:

"The Dora has two lifeboats on each side, each capable of taking 15 passengers. Should she meet disaster, the crazy state the lifeboats are in leaves little hope of even 60 escaping in them. It would not take a hurricane to sink the Dora either. Her portholes are only secured with old rubber bands."

None of the passengers seems to mind the dangers and discomforts. “What does it matter,” one of them said to me, “as long as we find freedom again?” If the land to which they are going refuses to take them, they will merely have to return to their port of embarkation."

“Where are we going to?” somebody answered when I questioned him. “To Siam.” “To Bangkok.” said another.

On the way to Palestine

On Wednesday, July 19, at about 11:15am, the Dora steamed down the river and left Vlissingen, finally starting its voyage to Palestine.

The following day, the Dora was spotted sailing past the Isle of Wight, according to the "Lloyds List and Shipping Gazette", as printed in the next day's "Utrechts Volksblad Sociaal-Democratisch Dagblad".

Leaving the English Channel, the Dora entered the Atlantic Ocean and turned south, towards the Gulf of Biscay. A region known for rough seas, fierce weather and high waves, the Dora experienced violent storms during which many of its passengers became sea-sick.

The Dora then crossed the Strait of Gilbraltar. There the British ordered the ship to identify itself. At the first signs of danger, the Greek Captain would send the refugees into the hold of the ship. The Greek declared it was a Panamanian ship on its way to Siam. The British accepted this explanation because ships with illegal immigrants never came through the Strait of Gibraltar, and instead usually came from the French Riviera, the Italian Coast, or the Coast of the Black Adriatic Sea.

Yet the Dora sailed on and instead continued towards Turkey. Once it had reached the other end of the Mediteranean, it became clear to any observer that the Dora was not trying to reach Siam as officially stated.

Were the British so easy to fool - was its navy so overworked, understaffed, or incompetent? Or, as my mother thought, had someone been paid to close their eyes as to where the Dora was really going? For once the Dora had entered the Mediteranean, the only way to reach Siam was to enter the Suez Canal.

How the British authorities let the Dora continue without stopping it is hard to understand, as the press had widely reported on the Dora sailing with hundreds of Jewish refugees, and its official destination of Siam only made sense if the Dora had sailed through the Suez Canal. Having sailed right passed the Suez Canal to end up in Turkey should have alerted the British intelligence about the Dora's real destination (or the Dora's crew's real intentions). There was no reason to continue past the Suez Canal and go to the shore of Turkey if the destination was indeed in South-East Asia - the only possible water passage being the Suez Canal, or sailing around the coast of Africa.

At that point, it would have been clear to any observer that the intention of the Dora was not going to be distant Siam, but the nearby coast of Palestine.

The Dora reached the coast of Turkey. When they arrived to the southern coast of Turkey, the Dora radioed the Haganah in Palestine. The Dora had been delayed and was told to drop anchor off the Turkish coast at Feniki, because it was now full moon, which meant that a landing was impossible. The only thing that interrupted the waiting was a visit from the Turkish police. Nobody was to go to the coast. By now, the amount of food, water and coal was starting to get very small, so the police gave permission for a boat to bring watermelons and potable water to the Dora.

My mother remembered that small boats came to the Dora bringing fresh water and watermellons. She noticed the naked feet of the young Turkish sailors wading in the water that was being distributed to the boat, and decided to abstain drinking that water, while everyone else on the boat rushed to drink it, having had no fresh water for a while. She ate the watermellon instead. She said that later everyone on the boat was sick, except for her. But she could never eat watermellons after that day.

Eventually, the Haganah on board lost patience, and, against the instructions from Palestine, decided to move forward. But as soon as the ship had started to move, it stopped again. The trip had taken longer than planned, so the Greek crew demanded more money. Under the command of the captain, armed with big kitchen knives, they started a mutiny. They could only just be kept from sabotaging the antenna. Negociations and collecting money from the passengers brought a solution. But to be sure, they locked up the captain for the rest of the trip.

My mother recalled the brief "rebellion" from the crew. She said that a few of the haganah crew started walking around showing their guns, which was enough to put and end to the rebellion and restored calm with the crew. She didn't mention anything about collecting money among the passengers, but in her case anyway she had nothing - having left with nothing but a backpack with a blanket and a pair of shoes.

Finally, on August 11, 1939, the Dora received the signal that the coast was clear and that they could attempt to land. Everybody got really scared when, just a little later, a British war ship appeared, 300 meters away, but she left soon after without anything happening. Then darkness fell. Looking southward, they could see the lights from Tel Aviv, while the searchlights of the police boat almost touched the ship. Everyone remained very quiet.

The landing was planned to take place in Shfayim, about 15kms north of Tel Aviv.

Yoel Golomb, a young immigrant taking part in a naval course of the Hagana participated in the landing of the Dora and helped the immigrants come ashore. He later recalled:

"During the month of September*, a ship with Olim came into shore and we brought the Olim to Shefayim at night, in complete secrecy. That was an unforgettable experience. We unloaded the Olim, men, women, and children who climbed down the side of the ship on rope ladders. We then brought them into shore. This seemed like a simple operation but [...] we were informed that a British naval vessel had been sighted and was approaching; we managed to get all the lifeboats onto the deck, except one which we tied to the ship. The ship was named "Dora” and I think it came from Holland. The ship turned and headed back to Europe and we swam to shore.

*Note: actually August.

At the same moment, in Tel Aviv:

"Shaul Avigur, the head of Mossad leAliyah Bet, and a co-worker slipped into Golda Meir’s apartment on Hayarkon Street. [...] He had decided to monitor the landing of the illegal ship Dora from the shortwave radio center in the Meyerson (Meir) apartment.

When the Dora reached its destination, the commander on the ground, David Nameri, signaled its arrival. The signals were relayed to the wireless in the Meyerson apartment, where Avigur could receive and send coded messages to the boat. In one heart-stopping moment for everyone in the flat, a British police boat with searchlights ablaze lmost spotted the immigrant ship as it neared the coast, but the ship stayed hidden in the blackness of the night. When all seemed safe, it dropped off its passengers, who silently made their way on foot to Kfar Shmaryahu, a nearby agricultural village. The captain lifted anchor and sailed westward into the dark, to begin another mission. "In the early morning hours,” Avigur reported years later, "we said good night to our hosts, Golda Meir and Leah Biskin, and went about our business.”

Source: "From Lioness: Golda Meir and the Nation of Israel", By Francine Klagsbrun. p186-187.

The olim waded in the water for the last steps. At two o'clock that night, the Dora announced that everybody had unboarded. The Haganah telegraphed Uri Koch that "the delivery was successful and the mother is healthy". Eli Reens telegraphed to Gertrud Van Tijn as had been agreed. She passed the message on to minister Van Boeijen, who could finally breathe again. The Netherlands had gotten rid of 300 refugees without damaging its relationship with Great Britain, and it hadn't cost the treasury a penny.

My mother told about her jumping in the water - I imagine jumping from the rowboats when they reached the shore, and being met by a group on the shore - members of a kibbutz nearby and/or members of the organization (hechalutz? alyiah bet?) who gave them clothes and id papers in case the British police showed up. From there they were taken to the kibbutzim where they would spend the beinging of their new life in Israel.

Three weeks later, Germany invaded Poland.

map - Dora

The path followed by the Dora

Photos

Dora

The Dora

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 17/07/1939

The Dora ship

The Dora

Photo: De Telegraaf, 19 July 1939

map - Dora

The Dora in Amsterdam.

"Authorities, shipping inspectors and others go on board for a final inspection before the departure signal."

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939

map - Dora

"In groups of ten or twenty, the refugees go onboard, escorted by policemen."

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939

The Dora

Passengers boarding The Dora

Photo: Photo: De Sumatra Post, 24 July 1939

map - Dora

"The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939

map - Dora

The Dora in Amsterdam.

"The Dora crew hastened to cover the name of the ship with tarpaulin, apparently to prevent anyone knowing which ship was moving across the IJ through the nocturnal darkness."

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939


The "Dora" - The story of the illegal immigrant ship.

By Hillel Yarkoni. Translation by Liron Katz

In 1939, there was a big push to rescue as many Jews as possible out of the Northern European countries.

Shipping companies didn't want to take the risk of bringing those Jews into Palestine. The Aliyah activists were looking for a ship owned by people who had smuggled weapons into the Spanish Republic.

They found two Greek brothers, Pierre and Costa Arteshides, the sons of a retired Greek captain, Parisian citizens who had done that sort of operation before. They agreed to take the job for the right amount of money, to buy and take care of the supply, then to bring the boat to Palestine.

In Copenhagen, Denmark, a small ancient merchant ship was found, with the gross capacity of 584 ton. Built in 1898 as a passengers ship, it had been transformed later into a cargo ship that transported, among other things, cattle. Although the ship was old, its mechanics were in good shape.

It was bought after some serious financials difficulties and a long negotiation with the Greeks. The ship's original name of "TJALDUR" was changed to "DORA", and she would sail under Panamanian flag.

Dora (Tjaldur

The Dora (Tjasldur)

Officially, the chief captain was the elder Arteshides, however the officer who would in fact be the active captain during this voyage was a Danish captain. The rest of the crew was from France, Algiers, as well as one Jewish guy - an immigrant from Russia who was a waiter in the officers' dinning room.

After the renovations and transformations needed to use it to carry illegal immigrant, the ship sailed from Copenhagen to Amsterdam. In Amsterdam, after some of the immigrants saw the condition of the Dora, a scandal started. The local Communist journalists took advantage of the affair, accusing the Dutch government of deporting Jews in horrendous and unsafe conditions.

Not until the immigration officers were talked into changing their mind, and the ship had gone through a new inspection by the Dutch authorities, could the Dora finally sail to Antwerp in Belgium, with 300 passengers on board.

There were 120 additional immigrants, members of the "heHalutz" who had been smuggled out of Germany. They had been staying there undercover, illegally, and had to get out as soon as possible before they would be caught. (* My mother, Toni Katz, was one of these illegal aliens, hiding in Belgium, waiting for the boat to arrive.) Sixty additional "Halutzim" were due to join the "Dora" in Belgium. Again, a scandal started when the head of the Dutch immigration committee demanded to offload 100 passengers.

The people of the Mossad LeAliyah Bet who were in charge of the illegal immigration operation didn't give in. With the help of the manager of the harbor, who wanted to get the immigrants out as fast as possible, they convinced the head of the Dutch immigration committee that it was better for the passengers to suffer for a few weeks during the trip, than to be sent back Germany and concentration camps.

Because by now the "Dora", and the scandals surrounding it, had attracted so much attention with the government and the local press, and due to the poor conditions of the boat, it was decided to abandon the initial plan of having one more stop in Le Havre, France, where an additional 100 immigrants were supposed to be picked up.

Finally, on July 12th* (actually the Dora left Vlissingen on July 19th) the Dora sailed off for Palestine.

Three "Hagana" members went along: the ship manager, Tzvi Spector, the emergency captain, Amiram Shohat, and in charge of the radio connection, Yekutiel Pekta.

After a storm in the Biscaye bay, the ship entered the Mediterranean Sea on July 29th.

The Lloyd observation station, watching Gibraltar, reported to the Palestine C.I.D (Criminal Investigation Department) on its entry in the Mediterranean Sea.

Later, the ship entered the port of Mersin in Turkey to get some supplies, mainly water and food.

Under the threat of guns, none of the people onboard were permitted to leave the ship.

A rebellion by the Greek sailors took place soon after, but the Danish captain's calm helped restore order.

The "Dora" finally reached Sheffaym beach without been caught on August 12th 1939.

Tzvi Spector swam first to the shore to make sure the way was clear. Then, the immigrants were taken down by boats, and all made it to the shore safely.

After landing, the new immigrants were first concentrated in "Kefar Shemariahu", and were later distributed in various absorption centers.

They had arrived just 19 days before the beginning of WW2.

According to the agreement with the Arteshides brothers, the Dora was supposed to do a second trip, but this agreement was not honored. Only after legal battle some of the money that had been paid in advance to the Greek family was paid back.

The Dora was later captured by the Germans and was at their service between 1941-1942. On December 21st 1942, it was sunken by a British war ship near the Djerba harbor in Tunis.

The Dora in the News

Although it was supposed to be kept secret, the departure of the Dora was widely reported in the Dutch, Belgian and British press at the time, and it's a wonder that this unwelcome publicity didn't lead to the interception of the Dora by the British navy.

Between July 14 and July 25, no less than 60 news articles and disptaches about the departure of the Dora appeared in the press in the Netherlands, some of them including photos of the passengers and of the ship. At least eight articles appeared in the British press, and several more in Belgium.

Article on the Dora, Nottingham Evening Post, July 17, 1939.

Nottingham Evening Post. July 17, 1939.

Article on the Dora, Nottingham Evening Post, July 17, 1939.

Daily Herald. July 20, 1939.

Article on the Dora, De Sumatra Post, July 24, 1939.

Article on the Dora, De Sumatra Post, July 24, 1939.

List of refugees who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam, 16 July 1939

Source: Dutch National Archive (courtesy Rina Offenbach, Director BeNetivei Haapalah, Illegal immigrant database and information center, Atlit Detention Camp, Israel.)

The list below was compiled from several lists provided to the authorities by Jewish organizations and contains 182 names. It is most likely not a complete list of all the passengers that boarded the Dora in Amsterdam. Previous estimates, including contemporary reports in the press, gave the number of refugees on board in Amsterdam at around 300, with Gertrude van Tijn, who took part in the rescue operation, citing 310 passengers.

Note: Four names on the original lists were crossed out. It's not clear if this means these people didn't board the Dora.

Although incomplete, the Amsterdam list includes useful demographic data on the passengers.

The Amsterdam list is made up of 80% (146) men and 20% (36) women.

69% (126) were German, 9% (16) Dutch, 8% (14) Polish, and 7% (13) "stateless". It is not clear if these "stateless" passengers were of Polish or German origin. The remaining nationalities are: 3% (6) Hungarian, 1% (2) Czechoslovak, one passenger from the Danzig and one from England, and three unknown.

Of the 182 names,

A few individuals came from a few additional locations: Markelo, Almen, Zenderen, Zeddam and Delden.

Name Organization, Group Group Last adress? D.O.B City Nationality Notes
Abram, Susanne The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Henriette, Korte Meerhuizenstr. 3 26.8.12 Amsterdam Polish
Abramczyk, Bruno The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam "De Vondelhof"
Frederikstr. 18
Amsterdam
2.12.19 Jastrow German
Adler, Alfred Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 3.1.12 Lauterbach Stateless
Alterberger, Karl (Altberger) The Deventer Society F.H. Evers "De Eekhorst", Hummelo 18.11.19 Köln Czechoslovak
Appel, Rosa Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel Euterpestr. 41 Amsterdam-Z 27.9.14 Naumburg German
Aufrichtig, Hedwig (Hedy)
Aufrichtig, Hedwig
The Deventer Society (Den Haag) Den Haag L. Beestenmarkt 135 23.7.16 Wien German

Hedwig [Hedy] Aufrichtig, born 23 July 1916 in Vienna, Austria, died 15 November 1999 in London, England.

"Hedi Aufrichtig escaped from Europe on [the Dora] to Palestine, where she offended her Jewish milieu by marrying Hanna Ibrhim Khalil of Bethlehem and Jerusalem, a Palestinian Arab. They had three daughters. [...] The fulfilment of the Zionist dream by the Jews of Palestine forced her to start a second life in Cyprus, and then a third in London. A huge swathe of Hedi's in-laws were driven out of their homeland in 1947-1948."

All information from www.aufrichtigs.com and www.atholbooks-sales.org

Photo (c) www.aufrichtigs.com

Bagainski, Margot The Deventer Society (Gouda) Gouda Ridder van Katzweg 61 10.11.19 Berlin German
Baum, Charlotte Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Kasernestr. 4 28.7.19 Beuthen Stateless
Baum, Günter
Günter Baum, Alon Gideon
The Deventer Society MIDDELBEEK bij Voorst bij Frederiks

Papenstraat 45, Deventer
22.12.18 Waltropp German

Changed his name in Israel to: Alon Gideon
(source and photo maapilim.org)

Beifuss, Berthold Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.1.17 Lusphe German

Changed name in Israel to Lavi Baruch
(Source: Kibbutz Dorot Archive, via maapilim.org

Bekker, Hymann Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 24.10.18 Den Haag Dutch
Benedik, Franz (Benedikt) The Deventer Society (Deventer) Deventer Papenstraat 45, Deventer 21.3.18 Unterberg German
Benima, Max The Deventer Society (Rotterdam) Rotterdam 20.9.13 Amsterdam Dutch
Benjamin, Julius Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 24.3.21 Königsberg German

Complete (or changed?) name: Benjamin Yehuda Julius.
(source: maaplim.org)

Benjamin, Rudolf
Rudolf Benjamin, Binyamin Ozi Rudulph
The Deventer Society (Almelo) Almelo: Erve "De Kooi" tijd. Celebesstraat 49E Den Haag 1.1.17 Barmen German

Changed name to Binyamin Ozi Rudulph
(Source and photo: maapilim.org)

Berger, Otto Markelo: Op het Reef Kerkspeelchor K. 51 G.W.A Brunnekreeft, Op, 't Reef, Kerspel
Goor K.51. Gem. Markelo
5.3.12 Zoornik Czechoslovak
Bergmann, Jaacob (Jakob) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.1.14 Gr. Rackchen German
Besser, Wolfgang Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.8.21 Breslau German
Bienstock, Fritz (Binstock) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 23.3.21 Wien German
Bing, Marianne Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 1.3.21 Nürnberg German

Married name and/or changed name in Israel to: Mor Bing Miriam.
(Source: maapilim.org)

Birnbaum, Ruth, Bertha Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.5.22 Hamelen German
Birnbrey, Rosel The Deventer Society (Herwikerwaard) HERWIKERWAARD p.a. Veldhorst 23.11.21 Stettin German
Blau, Hanna Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.2.21 Köln Stateless
Blumenfeld, Erich The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" 29.7.12 Huesen German
Blumenstein, Chana The Deventer Society (Voorschoten) VOORSCHOTEN Veurssche weg 348 19.12.19 München German
Boehm, Walther (Walter) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 17.8.19 Breslau German
Bonze Mirjam (or Bomze, Marie?) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 18.4.21 Wien German
Braun, Ruth Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 22.4.20 Nürnberg German
Brock, Ernst The Deventer Society (Colmschate) COLMSCHATE G. Beekman, De Snippeling C.6 Colmschate 3.8.16 Frauenkirchen German
Brück, Walther (Walter) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 1.xx.19 Bingen German

"Walter Brück left Bingen in April 1936 and went to Switzerland, from there to Holland. He was fortunate to be able to flee from Amsterdam via Antwerp to [Israel] on 16 July 1939 with the Dora, the last ship that left Holland for Palestine. He took the name David Barkai and lived in Kibbutz Hazorea, where he died in 1989."

Source: www.juedisches-bingen.de/317.0.html and www.juedisches-bingen.de/?id=172

Calmann, Ludwig (Kalman), (Callman) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.5.17 Ratibor German
Chambon, Wilhelmina Berg-Stichting, Laren Berg-Stichting, Laren (North Holland) 7.4.15 Groningen Dutch
Cohen, Justus Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Amstellaan 235 28.3.18 Groningen Dutch
Cohen, Paul The Deventer Society (Utrecht) UTRECHT Croeselaan 144 15.3.11 Dinslaken German
Cohen, Philipp ("Flip") (Uri) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Kastanjeplein 3 30.5.18 Amsterdam Dutch

"(In 1939) Philip (Uri) Cohen, brother of Samuel Cohen left for Palestine. Uri left with the Dora [...]"
Source: geheugenvanoost.amsterdam.

"On Saturday, I ordered some taxis. We went with the whole group. That evening, I was home for a just little while. My mother said, "Are you leaving today?" We said: "See you in Eretz Israel". I took my backpack and left. Apart from my younger brother Samuel, I never saw them again. I came back to the Netherlands in 1945 as a soldier with the Jewish Brigade. I found Samuel in the Portuguese Israelite Hospital. He was just back from Bergen Belsen. All the others had been murdered."

Changed name to Cohen Uri in Israel
(Source: maapilim.org)

Cohn, Bernd Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.19 Berlin German
Cohn, Heinz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.2.20 Berlin German
Daube, Elie Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 21.1.15 Königsbad German
Dinner, Sara Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 13.12.11 Amsterdam Dutch
Ebel, Siegismund (Sigismund) The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam "De Vondelhof"
Frederikstr. 18
Amsterdam"
28.7.15 Buithen German

"Born on 28-07-1915 in Beuthen, Germany, now Poland. He stayed on the farm on Deurningen no. 17 with the Arnold ten Kate family in the municipality of Weerselo from November 1936 to April 1938. Sigismund came from London to Deurningen. He left for the club building at Brink 70 in Deventer. From here he went to Klarenbeek near Voorst and later to the youth hostel in 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk. From May 1939 he worked at the 'youth aliyah' the Vondelhof in Amsterdam, after which he left for Palestine with the Dora in 1939."

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Englard, Leo (Leiba ?) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.7.21 Przemysl German
Fischer, Ernst, Jacob (Almen: Het Laren) ALMEN: Het Laren p.a. Woestenenk 17.8.18 Frankenthal German Ernst Fischer did his hachshara in Jägerslust (Flensburg) until November 1938.
Förder, Ernst Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 8.1.18 Beuthen German
Frydmann, Mejer (Friedmann, Meyer) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 5.11.17 Postawie Polish
Geisel, Siegfried Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.10.10 Bullay German
Goldbach, Ilse Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 25.11.14 Marktbreid German

Married name: Horin Elza; previous married name: Frank
(Source: maapilim.org)

Goldschmidt, Arno Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 25.8.07 Recksdorf German
Goldschmidt, Julius, Ernst Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 30.03.20 Berkach German
Goldstein, Lilo (Liselotte) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.2.18 Berlin German

Married name: Tachover Lilu (Lilo?)
(Source: maapilim.org

Gottlieb, Mary (married name: Weisskopf Miriam) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.12.21 Wien German

Married name: Weisskopf Miriam. Married to Herward Weisskopf (Herward Zvi Weisskopf), another passenger on the Dora.
(source: maapilim.org)

Goudsmit, Marianne The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Pres. Brandtstr. 74 13.9.18 Amsterdam Polish
Griver, Norris The Deventer Society 25.5.15 London English
Gross, Simon Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.5.18 Wien German
Grünpeter, Martin
Martin Grünpeter
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.1.14 Breslau Stateless

Martin Grünpeter appears in several photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Martin Grünpeter's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Grünberger, Philip The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 3.1.13 Boskowitz German
Gusdorf, Hans, Rudolf Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 10.4.21 Berlin German

Changed his name in Israel to: Gidron Reuven (Haro)
(Source: maapilim.org)

Gutmann, Gustav, Gerhard Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.9.20 Berlin German
Guttmann, Heinemann Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 13.12.15 Burgreppach German

Changed his name in Israel to: Gutman Elhanan.
(Source: maapilim.org)

Haas, Edwin Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.1.20 Manheim German
Heineberg, Walther (Walter) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.7.20 Dusseldorf German

Changed his first name to Heineberg Gavriel in Israel.
Source: Kibbutz Dorot Archive, via maapilim.org

Hirsch, Eva The Deventer Society (Apeldoorn) APELDOORN: "Het Apeldoornsche Bosch" 15.9.16 Berlin German
Hirsch, Issy Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 13.11.19 Dusseldorf German
Hirsch, Manfred Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.3.20 Berlin German

Changed name in Israel to Refaeli Moshe
(Source: maapilim)

Hochberger, Abraham Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 21.6.18 Wien German
Hoffmann, Heinz (Changed his name in Israel: Chaim Bar-Tikva)
Heinz Hoffmann, Chaim Bar-Tikva
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 6.11.16 Schreiberhau German

Born on November 6, 1916 in Schreiberhaus (Lower Silesia). Died age 95 on 19. November 2011.

Heinz Hoffmann left Germany in 1936, and followed his agricultural training required for immigration to Palestine in Denmark from May 1936 to 1938. He then went to Amsterdam, from where he emigrated to Palestine on board the Dora in 1939. In Israel, he worked for almost 30 years with the shipping company "ZIM". He lived in Kiriat Yam since 1949. In addition to his work with Zim, he held various honorary posts, was a preacher and led the main synagogue of the city Kiriat Yam.

He had a son, several grandchildren and a large number of great-grandchildren.

Source: www.stadt-norderney.de

Photo: maapilim.org

Horowitz, Marcus (Max) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 17.1.14 Frankfort German

Assuming this is the same person as Horvitz Mordechai.
See: maapilim.org

Israel, Manfred Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.9.20 Schlawe German
Jacob, Leopold Siegfried The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" 10.6.17 Berlin German
Jacobsohn, Ernst Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 18.7.16 Hamburg German
Jonas, Max Gerhard Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.4.21 Berlin German
Kahn, Siegbert Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 5.7.20 Lichtenfels Stateless
Kampf, Heinrich Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 24.2.16 Wien German
Kapelner Heinrich (Kapellner) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 31.3.20 Köln Polish
Katz, Abraham (Maybe same as Katz, Albert?) The Deventer Society (Weelsche Broek) WEELSCHE BROEK p.a. Gerritsen 1.7.16 Nyirgelse Hungarian
Katz, Albert (Maybe same as Katz, Abraham) (Assuming Deventer society, based on the address: Papenstraat 45, Deventer) Papenstraat 45, Deventer Hungarian
* Katz, Benjamin Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord * name crossed out - maybe didn't board?
* Katz, Ignatz Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord * name crossed out - maybe didn't board?
Katz, Susi Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 25.7.18 Posen German

Born in Fuessen, Germany.
Married name: Bar Shalom Shulamit (Zuzi)
(Source: maapilim.org)

Katzenstein, Gerhard
Gerhard Katzenstein
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.7.20 Berlin Stateless

Gerhard Katzenstein appears in one photograph taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Gerhard Katzenstein's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Changed his name in Israel to Nevo Gershom
(Source: Kibbutz Dorot Archive, via maapilim.org)

Kaufmann, Ellen Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.1.20 Berlin German
Kaufmann, Ernst
Ernst Kaufmann
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.9.18 Berlin Stateless

Ernst Kaufmann appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Ernst Kaufmann's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Kleestadt, Hans (Klestadt) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.4.20 Geseke German
* Kohn, Mozes (?) * handwritten list, name hard to read.
* Name crossed out on list; maybe did not board the Dora.
Kornicker, Peter, J. Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.12.17 Breslau German
Lampelz, Saul Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 27.10.20 Stuttgart Polish
Landsberger, Walter The Deventer Society (Klarenbeek bij Voorst) KLARENBEEK bij Voorst Papenstraat 45, Deventer 20.3.20 Goslar German
Leefsma, Eddy (Eduard) (Zenderen) ZENDEREN; near Borne 1.5.17 Den Haag Dutch

"Born 31-05-1917 in The Hague. Deceased 28-01-2009 in Israel.

He stayed in Hasselo no. 55 with the family Jan Lambertus Snuverink on the farm 'De Bongerd' from June 1938 until February 1939. Eduard/Eddy came from Diepenveen to Hasselo, then he went to the Smit family in Zenderen. From the about thirty pioneers who lived in the municipality of Borne, ten stayed at this address in the course of the years. In July 1939 Eduard left to Palestine on the 'Dora'. He later married the widow Clara Helena Goldschmidt-Leefsma. They had two children together.

His parents, sister Ella and brothers Raphaël and Frits all died in concentration camp Sobibor, Poland. "

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Eddy Leefsma's letters and documents (1939-1995) are in Yad Vashem: "Eddy Leefsma, born in Utrecht, 1917, (who) made aliya to Eretz Israel in 1939."

Lesser, Eva The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" 26.4.19 Berlin German
Levie, Kurt The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam 7.10.12 Essen Polish
Levy, Hans Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.7.18 Berlin German
Lewinsky, Hans, Arnold Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.12.19 Neustettin German
Lewinsohn, Kurt (Curt) The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk ?.12.12 Osterode German
Lewy, Ruth (Levy) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 22.3.21 - German
Litten, Harry Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 20.2.10 Posen German
Loeb, Hans
Hans Loeb
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 20.10.21 Dusseldorf German

Hans Loeb appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Hans Loeb's photo by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Loewenthal, Bernhard Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.7.20 Schoneberg German
Loszynski, Ernst The Deventer Society (Hall, bij Eerbeek) HALL, bij Eerbeek. p.a. H. J. Maaldering 23.
Papenstraat 45, Deventer
23.4.19 Breslau German
Luft, Günter The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Topaasstr. 7. p/a. Koopman 21.9.12 Lubschan German
Mainzer, Alfred The Deventer Society (Hummelo) HUMMELO J.E. Hupkes, Op de Kip, A, 109 Hummelo 25.3.20 Wisseck German
Mainzer, Robert
Robert Mainzer, Omri
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.20 Lüdinghausen German

Changed name in Israel to Mainzer Omri (Robert)
(Source and photo: maapilim.org)

Maks, Rita The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" 23.10.14 Haarlem Dutch
Margulius, Heinz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.5.21 Berlin German
Marx, Ernst The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 30.9.16 Erfurt German
Masur, Klaus Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.2.20 Breslau German
Mattuscak, David (Matuszak) The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 24.7.17 Gelsenkirchen Polish
Mendelsohn, Kurt Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 31.1.21 Gr. Strelitz German
Meyer, Behrend (Meyer Berend, Leo), (Mayer, Berend Leo) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 26.2.14 Hamburg German
Münzer, Walter The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 28.4.12 Berlin German

"Born 28-04-1912 in Berlin, Germany. Walter stayed in Hasselo no. 60 at the Gerhardus Leuveld family farm 'de Kogelboer' in the municipality of Weerselo, from February 1937 to February 1939. He came to the Netherlands from Berlin. He was a pioneer of the Deventer Association and stayed before he came to Hasselo in the association building at Brink 70. After his stay in Hasselo he left for the youth hostel 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk.

His father died in 1933, his mother was a victim of the Holocaust. His sister Dorothea survived the war, she left for Palestine."

Source: hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Naftalie, Erich Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 3.5.20 Dortmund German
Nattenheimer, Kurt The Deventer Society (Hasselo) HASSELO 5 p.a. Sanderman

Papenstraat 45, Deventers
4.8.20 Hamburg German

"Born 04-08-1920 Hamburg, Germany. He stayed, coming from Weerselo, from late June 1939 to mid July 1939 in 'De Korenbloem' before leaving for Palestine."

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Possibly: Kurt Nattenheimer (Netta), who married Gerda Gila Lipper and lived on Kibbutz Gal'ed. see geni.com. One of the founders of Kibbutz Gal'ed was Giora Yoseftal who had been involved in the early stages of the Dora trip. See: wikipedia.org

Niedermann, Simon E. (Ernst) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 8.9.20 Frankfort German
Noahfeldt, Wolfram (Noafeldt) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.4.21 Königsberg German
Nussbaum, Paul, Karl (Paul) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.3.20 Berlin German
Ochs, Rudolf The Deventer Society (Ellecom) ELLECOM G. Frederiks,
Binnenweg 25,
Ellecom
Frederiks. p.a.
30.6.18 St. Ingwert German
Oppenheimer, Marcus
Marcus Oppenheimer, Mordechai Oppenheimer
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 15.8.19 Marktbreid German

Changed his name in Israel to Mordechai Oppenheimer.
(Source and photo: maapilim.org).

Oppenheimer, Walter (Oppenheim ?) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 30.12.17 - Stateless
Polak, Edmund (Pollack) The Deventer Society (Voorst) VOORST Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 23.11.13 Wien German
Radzewski, Bernd Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.3.16 Wriesen German
Rath, Simon
Simon Rath
The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 31.8.19 Stanislawo Stateless

"Born 31-08-1919 in Stanislav, Russia. Deceased in 2010 in Omer, Israel.

He stayed on the farm on Hasselo no. 46 (municipality of Weerselo) with the family Jan Willem Huiskes from June 1937 to February 1938. He came here from Amsterdam, where his parents lived. After his stay in Hasselo he left for Brummen and a year later to Heemskerk. He left in July 1939 to Palestine with the 'Dora'. He married Deborah Schönfeld.

His parents and his brother Gerchon survived the war. His brother Rubin and sister Erna died with her family in the Holocaust.

Source and photo: hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Rawet, Samuel
Alternate name: Rawet, Samuel Judel
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 12.2.18 Altona Polish
Reens, Elias (Eliahu) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Pl.Muidergr. 27 3.1.13 Amsterdam Dutch

Name: Reens Eliyahu
(Source: maapilim.org

Riez, Hermann Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 9.9.20 - Hungarian
Roodveldt, Jakob Berg-Stichting, Laren Berg-Stichting, Laren 3.9.15 Amsterdam Dutch
Roodveldt, Mietje Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam 5.5.14 Amsterdam Dutch
Rooz, Isaak (Isaac) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 22.2.19 - Hungarian
Rosen, Bernhard Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 15.11.20 Magdeburg Stateless
Rosenberg, Heinz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.6.17 Thorn German Assuming this is the same person as Heinrich Rosenberg as he was born in Thorn
Heinrich Rosenberg did his hachshara in Jägerslust (Flensburg) until November 1938.
Rosenberger, Emil The Deventer Society (Vierakker) VIERAKKER H. Wagenvoort, Vierakker 12.1.10 Iwan Unger German
Rosenblatt, Eli Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 30.6.21 - German
Rosenfeld, Josef, Joachim (Janos J. ?) The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 24.12.13 Breslau Hungarian
Rottenberg, Lucia (Luzia) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.8.21 Wien German
Rottenberg, Rubin Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 10.12.15 Berlin Polish
* Rubinstajn, Hanna (Rubinstein, Channa, Chana) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 16.7.17 Lodz Polish * Name crossed out
Ruhemann, Ursula The Deventer Society (Zandvoort) ZANDVOORT p.a. Waldeck Breederoodeweg 45 a. 28.2.21 Berlin German
Russ, Günter The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 21.6.14 Berlin German

"Born 21-06-1914 in Berlin, Germany.

Günter was a pioneer of the Deventer Association. In January 1937 he lived for a short time, together with Walter Münzer* (*another Dora passenger), in the association building at the Brink 70 in Deventer. Before coming to this address, he lived at two other addresses in the municipality of Weerselo, namely Hasselo No. 42 and Deurningen No. 21.

Günter stayed on the farm of the Sanderman family in Hasselo No. 5 (municipality of Weerselo) from November 1938 to February 1939, after which he left for Amsterdam. In July 1939 he left for Palestine.

His mother died in the Holocaust, the fate of the further family is unknown."

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Sallein, Werner Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 8.2.18 Berlin German
Sanders, Adolf The Deventer Society (Enschede) ENSCHEDE Prinsenstraat 12 27.2.17 Arnhem Dutch

Alternate name: Benjamin (Amos) Adolf Sanders
(Source: geni)

Changed name to Sanders Amos ("previous first name: Benjamin")
(Source: maapilim.org)

Schelasnitzki, Horst (Schelanitzky)
Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 1.6.21 Darkehmen German
Scheuer, Kurt
Kurt Scheuer
Kurt Scheuer
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.8.19 Heilbronn German

Kurt Scheuer appears on several photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Kurt Scheuer's photo by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Portrait photo from maapilim.org

Schönenbaum, Heinz (Schönebaum) (Later changed name to: Ilan Chanoch) The Deventer Society (Deventer) DEVENTER Papenstraat 45

B. Oosterink, Brinkweg 28, Rheden
23.4.17 Heurden German

Changed his name in Israel to Ilan Chanoch.
(Source: dutchjewry.org (broken link))

Selka, Hermann Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 11.9.19 Frankfurt German

Changed name in Israel to Selka Zwi.
(Source: maapilim.org)

Siegel, Kurt Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.7.21 Altona German
Sigal, Markus Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 24.4.18 Groningen Dutch
Silberstein, Hermann Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.1.21 Berlin German
Simonie, Heinz (Simonis ?) (Zeddam) ZEDDAM Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 30.4.19 Berlin German
Singer, Ascher Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 16.12.20 Ustrzyki Polish
Singer, Michael The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 4.2.12 Baden German
Sondheimer, Ewald The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Frederikstr. I8 a. 16.8.19 Neuhof German

"Born 16-08-1919 in Neuhof-Fulda, Germany. Deceased 21-11-1996 in Beit Yitzchak, Israel. He stayed on a farm on Deurningen no. 17 with the Arnold ten Kate family in the municipality of Weerselo from October 1936 to April 1938. Ewald was a pioneer of the Deventer Association. He was the youngest of a family of three children. The family left for Hünfeld in 1929 and to Kassel in May 1933. Ewald left for the Netherlands in 1936, the rest of the family followed a year later. He then came to Deurningen as a farmer in October 1936 and then moved to the club building at Brink 70 in Deventer. He became very active with the Hachshara movement. Ewald lived among others in the 'youth aliyah' the Vondelhof.

After coming to Eretz Israel, Ewald changed his name to Shlomo and founded a new kibbutz with other pioneers from the Dora. He lived there with his wife Hava Eva Levy, whom he knew from the Netherlands and with whom he married in Palestine. After a few years they left for Emek Hefer, where they started their own settlement Nira. Their two children were born here. Their farm became a great success and an example for many others. In the 1970s, he engaged more in local politics and soon rose to leadership positions. In his function as "Regional Council deputy" he actively participated in the exchange between Israel and Germany. He died in 1996. His sister Liesel Wijnman and her family died in the Holocaust. His sister Elli survived and moved back to Germany in 1957 with her family.

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl and www.juedspurenhuenfelderland.de

Sonnenberg, Fritz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.8.21 Koblenz German
Spatz, Max (Maks) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 1.4.20 Worms Polish
Spitzer, Gerda The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" 26.8.18 Baden German
Spuch, Oskar (Oscar) The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 2.1.18 Wieden Polish
Steiner, Ladislaw (Laszlo) The Deventer Society (Deventer) DEVENTER Papenstraat 45, Deventer 5.11.11 Hüdin Hungarian
Steinhof, Ludwig The Deventer Society (Gouda) GOUDA Catharina-Hoeve,R.v. Catsweg 61, Gouda 13.11.17 Mattesberg German
Stern, Günter Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.9.21 Breslau German
Sternberg, Rafael (Raphael) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 4.5.20 Berlin German

Changed name in Israel to Kochavi Raphael (Rafi)
(Source: maapilim.org)

Sternfeld, Fritz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.8.14 Halle German
Stoppelmann, Max Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 19.5.19 Hamburg German
Stopper, Arthur Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 25.12.20 Bochum Stateless
Strassburger, Berthold Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.10.18 Ulm German
Strauss, Hans Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 8.11.14 Westemburg German
Strauss, Josef The Deventer Society (Krajenburg bij Hengelo) KRAJENBURG bij HENGELO Papenstraat 45, Deventer 5.4.16 Bamberg German
Taubes, Mirjam Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.11.19 Baden German
Tausz, Jene (Jennö) The Deventer Society (Assenburg) ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk" Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk 30.7.18 Pápa Hungarian

"He came from Budapest on 16 June 1938 to the association building at the Brink 70 in Deventer and left for Deurningen a week later."

Source: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Teichmann, Benno Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.10.21 Breslau German
Timmendorfer, Heinrich The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Uithoornstr. 44 7.4.17 Pless, German
van Amerongen, Emil The Deventer Society (Buurssen, em. Haaksbergen) BUURSSEN (em. Haaksbergen) 13.6.18 Haarlem Dutch
Verdoner, Alida The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam 22.?.18 Amsterdam Dutch
Wajntrob, Dwojra (Waintrob, Dwoire, Deborah) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 6.10.17 Warschau Polish
Warschawzik, Ernst The Deventer Society (Hengelo) HENGELO Deldenerstr. 57 4.5.19 Kopenhagen Danzig

Name (?): Iron Varshevchik David Ernest
(Source: maapilim.org)

Weinberg, Carla (Karla) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.6.09 Hamburg German
Weinberg, Klaus Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.16 Wupperthal German
Weinberg, Ruth Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.3.22 Dortmund German
Weisskopf, Herwarth (Herward) Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.3.17 Ratiber German

Weisskopf Zvi Herward, married Mary Gottlieb (Miriam Weisskopf), another passenger on the Dora.
(source: maapilim.org)

Windmuller, Isaak
Isaak Windmuller
The Deventer Society 29.10.15 Emden Stateless

Born 23 October 1915 in Emden, Germany. Deceased 1 January 1999 in Israël.

Isaak Windmüller and his family left Germany in 1933 and moved to the Netherlands. He then left Holland on the the Dora and arrived in Mandate Palestine in August 1939. During the war he served in the British army. After 1945, Isaak Windmüller found a new home in Israel. He died in 1999.

When Isaak embarked on the ship 'Dora', his brother Max accompanied him. At the last moment he let himself be talked to stay in the Netherlands to give co-guidance to the Palestine pioneers. In early 1942 Max Windmüller ended up Camp Westerbork, from where he escaped. Later that year he joined the resistance group of Joop Westerweel. Max Windmüller was involved in the escape route to Spain that the Westerweel group organized for Palestine Pioneers. It is estimated that around 400 of them including his own brother Emil were saved from certain death thanks to his work. He was betrayed and arrested while attempting to free Palestine pioneers from a prison in Paris. Deported to Buchenwald, he was killed by a guard during the death march to Dachau on April 21, 1945, one day before the column of prisoners were to be liberated by the US army, and two weeks before the end of the war.

Source: www.emden.de

Wittner, Franz Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.9.16 - German
Wodlenberg, Rita The Deventer Society (Brummen) BRUMMEN p.a. Beker 23.7.20 Elberfeldt German
Wolff, Fritz The Deventer Society (Deurningen) DEURNINGEN H. Leufeld, Deutningen H.6o 1.10.14 Bingerbrück German
Wolff, Willy, Günter (Delden) Delden: Wiene G.79 G.Wijnbergen,G.79, Wiene, Ambt-Delden 15.2.18 Strigau German
Wolkowicz, Szyje, (Wollkowicz, Szyje) Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk Amsterdam Jekerstr. 5 4.3.19 Zelow Stateless
Worms, Hetty The Deventer Society (Den Haag) DEN HAAG 15.12.16 Amsterdam Dutch
Wreschinsky, Walter (Wreschinski) The Deventer Society (Warnsveld) WARNSVELD Rouvenhorst
Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam
26.10.20 Berlin German
ZobeI, AIfred Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 4.2.11 Berlin German

List of refugees who boarded the Dora in Antwerp, 19 July 1939

Source: The Foreign Police in Belgium ARA; Foreign Police files, A177.761 (via Janiv Stamberger)

The list contains 171 names.

Name Date of Birth Notes
Arndt, Erna 14.11.1906 Erna Koenigsberger, born November 1906 in Liegnitz, Poland. Married Georg Arndt in 1929. One daughter: Rosemarie Arndt. (Source: Jewishgen)
Arndt, Georg 30.5.1896 Georg Arndt, born in May 1896 in Regenwalde, Poland. Married Erna Koenigsberger in 1929. One daughter: Rosemarie Arndt. (Source: Jewishgen)
Aron, Hella 8.12.1920
Atlasz, Ilse 14.7.1904
Austern, lsrael 18.4.1908

Israel Austern's name appears in the Palestine Gazette of 25th November, 1943, for the registration of a newly formed business partnership named Sabon "Esther" dealing in perfumery and cosmetic goods, (10th October, 1943.)

The address is : 18b, King George Street, Tel Aviv

Bauer, Hilde 18.1.1919
Beer, Berthold 8.9.1907
Berger, Felix 29.3.1917
Bier, Anni 31.10.1914
Boehm, Gert 3.10.1920
Brand, Grete 8.4.1911
Brand, Manfred 30.5.1909
Bronstein, Gregor 12.2.1921
Buchaster, Berta 27.10.1913
Buchaster, Marja 9.4.1911
Buchaster, Nathan 13.9.1912
Burak, Paul 30.7.1900

Place of birth: Germany
(Source: maapilim.org)

Celnik, Abram 14.5.1894
Celnik, Ziporja 18.3.1892
Cisinski, Heinz 30.3.1915
Cohen, Artur 16.11.1901
Danziger, Bruno 1.12.1906
Dorn, Netanel 30.8.1916
Eichwald, Theodor 14.6.1902
Eisner, Salli 4.6.1916
Feldmann, Chana 2.5.1909
Fink, Isidor 3.12.1919
Finn, Hilde 3.10.1917
Frank, Robert 15.3.1902
Fuchs, Paul 29.3.1908
Fuchs, Frieda 3.12.1907
Fuerst, Gisela 30.12.1909
Fuerst, Osias 13.10.1898
Gallewski , Josef 21.5.1917
Gaenser, Ella 19.2.1921
Gerson, Julius 10.1.1903
Goldberg, Ruth 7.7.?? (year unreadable)
Goldenhar, Abraham (Goldenhaar)
Abraham Goldenhaar
2.9.1916

Hashomer Hatzair

Photo source: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger

Goldenhar, Hanni (Hani Einhorn)
Isaak Windmuller
11.8.1919

Hashomer Hatzair

Photo source: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger

Goldstein, Arthur 5.1.1920
Goldstein, Joseph 26.12.1915
Goldstein, Kadisch 27.8.1910
Gotthilf, Herbert 22.8.1910
Grun, Mendel 16.6.1915
Gutmann, Eva 16.3?.1920 (month not clear)
Gutmann, Naumi 10.5.1920
Haase, Kurt 23.1.1905
Haase, Gisela 29.4.1903
Halpern, Leo 31.12.192? (1920?) (year not clear)
Hanauer, Lothar 30.3.1907
Hecht, Herbert 5.9.1912
Hecht, Rut 29.6.1912
Heimann, Sally 25.12.1907
Heller, Dora 23.6.1920
Herzberg, Samuel
Samuel Herzberg
26.2.1912

photo source: maapilim

Heumann, Erna 21.4.1913
Honik, Szarlotte 9.5.1917
Hoffmann, Erich 4.4.1916
Hoffmann, Theodor 28.3.1902
Horowitz, Jakob 19.1.1902
Inowlodzka, Ruchla 1914
Jacobowicz, Hirsch 22.12.1912
Jordan, Alfred 25.10.1920
Kattkitzki, Erich 19.1.1906
Katz, Eisabeth 16.10.1906
Katz, Lous (Louis?) 22.7.1904
Katz, Toni
Toni Katz (Abraham)
30.9.1919

Toni Katz did her hachshara in Flensburg, Germany, which was cut short by the events of Kristallnacht. Back home in Gera, she hid with friends for several months until she received a notice that a boat was beeing readied for Palestine - did she want to go?. She made her way across Germany into Belgian illegally (she was a statelss Jew, and so couldn't get an visa) and spent a month in Belgium, further waiting for the arrival of the Dora. She first lived in a kibbutz in Raanana, then started a new kibbutz in Maoz Chaim. Later moved to Tel Aviv, then in the early 50's went to Paris, where she resided until her death.

Kaufmann, Frieda 4.1.1906
Kleinschmidt, Herbert 30.12.1921
Koopman, Hans 4.1.1915
Koopman, Feiga 7.6.1916
Kominski, Rita 26.4.1915
Kratz, Fritz 20.1.1909
Krauthammer, Walter 28.1.1912
Kugelmass, Max 30.9.1910
Kuschnerow, Rosel 16.11.1920
Lampen, Hermann 19.5.1919
Landy, Alfred 15.8.1920
Langsam, Elsa 11.8.1912
Lazar, David 25.10.1915
Lehmann, Walter 18.11.1896
Lewin, Marie 21.6.1913
Lewin, Richard 28.1.1904
Levy, Marie 31.5.1920
Littauer, Else 23.7.1908
Littauer, Jakob 15.7.1904
Loewenstein, Kurt 8.5.1902
Loewenstein, Herbert 21.4.1921
Mahler, Sigismund 18.6.1915
Malz, Emil 2.10.1915 * Year unclear
Maml(ot?), Rosa 23.4.1905 (first name unreadable)
Margules, Erna 18.3.1915
Marx, Klara 19.10.1919
Mendel, Willi 13.6.1920
Milich, Meusche 3.4.1914
Mirowski, Nathan 3.4.1916
Mirowski, Zypra 30.5.1916
Mitelberg,Eliezer 19.1.1916
Neufeld, Richard 16.5.1912
Neurath, Artur 17.4.1905
Nussbaum, Thekla 26.12.1907
Offen, Juljusz 4.4.1922
Ohlhausen, Fritz 2.9.1919
Peiper, Hans 8.7.1913
Perlmutter, Gizela 8.1.1897
Protter, Benno 3.1.1914
Protter, Selma 6.4.1921
Rachwalsky, Gerhard 25.2.1912
Rauner, Hugo 10.2.1915
Rechtschaffen, Jakob 13.4.1922
Reifer, Toni 12.6.1916
Reig, Simon 11.1.1909
Roer, Kurt 31.1.1907
Rosenthal, Ernst 10.12.1901
Rothschild, Emil 17.3.1915
Rothschild, Charlotte 17.3.1915
Rymald, Adolf 8.6.1921
Sachsenhaus, Philipp 14.2.1912

Changed his name in Israel to Pinchas Sachsenhaus. Born in Munich
(Source: maapilim.org)

Sachsenhaus, Irmgard 17.5.1911

Possibly same person as Miriam Sachsenhaus; wife of Pinchas (Philip) Sachsenhaus. Maiden name: Berkhausen. Born in Lünen, Germany.
(Source: maapilim.org)

Sapierstein, Isaak 5.2.1916
Segal, Lipa 29.1.1905
Segal, Srul 10.2.1911
Simon, Adalbert 26.7.1892
Simon, Bettina 12.11.1901
Sokolski, Karol 14.2.1919
Schaefer, Kurt 23.4.1915
Schaefer, Ester 26.4.1916
Schieber, Schiffre 25.1.1910
Schlorch, Erich 12.11.1915
Schwarz, Bernhard 5.11.1918
Schwarz, Ester 2.12.1918
Schwarz, Kaete 9.10.1912
Schwarz, Theodor 14.11.1916
Spiegel, Samuel 2.10.1913
Spitz, Walter 27.11.1908
Staendig, Charlotte 26.1.1921

Married name, changed first name in Israel to: Neuhaus Yael. Born in Germany.
(Source: maapilim.org)

Staub, Leizor 7.6.1913
Staub, Hanna 29.2.1916
Stein, Peppi 22.1.1921
Steinhauer, Max 13.1.1910
Stern, Albert 30.7.1916
Stillmann, Guenther 2.5.1912

Günter Stillmann (born: 2nd May 1912, † 27.01.1986), a Jewish communist and German resistance fighter. His resistance work included printing pamphlets, providing assistance to detaines and acting as messenger courrier for the for the KPD.

"After the pogroms of the Nazis, he travelled to Palestine, but came back after a short time."
"Stillmann escaped from Germany in 1939 and first sought the adventure in Brazil, but realized that it was difficult to survive there as a migrant worker [...].
He left the continent illegally with a ship and now emigrated to Palestine.

He returned to Germany in 1948. As a Jewish communist, he decided to live in the GDR. He is buried in the cemetery of the Socialists in Berlin-Friedichsfelde.

Günter Stillmann: Berlin - Palästina und zurück Erinnerungen
Berlin Dietz, 1989.
ISBN 3320012258

Sources: http://www.xn--kpenicker-strasse-zzb.de/Koepenicker63.html and www.xn--kpenicker-strasse-zzb.de/Koepenicker61.html

Storch, Hillel 16.1.1899
Strauss, Kurt 5.2.1909
Struck, Adelheid 18.5.1911
Stoppelmann, Siegfried 5.10.1913

Born in Aurich, Lower Saxony, Germany.
Following Kristallnacht (November 10, 1938), he was incarcerated in the Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp. Released with the promise of leaving Germany within 24 hours, he instead hid for three weeks in a pigeon shed.

He was then taken to Antwerp with others "in a box with the inscription" 'Beware of Glass'". From there he took a boat to Palestine (the Dora).

In 1957, Siegfried, his wife Edith (formerly Kahn) and son Gerschon moved back to Germany, to the state of Bremen. He was a member of the board of the the Israelite community of Bremen, then chairman of the community.
He received the Federal Cross of Merit First Class presented by the mayor of Bremen.
Died December 31, 2002 (89), Bremen, Germany

Source: stolpersteineaurich.wordpress.com

Treu, Guenther 7.11.1911
Ucko, Hermann 26.11.1910
Ucko, Annemarie 29.6.1916
Unger, Karl 6.4.1915
Wadler, Adolf 25.8.1899
Wadler, Netti 4.7.1907
Wassertheil, Esterer 6.3.1917
Weil, Susi 18.11.1914
Weiss, Ludwig 2.4.1915
Werner, Heinz 9.6.1912
Winterfeld, Artur 3.10.1916
Wolff, Arnold 4.3.1914
Wolff, Ernst 19.6.1905
Wolff, Ilse 12.1.1911
Wolff, Irma 7.2.1906
Zajac, Adolf 19.12.1920
Zinn, Abraham 22.3.1904
Deresiewicz, Mordohe 15.6.1905
Deresiewicz, Anna 11.10.1909
Schlosser, Josef 21.3.1919
Wallach, Siegfried 25.5.1921
Bezner, Markus 21.3.1910
Landau, Regine 31.11.1897
Hacker, Adolf 31.10.1902
Hacker, Marie 16.6.1907

Additional Passengers

Additional names from maapilim.org and other sources, not on the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists. Assuming these passengers boarded in Amsterdam as the Antwerp list seems to be an official, complete list, unlike the list from Amsterdam.

Total number: 6

Name D.O.B Place of birth Notes
Erster, Jakob (previous first name: Oskar) 22/11/1903 Nowosielec, Galicia, Poland

(Source and photo:
maapilim.org)

Brant, Lutz (Bar Neta, Shaul) Germany

Changed his name in Israel: Bar Neta, Shaul
(Source: maapilim.org)

Waller, Heinz (Haim) 21/05/1920 Schwiebus, Germany

Changed his name in Israel to Waller, Haim
(Source: maapilim.org)

Appears on geni.com as Heinz (Chaim) Waller, but different date - born 1918
"Son of Sally Waller and Rosa Waller; Husband of Pnina Waller; Brother of Herbert Waller.
Resided in Hod haScharon, Israel until 2017."

Also listed on www.heimatkreis-zuellichau-schwiebus.de as Waller, Chaim (Heinz) 21.05.1920
"Since 2018, resides in 36001 NOFIT, Israel"

Weinberg, Lutz 26/05/1920 Berlin, Germany

Changed name in Israel to Karmi Dan
(Source: maapilim.org)

Mohl, Ernst 1909 Germany

Changed his name in Israel to Mohl, Raphael
(Source: maapilim.org)

Oppenheimer, Jacob Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Jacob Oppenheimer came to Holland in 1936 from Frankfurt am Main.

He said: In 1939, we were brought to Heemskerk (15 miles from Amsterdam), where we had to wait for a couple of weeks. On July 14th, I was brought to the house of Dr. Pinkhof in Amsterdam. I was very religious and couldn't travel on Shabbat. Dr. Pinkhof's house wasn't far from the harbor, so on Saturday, they came and picked me up and they took me straight to the Dora. It was a small ship, full of people, but we never felt unsafe on the ship. The only danger we feared would come from the British."

He later lived in the moshav Kfar HaRoeh and worked for the Israeli Ministry of (?)

Source: Chaya Brasz.

Possible Additional Names or Duplicates

Additional names from maapilim.org not on the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists. Since these are all Hebrew names, they could represent passengers already listed under their original German names in the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists.

Total number: 4

Name D.O.B Place of birth Notes
Melamed, Zeev 26/06/1907 Poland

(Source maapilim.org)

Sela, Mordechai

(Source maapilim.org)

Cohen, Simcha Germany

This could be an unlisted passenger, or could be the Hebraized name of one of these passengers: Justus Cohen, Paul Cohen or Artur Cohen.
(Source maapilim.org)

Friedman Meir 1918 Lithuania

This could be the same person as Frydmann, Mejer (Friedmann, Meyer), although listed as Polish, and was born in 1917.
(Source maapilim.org)

Special Thanks:
Chaya Brasz, for graciously allowing me to post a translation of her article on the Dora
Bernd Philipsen, for the scans of contemporary newspaper articles about the Dora odyssey
Janiv Stamberger, for sharing a copy of the passenger list who boarded the Dora in Antwerp. (The Foreign Police in Belgium ARA; Foreign Police files, A177.761)
Rina Offenbach, Director BeNetivei Haapalah, Illegal immigrant database and information center, Atlit Detention Camp, Israel. for sharing a copy of the list of passengers who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam.
Erik Post, for translating the Dora article
Liron Katz, for translating Hillel Yarkoni's article
Related Links:
Dora page on the Maapilim.org site
Partial list of passengers aboard the Dora
Yoel Golomb's testimony on www.palyam.org
The "Dora" - The story of the illegal immigrant ship. Original Hebrew article Hillel Yarkoni. Sfinot maapilim me’alef ad tav. Tel Aviv, 2005.
Wertheimer Haapalah Project
Paul H. Silverstone's Aliyah Bet Project
hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
"Be Strong and Brave! A small youth movement in a sea of history. The Hashomer Hatzair Antwerp (1920-1948)". Janiv Stamberger. Master thesis History Department University of Ghent 2012-2013..
Ha'Mossad Le'Aliya Bet
References and Publications:
Chaya Brasz. "Dodenschip Dora; Een oude kolenboot redde honderden Joden ondanks Nederlandse tegenwerking". Vrij Nederland, May 1, 1993.
Hillel Yarkoni. Sfinot maapilim me’alef ad tav. Tel Aviv, 2005.
Janiv Stamberger "Be Strong and Brave! A small youth movement in a sea of history. The Hashomer Hatzair Antwerp (1920-1948)".. Master thesis History Department University of Ghent 2012-2013.
Francine Klagsbrun "From Lioness: Golda Meir and the Nation of Israel".. Schocken, 2017
Bernard Wasserstein The Ambiguity of Virtue: Gertrude van Tijn and the fate of the Dutch Jews. Harvard University Press, 2014

This family history project started September 2009.
All photos and documents belong to the author and are © Daniel Abraham, except for maps and where indicated.
This is a work in progress. Please contact me if you have any more information to contribute.

Last Modified: Friday, December 14, 2018