The Dora was the only illegal ship (Aliyah Bet) to leave from Northern Europe with Jewish refugees before the war. Described in the press as a "Death Ship", a "wreck practically falling apart", it managed to reach the shores of Palestine despite the British Navy embargo and saved hundreds of lives, including the life of my mother, Toni Katz.

Dora

The Dora

Photo: Het Volk, July 14 1939

This page was originally based on Chaya Brasz's article "Dodenschip Dora; Een oude kolenboot redde honderden Joden ondanks Nederlandse tegenwerking" ("The "Death Ship" Dora: the coal ship that saved hundreds of Jews"), which has been condensed and edited for clarity. Additional information was gathered from several books and online articles listed in the reference section; from articles published in the contemporary press and finally, from the recollections of my mother and from organizers and passengers who sailed on the Dora.


Mossad LeAliyah Bet

Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the increasingly harsh anti-Jewish measures in Nazi Germany made the need for Jewish immigration more and more urgent. At the same time, it became increasingly difficult for refugees to obtain visas for any destination. As for Palestine, then under British mandate, Great Britain announced in late 1938 that it would reduce Jewish migration to Palestine to a total of 75,000 over the next 5 years.

In response to the newly enacted restrictions implemented by the British government with its "White Paper", a new branch of the Haganah, Mossad LeAliyah Bet, was created in late 1938, with the goal of organizing illegal immigration to Palestine.

An organization was quickly put in place in several European countries to support this effort, with the center of operations set in Paris. This organization had to raise funds, collect intelligence, acquire (i.e. charter) ships, transform and equip ships to transport large numbers of immigrants: install beds and other necessities, set up sophisticated radio systems, supply them with large quantities of food, water and fuel, hire crews, transport immigrants to ports of departure, arrange sailing permits, all of this while avoiding the suspicion of local authorities and evading detection by the British Navy.

In its first year of operations, Mossad LeAliyah Bet managed to launch 10 ships from Mediterranean and Black Sea ports and bring so-called "illegal" immigrants to the shores of Palestine despite the British embargo.

Several groups provided operational and logistical support through each stage. First were "guides" (madrichim), who accompanied the ships during the crossings. They were young people who had gained sailing experience on rowboats on the River Yarkon, and had to be ready to act as emergency captains whenever problems arose with the official crews, often veteran Greek seamen. One such sailor was Amiram Shochat, who would take part in the voyage of the Dora and was by then already a veteran of these illegal expeditions.

Another group consisted of members of Shai ("Sherut Yediot"), the Haganah Intelligence Service, who gathered information about the British police anti-immigration plans, often from Jews who worked in their offices, and supplied the Mossad with the routes to evade the British.

Another crucial group was the Haganah radio communication wing, with members operating on the ships, at disembarkation points, and at the Haganah center in Tel Aviv. With efficient transmitters and receivers installed on each ship sailing to Palestine, they were able to coordinate between ship and shore, allowing the vessels to receive precise information on British naval movements and dodge the coastal patrols. Temporary communication stations were also set up on the landing beaches to guide the ships.

Lastly, there were the several disembarkation crews who brought the refugees from ships to shore, then helped them fan out to various settlements, while armed groups were on the lookout for the British forces. Several Haganah units were involved in the landings. Disembarkation was handled by Palyam units with seagoing experience.

Generally, the ships approached as close as possible to shore, allowing those who knew how to swim to make their own way to shore. The others were carried in boats or on the backs of helpers. Palmach units guarded the beach, while Gadna (Youth Corps) and HIM (Guard Corps, composed of older Haganah members) patrolled the wider area, and dispersed the immigrants among different Jewish settlements. Since success depended on preventing discovery by the British, great importance was placed on how quickly the immigrants were swallowed up in the settlements. In many cases, the Haganah supplied them with the appropriate identity papers.

The Refugee Situation in the Netherlands

Since Hitler's takeover of power in Germany in 1933, the Netherlands had taken in approximately 15,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria. After Kristallnacht at the end of 1938, the Dutch government allowed 150 chalutzim to enter the country, on condition that they would leave the country within a year. By that time, there were a little over 1,000 young people in Hachshara - agrarian training in preparation for emigration to Palestine - in the Netherlands. Gertrude van Tijn, the head of the Emigration Department of the Committee for Jewish Refugees, reported to the Joint (American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, aka JDC) at the end of November that approximately 4,000 legal refugees had entered the Netherlands since Kristallnacht. By February 1939, she estimated that there were 23,000 German-Jewish refugees in the Netherlands, while the government put the number to 30,000.

Two organizations provided support to Jewish refugees from Germany: the Deventer Association ("Vereniging tot Vakopleiding van Palestina Pioniers": "The Association for Professional Training of Palestine Pioneers"), and the Committee for Jewish Refugees. They obtained entrance visas for young refugees, then placed them among Dutch farmers and in the Werkdorp ("work village") Nieuwesluis in Wieringer, Werkdorp Wieringermeer, where they received agricultural and professional training for immigration to Palestine.

Following the sudden influx of German refugees in Holland after Kristallnacht and the decision of the British Government to pressure the Greek Government to halt immigration to Palestine, the Haganah decided to create a new immigration route in Northern Europe. As early as December 1938 or January 1939, they started to discuss the possibility of shipping a group of 300 chalutzim from Holland, 150 from Belgium, and another 100 from France from a North European port.

Several agents of Mossad leAliyah Bet arrived from Palestine to Europe to organize "Operation North" (מבצע הצפון), the clandestine departure of German Jewish refugees from Holland. In charge of the operation was Gideon Rufer (Gideon Raphael), in charge of logistics was Gustav Horn from Kibbutz Hazorea. From the central office of Mossad leAliyah Bet office in Paris, Shmarya Tzameret, a 23 year-old American-born member of Kibbutz Beit Hashita, was tasked with organizing the Dora trip. Other agents involved in the planning of the operation and purchase of the Dora included Ze'ev Shind, Yehuda Berginski, Danny Sheind, Amiram Shochat and Zvi Spector, who would lead the Dora during the trip.

Copenhagen: June - July 1939

Mossad officials, led by Yehuda Berginski, spent several months looking for a suitable ship that could sail from the North Sea, through the Atlantic Ocean and across the Mediterranean up to Palestine with hundreds of passengers.

They eventually found a Greek family willing to embark on the adventure: Pierre and Constantin Atychides, two Greek brothers who had previous smuggling experience during the Spanish Civil War. They would purchase a ship (with Mossad money), equip it and sail it all the way to Palestine.

After lengthy negotiations, Gideon Ruffer and Shmarya Tzameret finally arranged the purchase of the SS Tjaldur in Copenhagen on June 21st, 1939.

Tjaldur

The Tjaldur

Tjaldur

The Tjaldur

Source: www.wrecksite.eu

Built in 1898 in Glasgow under the name VEGA, then renamed Tjaldur in 1904, it was a relatively small steamer (584 gross tons, 199 feet by 30 feet, 11.5 knots) that had previously sailed between the ports of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Originally a passenger ship, it had later been converted into a merchant ship that transported various goods, including cattle. However, it still held a certificate to transport passengers and was deemed suitable for the operation as its mechanics were in good shape.

After the purchase, the ship was renamed the Dora and would sail under Panamanian flag. In Copenhagen, it was outfitted to transport passengers by adding 175 iron bunk beds on multiple levels, life jackets, a second kosher kitchen, lavatories, and showers. On the deck, a wooden room was constructed to accommodate a doctor, a nurse, and a small hospital. The engines were cleaned, and a sophisticated radio system was installed that would help communications with the Haganah headquarters.

During the outfitting the ship, disputes with the crew and tensions between the Dutch and the Palestinians emerged, posing a potential threat to the operation. At a critical juncture, Chaim Weizmann, the Zionist leader, had to intervene and restore peace among the organizers.

In July, following approximately three weeks of renovations and repairs, the Dora was finally ready and departed from Copenhagen, bound for Amsterdam.

Just as the Dora started to move, the captain's son, who was supposed to conduct the voyage on behalf of the ship's owners, tripped and broke his leg, so the Dora had to return to Copenhagen so he could be taken to a hospital. After the delay caused by this mishap, the Dora finally left Copenhagen, passing through the Kiel Canal, which was under Nazi control. .

As the Dora left, Tzameret and Costa took a train to Antwerp to hire additional crew and purchase more lifeboats. On his end, Gideon Rufer announced that the pioneers in Amsterdam were ready to go. Once the Dora arrived in Amsterdam, the plan was to get more coal and food and be ready to leave in a few hours without being noticed.

In a closed meeting of Hechalutz members from the work village of Wieringermeer, seventy-three candidates had learned that they had been selected to leave via illegal aliyah and would sail in nine days. In preparation for their voyage, they had been moved to temporary accommodations in Beverwijk, Assendelft, and Heemskerk, small villages close to Amsterdam, where they were to remain in hiding until their departure.

The trip, first discussed in December 1938, and in planning for half a year, had been delayed for so long that Shmarya Tzameret had to reassure the Dutch Government that the chalutzim would soon leave Holland as planned.

My mother had been offered a place on a ship after her parents had been deported to Poland (this could have been as early as December 1938), but there had been multiple, seemingly endless, delays. She went into hiding with friends and neighbors for three to four months, waiting for a departure date. At last, she received the signal to leave and headed for Belgium. Being "stateless", she could not get a visa, and could only cross borders illegally. I used to picture her walking through the border at night with the help of a guide, but she most likely went not alone but with a group of chalutzim. Another Dora passenger, Charlotte Staendig (later Yael Neuhaus), described how she came to Belgium. From Urfeld, a village located about 50 kms (30 miles) from the Belgian border, she was taken along with a group of about ten people in a tarpaulin-covered truck to Antwerp. She noted that "the road to the Belgian port was smooth, oiled with bribes." I assume that my mother's path followed a similar route. She then spent one month in Belgium waiting for the Dora to arrive.

In Antwerp, the situation was worse: 150 people who had crossed the Belgian border illegally had been there for more than six weeks. The police arrested them every day, after which they were released, because they promised they to leave the next day, as soon as the ship would enter the harbor. Around the same time, the Belgian government passed a law to the effect that illegal refugees had to be sent back.

My mother recalled that during her stay in Antwerp, she stayed with a group of young men and women in the apartment of a wealthy Jewish family who were away on vacation for the summer. One day, a neighbor alerted the police of the presence of illegal aliens in the building. The police came and arrested the young men, but unaware that there were four girls on the second floor, didn't find them, and they were not arrested. At the end of each day, the young men would be released against a promise that they would soon leave Belgium. The next day, still there, they would be arrested again. This continued until they finally got ready to board the Dora. The girls, not wanting any more problems with the police, left the house and went back to stay at the Hechalutz house.

David Cohen, the Chairman of the Refugee Committee, was kept in the dark about the plans for the Dora because he was known to disapprove illegal activities. Other members and associates of the Committee however, such as Gertrude van Tijn, were willing to cross the line into illegality, and would provide their help and support throughout the entire duration of the operation. Since funds from the Joint could not be used for "illegal" enterprises, Gertrude's Dutch associates fronted the £3,000 (approximately $240,000 in 2018) needed to cover expenses for the trip.

Amsterdam: July 13 - July 16

The Dora arrived in the Amsterdam harbor on Thursday July 13th. Gideon Rufer went to the shipbroker on the Geldersekade canal to purchase the provisions needed for the trip. He took along with him Flip Cohen, a young Dutch passenger who spoke Hebrew to be his translator.

Uri Kochba (Walter Koch, head of the Hechalutz movement) said:

"I was sent to the bakery, and had them bake special kosher bread that would stay good for a long time. We* ate that onboard until it became moldy. After that, we switched to biscuits."

Note: *the source for the quote must be incorrect. As far as I know, Uri Kochba did not board the Dora. He was arrested in the Netherlands in 1940. However, others have documented that the passengers did survive on biscuits and salty water towards the end of the trip.

This is when he met Amiram Shochat for the first time, one of the three people from the Haganah who had organized the trip of the Dora. Amiram warned him in Hebrew: "Don't talk to anyone in the crew". The Danish crew didn't know about the illegal nature of the trip, and were not supposed to know.

According to Yekutiel Fekete, the crew was composed as follows: The owner and captain of the ship was a 70-year-old Greek who hated the English and claimed "The British Empire will collapse and the English will go back to being fishermen and coal miners. This will be their fate.". Maybe his hatred for the British was part of the reason he agreed to serve on the Dora. The first officer was a younger Greek driven by greed, who had brought his wife on a voyage. The second officer was named Danny, a hardworking man who did all the work and treated us and the immigrants well. The third and fourth officers were Amiram Shochat from Tel Aviv, for whom this was the third voyage, and Zvi Spector from Jerusalem, who was on his first mission. The official wireless was a Spanish exile from the Civil War, while Yekutiel Fekete was the wireless operator in charge of connecting with the Haganah.

Everything seemed to be going well until emissaries from the Refugee Committee came to inspect the ship. Gertrude van Tijn and one of her colleagues from the Committee, Siegfried Kramarsky, a German-Jewish banker residing in the Netherlands who was financing part of the trip, came to satisfy themselves that the Dora was fit for the voyage. Siegfried Kramarsky, along with Salo (Salomon) Jakob Flörsheim - another banker and philanthropist - and a few other members of the Refugee Committee, had paid the 115,000 guilders (approximately $1.1 million in 2018) the trip would cost, and felt responsible for the success and safety of the trip.

They arrived just as coal was being loaded, so the ship was covered in a cloud of soot. They had expected a passenger ship; when they saw the decrepit hulk of the Dora, they were shocked. They questioned aloud whether the Dora was capable of carrying a large number of passengers through the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and to Palestine and considered withdrawing their support, then refused to let the chalutzim board the ship.

The members of the Refugee Committee were mostly wealthy, assimilated Jews who represented the Jewish Community to the government. Their idea of what a ship should look like didn't fit with the reality of illegal immigration. They were also upset by all the delays so far and concerned by the issues these delays would cause with the Dutch Government, as they had given their word that the chalutzim would be leaving without delay. They had some contempt for "Ostjuden", the people who had organized the trip, saying "Ostjuden don't keep their word". They also suspected that the paperwork for the ship might be fakes acquired on the black market, and blamed the Haganah for the poor condition of the ship.

Shmarya Tzameret was astonished by what he heard from these assimilated, law-abiding Jews who, with their haughty attitude, made decisions regarding the chalutzim. In his report to the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, he noted that these people were so removed from the problems of the Jewish people. After the remark about the OstJuden, he only spoke English.

He spoke to Gertrude van Tijn who supported the illegal scheme and whom he saw as a woman of great intelligence, and asked her to try to convince Kramarsky. Tzameret explained to her why the trip had been delayed so many times, told her that the Dora was a solid ship which had passed the inspection by the official authorities, and that the insurance papers were in order. In the end, the Refugee Committee gave in and agreed to let the trip continue.

The Dora in Amsterdam.

The Dora in Amsterdam.

Photo: De Telegraph July 15, 1939

Read All About It!

Soon after, new complications arose. The dock workers who had brought the coal aboard the Dora had noticed the bunk beds in the holds, and had alerted the editors of the Communist Party's newspaper about the "scandalous" conditions aboard that "Death Ship". The next day, the Volksdagblad ("the People's Daily") published a long article accusing the Dutch government of forcing Jews to leave in unsafe condition aboard a "wreck of a ship" with "slave trade quarters" sail, which, they were sure, would drown with the hundreds of refugees aboard. Other newspapers started to write about the "Ship of the Dead". In the Amsterdam harbor, photographers aboard small boats circled around the Dora.

The Dutch government's official position was that it knew nothing about the preparations regarding the Dora's departure, and clearly wanted to keep it that way. Feeling overwhelmed with the sudden influx of Jewish refugees from Germany, it was willing to close its eyes on any irregularities to facilitate the removal of at least some of them. Rufer met Hendrik van Boeijen, the Minister of the Interior, who approved the operation and ensured that officials turned a blind eye to what was happening.

As a result of the reports in the press, the harbormaster received the order to inspect the Dora. Shmarya Tzameret met with the harbormaster and revealed the reason for the trip, and after the Dora had gone through a new inspection by the Dutch authorities, the harbormaster gave his authorization to sail, but made a list of minor improvements needed before the Dora could leave.

To Gertrude's relief, Dutch marine inspectors visited the ship and pronounced the Dora seaworthy, on condition that some minor repairs be made and that additional lifeboats be brought aboard in Antwerp.

Since there were only 350 beds and 300 people were supposed to board from Amsterdam, Tzameret told the harbormaster that only 50 more people would be boarding from Antwerp.

The Dutch government declared the following day that they weren't expelling any refugees, and that they would all leave from their own free will. The Communist Volksdagblad nevertheless denounced the apparent collusion between the authorities and the Refugee Committee in sending a "second St Louis" on a "death journey".

With the boat deemed seaworthy by the Amsterdam naval authorities, preparations for embarking the hundreds of chalutzim dispersed over various villages and communities now went under way.

Jacob Oppenheimer, a pioneer with the Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz (Religious Zionist), recalled:

"The Dutch immigration police wanted to get rid of us, but they were afraid of the publicity. The relationship with England wasn't too good, and the British of course didn't want any immigration. So in 1939, all of a sudden we were brought to Heemskerk (15 miles from Amsterdam), where we had to wait for a couple of weeks. Of course, we knew where we were going. On July 14th, I was brought to the house of Dr. Pinkhof in Amsterdam. I was very religious and couldn't travel on Shabbat. His house wasn't far from the harbor, so on Saturday, they came and picked me up and took me straight to the Dora."

"It was a small ship, full of people, but we never felt unsafe on the ship. The only danger we feared would come from the British."

Flip Cohen was with another group of chalutzim in Beverwijk, a town about 15 miles from Amsterdam. He remembered:

On Saturday, I ordered some taxis. We went with the whole group. That evening, I was home for a just little while. My mother said, "Are you leaving today?" We said: "See you in Eretz Israel". I took my backpack and left.

Apart from my younger brother Samuel, I never saw them again. I came back to the Netherlands in 1945 as a soldier with the Jewish Brigade. I found Samuel in the Portuguese Israelite Hospital. He was just back from Bergen Belsen. All the others had been murdered.

Chalutzim dancing the hora before sailing to Mandate Palestine aboard the Dora.

Dutch chalutzim dancing the "hora" in the park of the Assumburg Castle in Heemskerk which was then used as a youth hostel, before sailing to Mandate Palestine aboard the Dora, 1939.
Courtesy of The Ghetto Fighters' House Museum, Israel.

The chalutzim were shuttled with busses all day Saturday from their hiding places to the harborside Lloyd hotel, which served as a refugee center, and was surrounded by the police.

Raphael Kochavi wrote:

After finally giving the signal to move, we boarded the buses that were waiting for us at the farm entrances. It was July 15, 1939.

At night, we arrived at the spacious customs hall at the port. Surrounded by Dutch security personnel, all the illegal immigrants gathered together.

Lloyd Hotel

Lloyd Hotel, Amsterdam.

Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18.07.1939

The leaders of the Jewish Refugee Committee and organizers of the trip, including Gertrude van Tijn, Siegfried Kramarsky, Salomon Flörsheim and Ru Cohen came to send off the refugees and wish them good luck. After fiery speeches, a Hatikvah concluded the ceremony.

Amsterdam Handelskade

The Handelskade

Also present were the heads of the immigration police from The Hague and from Amsterdam who had come to control the boarding with 35 civil servants and policemen. All passengers under the age of 21 had to sign a form attesting they were embarking of their own free will. Behind a police cordon, the chalutzim, in groups of ten or twenty, boarded small launches that took them to the Dora, waiting a hundred yards from the quay. .

Kochavi remembers differently: instead of launches, he describes the immigrants boarding the Dora directly from the pier:

In order to go in the belly of the ship, we had to go down a slippery sloping ramp onto a narrow deck. We were instructed in Hebrew to move on to the cargo hold which was illuminated by dim lights.

The Dora in Amsterdam.

The Dora in Amsterdam.

"Authorities, shipping inspectors and others go on board for a final inspection before the departure signal."

Photo: Het Volk, July 17, 1939

Passengers boarding the Dora in Amsterdam.

"In groups of ten or twenty, the refugees go onboard, escorted by policemen."

Photo: Het Volk, July 17, 1939

Passengers boarding the Dora in Amsterdam

Passengers boarding The Dora

Photo: Photo: De Sumatra Post, 24 July 1939

Dora

"The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

These were the seven members of the Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel: Rosa Appel, Elie Daube, Heinemann Gutmann, Issy Hirsch, Saul Lampelz, Bernhard Rosen, Rubin Rottenberg, and Adolf Sanders.

Photo: Het Volk, July 17, 1939

At dusk, the Dora was moved to the Handelskade (the pier). The police cordoned off the pier to keep the press away, but the authorities were afraid that the Communists would come to demonstrate. Everybody knew what was going on, and when a young woman without papers managed to move through the police cordon, they just let her go aboard without any trouble. A high degree of complicity between the authorities and the organizers was evident. As Zvi Spector, the Haganah chief of the operation, was about to board, the commanding officer of the Dutch immigration police raised a glass and proposed three toasts — to Queen Wilhelmina, to the success of the voyage, and to an independent Jewish state.

The Dora in Amsterdam

The Dora in Amsterdam.

"The Dora crew hastened to cover the name of the ship with tarpaulin, apparently to prevent anyone knowing which ship was moving across the IJ through the nocturnal darkness."

Photo: Het Volk July 17, 1939

In the early hours of Sunday, July 16, 1939, the Dora sailed from Amsterdam with about three hundred passengers. Most were Jewish refugees from Germany, including about 75 students from Wieringen. Some were Dutch Zionists who had undergone agricultural training in other Hachsharot. All were adults, mainly young men. One of the forty or so women was in her sixth month of pregnancy.

Gertrude bade an emotional farewell to the passengers and to Tzameret, who was to travel by train to meet the ship in Antwerp. The goodbyes between Tzameret and the Refugee Committee on the other hand were not particularly cordial. Kramarsky announced that he planned to go to Antwerp to ensure that the lifeboats requested by the Amsterdam harbormaster were brought on board, and that too many passengers wouldn't go aboard. Tzameret and Rufer tried to tell him this wasn't necessary, but to no avail.

Antwerp: July 17

The Dora in Antwerp.

The Dora in Antwerp.

Photo: Het Handelsblad, 18 July 1939.

The Dora arrived in Antwerp on July 17th. Shmarya Tzameret wrote in his report: "I spoke to a high-level Dutch civil servant who said that he wasn't interested in the plans of the Haganah, and that the only concern of the government was that the ship would disappear with the refugees as soon as possible." Tzameret had ordered that the passengers from Antwerp should board the Dora as soon as possible, but didn't tell Kramarsky, and continued the negotiations with people from the Refugee Committee. When Kramarsky arrived in Antwerp, he was furious to find out that a hundred and fifty people planned to board the ship, instead of the the fifty that had been previously agreed upon. He again threatened to withdraw financial support.

Kramarsky later met with Tzameret in Antwerp, and angrily argued with him about the condition of the Dora and that there weren't enough beds onboard. Tzameret explained that beds were put side to side, two by two, so they could fit three people. He added that the refugees who were in Belgium illegally had no other option but to board the ship and leave under any conditions: otherwise, they would be sent back to concentration camps in Germany. But the Refugee Committee had given its word to the Dutch government that no more than fifty additional people would board the Dora, and threatened to take 100 chalutzim off in Antwerp and send them back to the Netherlands. Shmarya Tzameret, to Kramarsky's fury, boarded all 170 new passengers regardless.

Siegfried Kramarsky went to the harbormaster and demanded that one hundred people be taken off the ship. The harbormaster, a devout Christian who saw the return of the Jewish people to the Promised Land as a Biblical fulfillment, became a spokesman for the chalutzim. He told Kramarsky not to worry, that it wasn't such an imposition if the refugees suffered a little for a couple of weeks if it meant that they would reach the coast of the Promised Land. Kramarsky then threatened to call the Dutch Government and ask them to take diplomatic action. This angered the harbormaster who refused to talk to the Dutchman any further. As last resort, Kramarsky went to the ship and tried to convince the chalutzim to not go on the trip, but the passengers explained that they were happy with the situation on the ship, so he finally gave up and drove away, seething.

My mother recalled seeing the Dora for the first time: When the chalutzim in her group saw the Dora in the Antwerp harbor, they said the ship was too small for so many people, and not suitable for such a long trip. She replied ("naive as I was" she said in retrospect): "Of course! This is just a small boat which will take us to the real ship, which must be somewhere on the high seas. They don't want to bring the real ship in the harbor because it would give it away..." But she was wrong. That "little boat" was in fact the very ship that would take her and about 480 others to Palestine.

In the meantime, unannounced, the Belgian Security Agency had sent a tugboat which started to move the Dora to Vlissingen, and the Dora left Antwerp on July 17th.

Vlissingen: July 18 - July 19

The Dora was now moored on the waterways of Vlissingen, where it remained for two days.

Dora

The Dora, anchored off the waterways of Vlissingen. Originally published on 19 July 1939 in De Maasbode Van Woensdag.

www.wrecksite.eu

New problems arose: Kosta was demanding more money for the trip, one of the engine mechanics had missed the ship, and a newly hired Belgian radio operator didn't show up after having found what the actual goal of the trip was.

In the meantime, the Haganah in Paris decided that the Dora would not pick up the hundred refugees in Le Havre in France after all because there had already been too many delays, putting the entire expedition at risk. Yekutiel Fekete mentions in his recollections of the trip another reason: the ship was already full and there was no room for any more passengers.

Kosta and Tzameret found a new radio operator, a Spanish Communist who used to smuggle weapons to Spain during the Civil War and was now stranded in Antwerp without papers after his ship had left without him. Kosta, the Spaniard and the mechanics took a taxi to Vlissingen, but were turned away: the Greek didn't have a visa, and the Spaniard didn't have a passport. The four of them would have to leave Antwerp the next morning on a motorboat for Vlissingen.

It was now July 18th and Tzameret wanted the Dora to leave as soon as possible. He was concerned that the Dutch press in Vlissingen and the Refugee Committee would find out that the Dora was back in Dutch waters, and that the Dutch government might decide under public pressure to prevent the departure because there were too many people aboard.

At 5 a.m., Tzameret observed the Dora from the Vlissingen dike through his binoculars. There were fishermen and a little boy on the dike. The kid said: "You see the ship? That's a 'death ship', a ship full of Jewish refugees from Germany that will sink, for sure." It was as if everybody in the Netherlands knew about the Dora, even the children.

Meanwhile, more articles appeared in the local press about the "mysterious refugee ship". While the Dora was anchored off the coast of Vlissingen, a journalist from the Daily Herald had come aboard. He wrote that the passengers slept on the deck on straw mats, and had told him they were going to Bangkok, or Siam. The news drew the attention of the British government, and the British representative Nevile Bland made inquiries at the Foreign office in the Netherlands, pointing out that immigration to Palestine was illegal. The Foreign Office responded that the ship had given as its destination Siam, and that they weren't aware of any another destination.

The Algemeen Handelsblad reported the departure of the Dora with 500 Jewish passengers. The destination of the ship was said to be Bangkok, yet the reporter didn't seem to believe that this was the real destination.

The article described the accommodations for the passengers:

"The passengers were hanging over the railing, talking to each other, and others were busy working. However, no answer was given to the questions we asked. The whole thing made a rather sad impression."

"As there seemed to be no room for all passengers, many had to be satisfied with a berth in the straw on the fore or afterdeck. Large sails were stretched over these decks."

The same day, the Haagsche Courant wrote:

"Little credence is given to the claim that the ship will go to Siam, and a veil of mystery surrounds the ship."

Surprisingly, despite the secret nature of the Dora's voyage, a reporter from the Haagsche Courant was allowed onboard. He wrote:

"The crew was busy trying the lifeboats with the assistance from the passengers. However, it was very primitive and it took a lot of time and effort to lower a boat, and the boat was not even manned. Moreover, the unpainted lifeboats don’t give a reassuring impression."

What the reporter probably witnessed was the passengers practicing lowering the lifeboats to disembark on the shores of Palestine. Since the Dora would land not in a harbor but on a beach, the passengers would have to transfer to the lifeboats to reach the land.

The Dora ship

Illegal immigrants, members of the Hechalutz aboard a lifeboat. August 1939

Photo: Shimon Mahler, 1939 (c) The Ghetto Fighters' House Museum.

The Dora ship

Illegal immigrants, members of the Hechalutz aboard a lifeboat. August 1939.

Photo: Shimon Mahler, 1939 (c) The Ghetto Fighters' House Museum.

The Dora ship

Lifeboat

Photo: Het Volk, 14 July 1939

The Dora ship

The Dora with one of its four lifeboats.

Photo: Het Volk, 14 July 1939

The Dora ship

The Dora with one of its four lifeboats

Photo: De Telegraaf, 19 July 1939

Cows on the deck of the Dora?!

The most surprising fact mentioned in this article is the presence of cattle on the Dora:

"On the front and back decks, the Jewish refugees sat under large sails. On the forepart were some cows, next to which men and women lived in the straw."

The same information was also picked up in "The Scotsman" on July 19: "From the shore hundreds of men and women, and also cattle, could be seen on deck".

The same day, the Volksdagblad (the Communist People's Daily) wrote that the ship was not seaworthy and that the government of the Netherlands should grant the refugees asylum. The journalist believed that the Dora was anchored in Vlissingen because of the rough weather from the previous days - confirmation, according to him, that the Dora was ill-equipped to take to the sea. With a dramatic tone, he predicted that once the "wreck" of the Dora moved into the open sea, it would turn into a real "death ship", wandering from port to port, without a final destination. Insisting that the Dora was too small to accommodate 420 passengers - for proof the dozens of refugees forced to sleep on deck on straw - the article ended with a call to action:

"The public opinion in the country must be shaken... It is a shame that this ship left the Netherlands. The only solution is: right of asylum in the Netherlands... or the clear guarantee that these unfortunates can find accommodation in another country..."

Another newspaper, the Zaans Volksblad, declared that "the veil of mystery around the refugee ship 'Dora' is getting thicker", and suspected that the ship might be waiting for more clement weather before taking to the sea. It added that the passengers, who were not allowed to disembark, were lying on straw on the deck, because "on a ship of such dimensions, it is not possible to properly accommodate 400 people".

It added that "In the afternoon there was a boat drill on deck, which is somewhat comical, taking into account how absolutely inadequate the rescue material is. The women were washing and trying to create some order in the chaos on board, by sweeping and removing the worst dirt."

After having spent almost two days anchored in Vlissingen for no apparent reason, the Utrechts Volksblad explained that the delay had been caused by the captain waiting for the arrival of a crew member whom he could not miss and who could only get on board today. What that journalist saw from the shore with binoculars was "not an encouraging spectacle", and that "the hundreds [...] now on this ship, are compressed on a much too small space."

Following the reports in the press, Louis de Visser, Chairman of the House of Commons and a member of the Communist Party, raised questions at the end of July for Prof. Gerbrandy, the Minister of Justice. He asked him if he had forced the Jewish Committee to take such action, argued that the refugees shouldn't leave if they couldn't secure a destination, and that they should be allowed back to the Netherlands if needed. Minister Gerbrandy denied having had any knowledge of the Dora. In the meantime, the government representative for refugees, B.G.A. (Bernardus Gerhardus Albertus) Smeets, unhappy about the conditions on the Dora, sent a letter to the Justice Ministry, dated July 22, 1939, in which he accused the Jewish Committee of "irresponsible behavior":

"What I understand makes me ask if the government shouldn't have just prevented the ship from leaving. It was too crowded. Refugees are sleeping under sails on the upper deck, on straw. One storm and they will be gone. There isn't enough safety equipment, four little boats for 20 people each. In Amsterdam the ship was already overloaded, and in Antwerp another 100 refugees were added. [...] You should realize that illegal immigration with ships has already been causing much trouble everywhere. Ships that aren't allowed into harbors, that are at sea for months, that have the plague on board - for example the odyssey with the St Louis, which was actually a comfortable ship, while the Dora..."

On July 20th, in London, the "Daily Herald" published an article with two photos of the Dora. The Herald's reporter described having gone on board the Dora and reported:

"... Her holds packed with human cargo, she was a passenger ship carrying 500 Jewish refugees to a destination that nobody seems to know... The Greek captain was silent about the ships' destination. He said he had "sealed orders".

The harbormaster said "We accept no responsibility for that ramshackle ship. She got her certificate of seaworthiness in Amsterdam - so good luck to her."

Here is what he saw:

"The Dora has two lifeboats on each side, each capable of taking 15 passengers. Should she meet disaster, the poor state the lifeboats are in leaves little hope of even 60 escaping in them. It would not take a hurricane to sink the Dora either. Her portholes are only secured with old rubber bands."

None of the passengers seems to mind the dangers and discomforts. "What does it matter," one of them said to me, "as long as we find freedom again?" If the land to which they are going refuses to take them, they will have to return to their port of embarkation."

"Where are we going to?" somebody answered when I questioned him. "To Siam." "To Bangkok." said another.

Passengers later recalled the lack of space on the Dora. My mother said that they had slept on wooden planks, three people lying head to foot, with about 30cm (12") per person, while Gershon Jonas remembered that "the ship was very crowded, we slept on the floor."

On the way to Palestine: July 19 - August 12

On Wednesday, July 19, at around 11:15 a.m., the Dora left Vlissingen and at long last began its voyage to Palestine. According to Gertrude van Tijn, the ship was "overloaded, ill-equipped, not very well provisioned", but was finally on its way, starting its four-week voyage across the English Channel, the Atlantic and then the Mediterranean, where it would have to avoid the British blockade to unload its human cargo on the shores of Palestine.

The ship was manned by a multinational crew, composed mainly of Greeks and Danes. Officially, the chief captain was the elder Arteshides, however the officer who would in fact in charge during this voyage was a Danish captain. The rest of the crew was from France, Algeria, as well as one Jewish immigrant from Russia who was a waiter in the officers' dinning room. The radio operator was a Spaniard, and the doctor on board from among the passengers turned out to be a morphine addict.

Three Haganah members went along: the ship manager, Tzvi Spector (23), the emergency captain, Amiram Shohat (23), and in charge of the radio connection with the Haganah HQ, Yekutiel Fekete (24).

The passsengers were organized according to their group affiliations, with leaders for each group.

According to Regina Merkel, there were two kitchens: one kosher and one non-kosher.

The following day, the Dora was spotted sailing past the Isle of Wight in the English Channel, as reported by the "Lloyds List and Shipping Gazette".

The Dora then entered the Atlantic Ocean and sailed southward, towards the Gulf of Biscay. A region known for rough seas, fierce weather and high waves, the Dora experienced violent storms during which many of its passengers became sea-sick.

The Dora continued, maintaining eye contact with the coasts of Spain and Portugal. Raphael Kochavi recalled "At night, Lisbon lights twinkled in the distance". Around that time, he also remembered sighting a ship flying the swastika flag.

On July 29th, the Dora entered the Mediterranean Sea and crossed the Strait of Gibraltar. The Lloyd observation station, tasked with watching Gibraltar, reported its entry to the Palestine C.I.D (Criminal Investigation Department) and the British ordered the ship to identify itself. At the first signs of danger, the Greek Captain would send the refugees below deck into the hold of the ship, lest they be seen by British lookouts. The Greek declared it was a Panamanian ship on its way to Siam. The British accepted this explanation because ships with illegal immigrants never came through the Strait of Gibraltar, instead came from the French Riviera, the Italian Coast, or the Coast of the Black Adriatic Sea.

The Dora then passed along the shores of Algiers and Tunisia which, as Yekutiel Fekete recalled, "shone in full magic under the full moon", then sailed on from there between Sicily and Malta, and on towards the island of Crete.

The Dora then went past the Suez Canal, and sailed on towards Turkey.

Turkey

Yekutiel Fekete wrote:

"The journey is getting longer. The wireless connection to Eretz Israel has not yet been established. There is a shortage of food and water. It's hot, very hot. It's impossible to stay in the belly of the ship and everyone is huddled on the decks and sleeps there. Impossible. No patience. The shortage of water and food is worsening. The decision was made to anchor in a small port on the coast of Turkey and stock up on water and food. Coal is also needed, but not available."

Gershon Jonas: "There was a leak in the water pipes and no more food. [...] At one point, we drank only boiled salt water mixed with tea and ate only biscuits."

The Dora reached the southern coast of Turkey. It was now full moon, which made a secret landing in Palestine impossible anyway. The Dora radioed the Haganah in Palestine, and the crew was ordered to drop anchor off the Turkish coast at Finike* and wait until the new moon. (* Others mention Antalya; Hillel Yarkoni mentions the port of Mersin. Maybe the Dora made several stops in Turkey.)

Hillel Yarknoni wrote: "The ship entered the port of Mersin in Turkey to get some supplies, mainly water and food."

The Dora would spend approximately one week in Turkey, waiting for the appropriate conditions to attempt the final leg of the trip. The Turkish police paid a visit to the Dora and declared that passengers were not allowed to disembark. Hillel Yarkoni wrote: "Under the threat of guns, none of the people onboard were permitted to leave the ship.".

My mother recalled that the local Jewish community asked them to let some men come ashore, so they could have a minyan, but the group leaders refused to let anyone get off the boat.

The police did allow a boat to bring drinking water and watermelons to the Dora. Fekete recalled: "Food, water and especially plenty of watermelons were purchased".

My mother recalled that one day, locals brought water and watermelons on small boats. She noticed them standing with their bare feet in the water being distributed to the ship, so she stayed away from it. She recalled that they had been drinking slightly salty water for the entire trip, so everyone rushed to drink the fresh water. Later, those who had drunk the water all got sick. My mother, on the other hand, had eaten so much watermelon that she declared she could never have it again after.

The exact sequence of the next events is somewhat confusing as recollections about the final part of the trip vary.

According to Yekutiel Fekete, the ship then left Turkey and sailed for a day or two. As the Dora left the bay, it crossed path with the Tiger Hill, another illegal immigrant ship carrying over 1400 refugees:

"The illegal immigrants on board both ships are huddled on the side facing the other ship. The ships lean sideways at a dangerous angle, passing next to each other. A spontaneous rendition of the 'Hatikvah' bursts from the mouths of the immigrants."

According to Yekutiel Fekete, the original plan had been to use a smaller ship to bring the passengers to the shore while the Dora would safely return to the high sea, reducing the risk of the expensive ship being captured by the British. By now, the wireless connection with the Haganah had been established and brought the news that the small ship was not available after all. The Haganah crew on board discussed with the shipowner how to proceed with a direct landing of the illegal immigrants to shore, when and where to sail to arrive on a dark night without a moon, while waiting for instructions from the Haganah.

Rebellion on the Dora

Soon after the Dora resumed sailing, a rebellion broke out and the Dora stopped moving. The sailors, armed with kitchen knives, demanded additional payment, because the trip taken longer than the two weeks originally agreed upon. In addition, the new plan calling for the Dora to land the passengers directly on the coast meant added risk of being seized by the British and extended the duration of the voyage even further.

The rebellion ended quickly, although explanation on how it was resolved varies. According to Yekutiel Fekete, negotiations and passengers collecting money resolved the issue. Hillel Yarkoni simply noted that "the Danish captain's calm helped restore order", without mentioning money changing hands, while my mother remembered that a show of force on the part of the Haganah had put an end to the rebellion.

Gershon Jonas: "In Turkey, the Greek Captain got cold feet. He thought the British would capture his ship, or that he would be arrested. We had been at sea for two weeks, and another week in Turkey when the Greek sailors said, 'We only got paid for two weeks, and we’ve been three weeks on the way. We won't continue until we get more money.' Four hundred dollars was collected from the Jewish passengers."

My mother remembered the rebellion being brief. She recalled that a few Haganah men had walked around with their guns showing, and that it had been enough to end the rebellion and restore calm within the crew. She didn't mention money having been collected by passengers. In her case, anyway, she would have had nothing to contribute, having left Germany with "nothing more than a backpack with a blanket and a pair of shoes".

Just to be safe, the first captain, who had joined the rebellion, was locked up with his wife for the rest of the trip.

Finally, on August 11, 1939, the Dora received the signal that the coast was clear and that they could attempt to land. To evade detection and look inconspicuous like any dilapidated cargo ship, all passengers were sent down to the belly of the ship and the deck portholes closed.

Soon after, a new danger arose. About 80 kilometers south of Cyprus, an aircraft carrier accompanied by destroyers appeared. A destroyer approached the Dora, illuminating it with its spotlights. Asked to identify itself and its destination, the Dora replied it was just a regular cargo ship headed to a Lebanese port.

Others described the event differently: "A British warship appeared 300 meters away, but the warship left soon after without having detected the Dora. Looking southward in the darkness of the night, the olim could see the lights from Tel Aviv, while the searchlights of the police boat almost touched the ship. Everyone on board was quiet."

The Landing - August 12th

The following day the Dora finally arrived near Eretz Israel. Sailing in the evening along the coast, it adjusted its speed to reach the designated landing beach by nightfall.

The landing had been set to take place on the beach of Shefayim, a kibbutz about 15 kms north of Tel Aviv. The location had been chosen for being both approachable, close to a Jewish settlement and far from British military and police installations.

The Haganah was in charge of disembarkation, and the man responsible on behalf of the Mossad was David (Davidka) Nameri, a kibbutznik from Ashdot Ya'akov.

Mordechai Naor describes the landing of another ship, the Poseidon, in 1938. I assume the process was similar for the landing of the Dora and helps convey how much effort and coordination was required to ensure the success of the final phase of the trip:

On the shore, several groups from the Haganah were gathered to assist with the landing of the passengers:

Teams of rowers to transfer the immigrants to shore;
A "water-team" - to assist them from the boats to the beach;
Guides - to bring them to a rendezvous;
A communication team between the shore and the Haganah center in Tel Aviv;
A group to transport the immigrants to the different settlements, and
A first aid unit.

In addition, there also was an armed patrol, illegally armed, to warn of any police activity and prevent it, if necessary.

All night long its passengers were brought ashore and quickly dispersed to adjacent settlements.

Mordechai Naor later details the disembarking of the Artemisia, a small (less than 100 passengers) early illegal vessel (1937). Again, I assume a similar procedure was in place for the Dora, although at a larger scale.

That entire day was taken up with meticulous last-minute preparations for debarkation. The passengers were split up into groups of ten, each group having as its leader one of its members. Men were placed alongside the ladders to supervise the descent. Lifebelts were assembled in one spot in the event there might be a need for them. The boats were checked last of all. Everything was ready for a smooth debarkation. A few hours remained until nightfall, so the ship kept at a safe distance from the shore. Only after it became dark, and the prearranged signals were visible, did the ship drop anchor at a distance of 200 yards from the beach.

The first boat was (sent) to assay the situation on shore and return with rowers. The six best swimmers from among the pioneers were equipped with lifebelts and lowered into the boat, then pulled for shore. After twenty minutes the boat returned with the rowers in it, and it was full speed ahead with debarkation. The immigrants were ferried to shore, group by group, according to the prearranged schedule. After two hours the last boat returned and the crew members took their posts without delay. The anchor was lifted and the ship sailed away.

The Dora dropped anchor and a boat was sent from the ship to the shore. (According to another source: "First, Tzvi Spector swam to the shore to make sure the path was clear.") The boat returned with members of the naval unit of the Haganah. They got on the ship, all the boats were lowered and, group by group, the transfer of the illegal immigrants began.

The immigrants climbed down using rope ladders and got into small boats, with the young men from naval unit of the Haganah rowing them to land, then bringing the boats back to the Dora for the next group. As they got close to the beach, the refugees jumped from the boats into the water and walked the last few tens of meters in the shallow water, to the soft sand.

Yoel Golomb, took part in the landing of the Dora and helped the immigrants come ashore. He recalled:

"During the month of September*, a ship with Olim came into shore, and we brought the Olim to Shefayim at night, in complete secrecy. That was an unforgettable experience. We unloaded the Olim, men, women, and children who climbed down the side of the ship on rope ladders. We then brought them into shore. This seemed like a simple operation but [...] we were informed that a British naval vessel had been sighted and was approaching; we managed to get all the lifeboats back onto the deck, except one which we tied to the ship. The ship was named Dora and [...] came from Holland. The ship turned and headed back to Europe, and we swam to shore. [...] A message was received from the Dora some time afterwards, saying that it was neither captured nor detained."

*Note: actually August.

Gershon Jonas: "We jumped in the water, the children were taken by boat, and we got to the shore. Haganah soldiers were on land with rifles... I had never seen that before!"

My mother said she jumped in the water - I assume from one of the rowboats, and I assume carrying her backpack. On the beach they were met by a group who gave them clothes and new ids in case the British police arrived. From there they were taken to the kibbutzim where they would spend the beginning of their new lives in Israel.

Yekutiel Fekete described the "exemplary" organization on the shore to manage the landing and dispersal of the passengers of the Dora:

On the beach there is a field phone connected to one of the houses where a wireless transmitter is set up to maintain contact with the ship. The members of the naval company take care of transporting the immigrants from the ship to the shore. Groups of guards are blocking a section of the beach to delay the possible arrival of the British police. Some men have flooded dirt roads so that cars cannot pass, others are responsible for the rapid dispersal of groups in the surrounding communities.

At the same moment, in Tel Aviv, the head of Mossad leAliyah Bet and Golda Meir followed the arrival of the Dora. Francine Klagsbrun:

"Shaul Avigur, the head of Mossad leAliyah Bet, and a co-worker slipped into Golda Meir’s apartment on Hayarkon Street. [...] He had decided to monitor the landing of the Dora from the shortwave radio center in the Meyerson (Meir) apartment.

When the Dora reached its destination, the commander on the ground, David Nameri, signaled its arrival. The signals were relayed to the wireless in the Meyerson apartment, where Avigur could receive and send coded messages to the ship. In one heart-stopping moment for everyone in the flat, a British police boat with searchlights ablaze almost spotted the immigrant ship as it neared the coast, but the ship stayed hidden in the blackness of the night. When all seemed safe, it dropped off its passengers, who silently made their way on foot to Kfar Shmaryahu, a nearby agricultural village. The captain lifted anchor and sailed westward into the dark, to begin another mission. "In the early morning hours," Avigur reported years later, "we said goodnight to our hosts, Golda Meir and Leah Biskin, and went about our business."

My mother wondered how they had managed to land without being detected, and if the British authorities had been bribed to look the other way. She said that the British soldiers found the Dora in the morning, and that it was the last trip the ship made. Actually the Dora was not found by the British, and it sailed away, although it indeed never ran another voyage to Palestine.

There is a discrepancy between what Gershon Jonas and my mother recalled on the one hand ("The Dora was found in the morning"), and what Yoel Golomb and others (the source for Francine Klagsbrun) describe on the other hand ("The Dora sailed away"). Since the new immigrants were spirited away before dawn, it is likely that what they both "remembered" was actually something they were told afterwards, maybe in the kibbutz. It's possible also that what *was* found in the morning was the one rowing boat that hadn't been brought back to the deck.

Gershon Jonas: "The Jewish settlements surrounding the ship’s landing area had a festival; they invited the British and got them drunk. Just an empty ship left on shore the next morning was what the British patrol encountered the next morning."

Brach Habas mentions (p.89) that Shai, the Haganah's secret information service, "staged criminal decoy operations in settlements in the coastal area, drawing the police away from the vicinity of debarking immigrants. They obtained advance information concerning patrol-boat movements and were able to intercept messages sent by British spies to the roving patrols. These instructions, as well as the orders given the border police and the lookout towers, greatly facilitated debarkation proceedings. Shai agents kept close track of the wireless communications betwen the lookout towers and the roving patrols. The young men even knew the signals intended for police airplanes and warships."

Yoel Golomb: "The rope that tied the (row)boat to the ship broke and the boat was 'lost at sea'. Davidka Nameri [...] chose me and another fellow to go out looking for the missing boat. [...] We could see the boat far out in the water. I swam out and [...] I managed to get it back to shore, and we buried it in the sand."

At 2 a.m., the Dora announced that everybody had unboarded. The Haganah telegraphed Uri Kochba that "the delivery was successful and the mother is healthy". Back in the Netherlands,Gertrude van Tijn was notified by telegraph of the successful landing. She passed the message on to minister Van Boeijen, who could finally breathe a sigh of relief: the Netherlands had gotten rid of 300 refugees without damaging its relationship with Great Britain, and it hadn't cost the treasury a penny.

After landing, the new immigrants were first concentrated in Kfar Shemariahu, and were later distributed in various absorption centers.

One on the immigrants, Gina Elsoffer, recalled receiving a fake ID card to help her blend into ther new environment. Likewise, my mother had mentioned being given feake ID papers - although I always understood that this had happened upon her landing on the beach,

map - Dora

The path followed by the Dora

Source: www.amutayam.org.il

Yekutiel Feteke got off the Dora and was replaced by another wireless operator, Shlomo Lavi. Zvi Spector too got off the ship, replaced by Amiram Shochat. The ship then went out to sea and sailed west. At first, the ship had been intended to bring the members of the Zionist Congress from Marseilles to Israel. Then the plan was changed and the ship sailed to Algeria. There, the defense personnel got out of it and returned to Israel.

Three weeks later, Germany invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War Two, and with it the wholesale destruction of Jewish life in Europe.

According to the agreement with the Arteshides brothers, the Dora was supposed to do a second trip, but this agreement was not honored. Only after legal battle some of the money that had been paid in advance to the Greek family was paid back.

The Dora was later captured by the Germans and was at their service between 1941-1942. On December 21st 1942, it was sunken by a British warship near the Djerba harbor in Tunis.


The Dora in the News

Although it was supposed to be kept secret, the departure of the Dora was widely reported in the Dutch, Belgian and British press, and it's a wonder that this unwelcome scrutiny didn't lead to the interception of the Dora by the British Navy.

Between July 14 and August 28, no less than 100 articles and dispatches about the Dora appeared in the press in the Netherlands, including several front-page stories. . In Belgium, more than 40 articles appeared in July. The British press also reported on the departure of the Dora, with at least eight articles, with more mentions appearing in France and as far as Melbourne, Australia. Finally, the Jewish press published dispatches in Palestine and in the USA.

Article on the Dora, Nottingham Evening Post, July 17, 1939.

Nottingham Evening Post. July 17, 1939.

The Scotsman, July 19, 1939.

The Scotsman. July 19, 1939.

"From the shore hundreds of men and women, and also cattle, could be seen on deck".

Article on the Dora, Nottingham Evening Post, July 17, 1939.

Daily Herald. July 20, 1939.

The Scotsman, July 21, 1939.

The Belfast NewsLetter. July 21, 1939.

Article on the Dora, De Sumatra Post, July 24, 1939.

"Jewish refugees face a new future - Departed from Amsterdam with a Panamean coal ship."

De Sumatra Post, July 24, 1939.


Dramatis Personae

Transporting 480 refugees from Northern Europe to Palestine on the eve of WW2 and bringing them safely to the coast of Palestine despite the British blockade required complex planning, difficult negotiations, and the covert coordination of hundreds of refugees spread over multiple hiding places over two countries. The Dora would not have succeeded in reaching the shores of Palestine without the work and dedication of the many people involved.

Here is a list of some of the key people who, with their courage, skills, and generosity, helped save the lives of almost 500 refugees on the eve of WW2.

This section is in memory of the people who made it happen and who deserve our thanks as descendants of the passengers of the Dora.

Name Hebrew Name Notes

Tzvi Spector

Tzvi Spector
צבי ספקטור

Ship manager on the Dora, age: 23.

Tzvi Spector was born in Jerusalem in 1916. The Dora was his first mission with Aliyah Bet.

In 1941 Tzvi Spector became a founding member of the Palmach. He disappeared at sea on May 18, 1941, during the first mission carried out by the Palmach as part of the cooperation between the Jewish Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and the British during World War II ("Operation Boatswain", also known as "The 23 Who Went Down at Sea"). Twenty-three volunteers from the Palmach took part and boarded a British boat with explosives. The mission was to blow up oil refineries in Tripoli, Lebanon, then under Vichy rule, in a bid to deny fuel to Wehrmacht planes and thwart Axis operations in the region. All twenty-three members of the operation vanished before reaching their destination, possibly due to an explosion of unknown origin. Tzvi Spector was the commander of that operation and was 24 years old. Another volunteer among the twenty-three who died in that operation was Amiram Shochat, the emergency captain of the Dora.

Sources:
info.palmach.org.il
he.wikipedia.org

Amiram Shochat

Amiram Shochat
עמירם שוחט

Emergency Captain on the Dora, age: 23.

Born in 1915 in Tel Aviv-Yafo.

By the time of the Dora, Amiram Shochat was already a veteran of Mossad leAliyah Bet. He had first served as guide on the Artemisia in 1937, when his job had consisted of appraising the ship, examining its engine, sleeping accommodations, food-storage facilities, etc.

Amiram Shochat disappeared at sea on May 18, 1941, during the first mission carried out by the Palmach as part of the cooperation between the Jewish Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and the British during World War II ("Operation Boatswain", also known as "The 23 Who Went Down at Sea"). Twenty-three volunteers from the Palmach took part and boarded a British boat with explosives. The mission was to blow up oil refineries in Tripoli, Lebanon, then under Vichy rule, in a bid to deny fuel to Wehrmacht planes and thwart Axis operations in the region. All twenty-three members of the operation vanished before reaching their destination, possibly due to an explosion of unknown origin. Amiram Shochat was 26 years old. The commander of that operation was Tzvi Spector, the manager of the Dora.

An illegal ship was named in his honor in 1946.

Sources:
info.palmach.org.il

Gideon Rufer

Gideon Rufer (later: Raphael)
גדעון רפאל (ג'ר)
Gideon Raphael

Led the planning of the Dora voyage with the help of Shmarya Tzameret. Age: 26.

German-born Gideon Rufer, later known as Gideon Raphael (גדעון רפאל). In 1933, when the Nazis rose to power in Germany, he escaped to France, where he studied at an agricultural school in Toulouse. In 1934, he made aliyah to Eretz Israel, where he was one of the founders of Kibbutz Hazorea.

Rafael joined the Haganah, and was a commander during the 1936-39 Arab revolt in Palestine. He was later sent to Europe on missions to help illegally smuggle European Jews into Palestine in defiance of British immigration restrictions.

Regarding his role with the Dora, Yoram (Paul) Nussbaum said:

"Thanks to Gideon Raphael [...] [He] was the man to take us out of Holland. Several others tried before him, but he did it. [...] He organized everything. [...] Without him, we wouldn't be alive, none of us, that's for sure. [...]"

In 1940, he was sent to Rhodes by the Haganah to negotiate with a representative of Adolf Eichmann for the transfer of 40,000 German Jews to Palestine, but the plan fell apart.

During World War II, he enlisted in the British Army, and fought in the Syria-Lebanon Campaign. After being discharged in 1943, he began working for the Jewish Agency. He worked in intelligence, as a liaison with Allied forces and Jewish populations in Europe.

In 1945, he assisted in preparing the Jewish case for the Nuremberg Trials. He also directed efforts to recover lost Jewish property in Europe and participated in rescue effort in Italy after the end of WW2.

Upon Israeli independence in 1948, he was one of three founding members of the Israeli Foreign Ministry, and served as an aide to Moshe Sharett. He later became an adviser to the Israeli delegation at the United Nations. From 1953 to 1957, he was in charge of United Nations and Middle Eastern affairs at the Israeli Foreign Ministry. He conducted secret negotiations with Arab officials, and maintained these secret contacts into the 1970s. In 1957, he was appointed Israel's ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg, and permanent observer in European and UN institutions in Geneva. He served in these positions until 1960. In 1967, he became Israeli ambassador to the UN, and was serving in this position during the Six-Day War. In 1968, he returned to Israel, and was Director-General of the Foreign Ministry until 1972.

In 1973, he was appointed Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, and served in this position until 1977, when he returned to Israel and retired from the Foreign Ministry in 1978. He subsequently published a book about his career.

He died in Jerusalem in 1999.

Sources:
www.wertheimer.info
en.wikipedia.org
New York Times obituary
Nussbaum quotes from Oral interview with Lilian Peters, courtesy of Ariane Zwiers from Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Shmarya Tzameret (Tsameret)

Shmarya Tzameret
שמרי צמרת (אורי זהבי)

Oversaw the purchase of the Dora and all operational details up to the departure of the Dora, along with Gideon Rufer. Age: 28.

Born in 1910 in Cleveland, USA, the eldest son of Jewish Russian immigrants, Tzameret made Aliyah on his own as 15 year-old after his father's death. One of the founders of Kibbutz Bet Hashita in 1936, he joined Mossad leAliyah Bet in 1939 and operated from the central office in Paris.

In 1940, Tzameret took part in failed negotiations with Eichmann to try to let a large number of Jews immigrate from Germany. (Bracha Habas, p 128).

After the war, he was sent to Europe to resume his activities organizing illegal immigration of Jewish survivors (Bricha), first from Italy then from Marseille. From 1945 to 1947, he served as commander of the Marseille station.

As part of his activities with Mossad LeAliyah Bet, Shmarya Tzameret was involved with the ships "Dora" (July 1939), "Darian 2" (March 1941), "Tel Hai" (March 1946), "Yagur" (July 1946), "Chaim Arlozorov" (February 1947), "Exodus" (July 1947), and "Independence" (December 1947).

Shmarya was married to Hadasa and had 4 children. He died in 1964 in a work accident at the olive factory of his Kibbutz, Beit-Hashita.

His younger brother, Joe Tzameret, lost his life fighting in the Spanish Civil War with the Lincoln Brigades.

Sources:
he.wikipedia.org
www.youtube.com (video)
www.beithashita.org.il
www.wertheimer.info
www.dariendilemma.com
Joe Tzameret

Giora Yoseftal

Giora Yosephtal helped arrange the departure of halutzim on the Dora. Age: 26.

Giora Yosephtal's exact role is not yet clear, but it seems that he identified people who would sail to Palestine. It is said that he "determined a crucial part of the list of immigrants*" and "demanded to have the right to determine who the passengers would be on board and succeeded in getting graduates of the Zionist youth movements and graduates of the training farm to sail on this ship". He may also have been tasked with helping raise the funds for the purchase of the ship in England. It is said that he "made the arrangements for its purchase in England with the help of Haim Weizman*."

Georg Josephthal was born on August 9, 1912 in Nuremberg. Yoseftal joined the the Jewish youth association "Jüdischer Jugendbund" at the age of 14. After high school he studied law and economics at the University of Heidelberg, Berlin and Munich. Due to the rise of the Nazis to power at the beginning of 1933, Yoseftal was forced to continue his studies in Basel, Switzerland, where he completed his doctorate in law.

In 1932, he joined the Zionist-socialist youth movement Habonim, and the following year was appointed head of the youth department of the Bavarian Jewish community. In 1934 he became director of the Youth Aliyah office in Berlin, and two years later served as secretary of the Hechalutz movement in Germany.

In 1936 he married Senetta (Senta) Yoseftal, later also an Israeli politician. As part of his activities, Yoseftal established the Elgut agricultural Hachshara, many of whose trainees would later go on the Dora.

In the 1930s he also assisted the Haganah in secret weapons purchases, but his activities were uncovered in 1937, and in September 1938, Giora and Senta emigrated to Mandate Palestine and came to Kibbutz Givat Haim.

Following the events of Kristallnacht on November 9 of that year, just two months after arriving, he was sent on a mission to London to save German Jewry. As part of his position, he tried to work among European countries to temporarily absorb German Jews, with the final destination being the Land of Israel.

About Giora Yosephtal's role with the Dora, Elyahu Reens wrote:

At the beginning of 1939, Giora Yoseftal from the Jewish Agency came to the Netherlands and began organizing for Aliyah B. We first held meetings at the training center set up for pioneers from Germany, but nothing came to fruition. Only at the end of June-beginning of July did a real reorganization begin.

He returned to Palestine in 1939, establishing a work brigade in Ra'anana, which later established Kibbutz Gal'ed in 1945. Giora and and his wife Senta were among the founders of the kibbutz. Many of the Dora passengers who came from the Elgut Hachshara followed Giora in Kibbutz Gal'ed.

From January 1943 to September 1945 he volunteered to serve in the British Army, and was stationed in Palestine and Egypt. After the war ended, he took over the absorption section of the Jewish Agency's aliyah department. Between 1947 and 1952 he sat on the Agency's board. In 1952 he was a member of the delegations which negotiated the Reparations Agreement between Israel and the Federal Republic of Germany.

In 1956, he became secretary-general of Mapai, the ruling party, a role he held until 1959. In the elections that year he was voted into the Knesset on Mapai's list, and was appointed Minister of Labour. He retained his seat in the 1961 elections, and was given the roles of Minister of Housing and Minister of Development.

Giora Yoseftal died in August 1962 and is buried in Kibbutz Gal'ed.

Sources:
en.wikipedia.org
en.wikipedia.org (Hebrew)
www.wertheimer.info
www.rijo.homepage.t-online.de
en.wikipedia.org (Senetta Yoseftal)
www-fuerthwiki-de (Senetta Yoseftal)
*: Notes from Ora Benami from Kibbutz Gal'ed. (2024)

Additional ReSources (not accessed):
גיורא יוספטל, חייו ופעלו, 1963 (Giora Yoseftal, his life and work: a selection of writings, 1963)

Uri Kochba (Walter Koch)

Emissary of the Hechalutz movement from Palestine in the Netherlands. Age: 29

Uri Kochba (born Walter Koch) was born in 1910 in Lissa (Leszno), on the German-Polish border. His family relocated to the neighboring German town of Glogau (now Glogow, Poland) after WW1.

After high school, Kochba went to Stuttgart to study architecture. He took an active part in Zionist activities and was a member of the "Blau - Weiss" Zionist youth movement. In 1934, he made aliyah and came to Kibbutz Na'an where he joined the "German group" where he participated in conquering the soil, establishing the kibbutz's farming branches, and manufacturing weapons in its metalworking shop.

In 1938, Kochba was sent to the Netherlands as an emissary of the Hechalutz Zionist movement, in order to assist Jews emigrating to Palestine.

In June 1940, following the German invasion of the Netherlands, Kochba was arrested as a British subject and was interned in a series of detention camps. He was liberated on May 10, 1945.

After his liberation he returned to Kibbutz Na'an and started a family with his wife, Adina. In 1957 he served as the first Israeli post-war emissary to instruct Jewish teenagers in Germany. After a year and a half he returned to Na'an. From 1958, he divided his work between the kibbutz, an assignment for the Youth Division of haKibbutz haMeuchad, and for the Efal teacher training seminary.

Uri Kochba died in November 2001.

Sources:
www.infocenters.co.il

Yekutiel Fekete

יקותיאל פקטה

Served as Gideoni (Wireless Radio Operator) on the Dora. Age: 24.

Born in 1915 in Hungary, his family made Aliyah in 1928 and came to Jerusalem. He received a master's degree in mathematics, physics and philosophy from the Hebrew University. After joining the Haganah, he took a signaling course then built a primitive transmitter, creating the first wireless connection between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, and later to Gush Etzion. In 1939, he was sent to Europe to help organize the rescue of Jews and returned on the Dora.

In 1951, he established the Bezeq School of Telecommunication in Jerusalem. He retired from his position as director in 1981. He died in 2001.

He wrote about the story of the Dora on the occasion of the 50th anniversary in 1989.

Sources:
www.haaretz.co.il

David (Davidka) Nameri

David (Davidka) Nameri
(’דוד נמרי (’דוידקה

Oversaw the disembarkation of the Dora in Palestine. Age: 30.

David Nameri was born in Skidzieĺ, Belarus, in 1908. He made aliyah in 1926 at age 18. He worked at drying out the swamps, then moved to Kibbutz Gesher and Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov.

He joined the Haganah, then was in charge of the Stockade and Watchtower campaign ("Wall and Tower" settlements) in the Bet Shean Valley and Jordan Valley between 1936 and 1939.

David Nameri was a founder and senior officer of both Mossad leAliyah Bet and Palmach (lieutenant general commander).

He took part in the earliest Aliyah Bet operations, overseeing the disembarkation of the Poseidon and the Artemisia, both in 1937. He scouted locations where boats could come ashore, improved the radio communication system between ships and shore, and organized the disembarkation phase of the ships.

"David Nameri, Operations officer of 'HaMossad for Aliyah Bet,' was responsible for the last stage of the Haapala - disembarking the immigrants from the ships and receiving them on the country's shores. The Fourth Palmach Battalion was assigned to secure the area where the Haapala ships arrived and their disembarkation to shore. The moment a report came about the departure of a Haapala ship from Europe, the Fourth Battalion HQ was responsible to prepare for its arrival. The HQ decided on the disembarkation point, gathered men and arms, planned the security of the shore and the roads leading to it and prepared a list of the neighboring settlements to absorb the immigrants.

From 1947 to 1949, Davidka Nameri was sent by the Jewish Agency to the United States to work in procurement. He and his family returned to Israel in 1949 and went to Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov. Nameri was the executive officer in charge of immigration by sea, land or air. He oversaw Operation Wings, the aerial immigration of Jews of Baghdad, Iraq. From 1960 to 1965, Nameri was chief executive of the Ministry of Transportation.

Davidka Nameri died in 1966.

Davidka's wife, Dvora, became a Gideonit (radio operator) for the Haganah in 1939 and contributed to monitoring and deciphering British secret messages from a Haganah's listening post. She later wrote a book in his memory: "David Nameri; By Him and About Him" (Kibbutz Meuchad, 1974)

Sources:
palmach.org.il
http://www.palyam.org
www.wertheimer.info
Brach Habas

Yoel Golomb

יואל גולומב

Took part in the disembarkment of the passengers of the Dora. Age: 20.

Born 1919 in Germany, Golomb came to Eretz Israel in 1936 with Youth Aliyah. He first lived in Kibbutz Na'an, then in Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov, and later joined Kibbutz Revivim in 1939 in Rishon LeZion. Yoel Golomb was selected in July 1939 by the kibbutz to participate in the first naval course of the Haganah. The course was designed to train sailors to help in Aliyah Bet. Training consisted of rowing and sailing in the Yarkon River and at sea, swimming, lifesaving, and other seamanship tasks.

After the outbreak of WW2, took further naval training, this time focusing on sabotage tactics for land and sea, in order to help the British in their fight against the Nazis and joined the British Navy in 1941.

Sources:
www.palyam.org
maapilim.org.il

Shani, Chaim (Sergei)

Took part in the disembarkment of the passengers of the Dora. Age: 19.

Born 1920, made Aliyah in 1935. Lived in Tel Aviv and belonged to the Noar Haoved movement. In 1939, he participated in the first naval course in the Exhibition Halls in Tel Aviv. In August 1939, while attending the course, he helped take immigrants off the Dora when it landed at Shefayim.

Lived in Kibbutz Na'an, then in Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov. Joined Kibbutz Revivim in 1939 in Rishon LeZion. Volunteered for the Palmach in 1941 and was attached to F Company at Kfar Gileadi under the command of Yitzhak Rabin.

He later participated in disembarking the immigrants off the "Chana Senesh" in December 1945 at Nahariya.

Sources:
www.palyam.org

Dov 'Berchik' Magen

Dov 'Berchik' Magen

Took part in the disembarkment of the passengers of the Dora. Age: 24.

Born 1915 Panza, Russia; Came to Palestine in 1935.

Quoted by Chaim Shani: "Berchik also took part in that (Dora) operation."

He was an instructor of the Palyam's 'No. 1 Naval Officers' course, in 1945 with Shmuel Tankus. In June 1946, Dov (Berchik) Magen was the commander for the "Josiah Wedgwood", with 1,259 immigrants, and of the Pan Crescent (renamed "Atzmaut") in 1947.

Sources:
www.palyam.org

Shaul Avigur

Shaul Avigur
שאול אביגור

Head of Mossad leAliyah Bet. Monitored the landing of the Dora from Golda Meir's apartment.

Prior to leading Mossad leAliyah Bet, Shaul Avigur had been among the defenders of Tel Hai in 1920. Since 1933 he had been the coordinator the Haganah and was instrumental in forming SHAI, the intelligence wing of the Haganah along with Reuven Shiloah in 1934.

A senior Haganah member experienced in underground work and held in high esteem, Avigur joined Mossad leAliyah Bet in 1939, and was key in the success of the efforts of illegal immigration.

During Israel's War of Independence, he acted as David Ben-Gurion's deputy defense minister. In 1953, he was appointed the founding head of Lishkat Hakesher, also known as "Nativ", an Israeli organization that maintained contact with Jews in the Soviet Union during the Cold War. He headed the organization until 1970.

Sources:
wikipedia.org

Gertrude van Tijn

Gertrude van Tijn

Gertrude van Tijn helped organize the voyage of the Dora, despite the opposition of the chairman of the Committee for Jewish Refugees, David Cohen.

Born in Braunschweig, Germany, in 1891, she came to the Netherlands in 1915. A Zionist since 1916, she started working for JNF in 1917.

In April 1933 she began to assist with the growing number of Jewish refugees from Germany. She then became the representative of the Joint Distribution Committee in Holland and a member of an advisory committee of the League of Nations' Commission for Refugees. She joined the Committee for Jewish Refugees, and helped organize Jewish emigration from Germany between 1933 and 1940. A key member of the Committee, she oversaw everyday operations, was responsible for managing the finances, headed its emigration department, and became the contact person for foreign aid organizations.

She was the co-founder and secretary of Werkdorp Nieuwesluis (the Work Village in Wieringen), a farm founded in 1934 in the Wieringermeer polder in North Holland that trained refugees of varying ages and vocations in agricultural work as well as construction, the raising of cattle and poultry, domestic work, gardening, cabinetry, locksmithing, and other practical work.

She declined the opportunity to leave the Netherlands during the German invasion of May 1940, and continued her work with the Committee until its dissolution in March 1941. In September 1943 she was sent to the Westerbork transit camp camp and then Bergen-Belsen. In July 1944 she was among those Jews exchanged from Bergen-Belsen for Germans in Palestine. Afterwards the Dutch government in exile offered her a position in London to work with displaced Jews; she traveled through liberated Europe and Switzerland in this capacity until the end of the war.

She died in Portland, USA, in 1974.

Sources: www.tabletmag.com
Bernard Wasserstein: The Ambiguity of Virtue: Gertrude van Tijn and the fate of the Dutch Jews. Harvard University Press, 2014

Siegfried Kramarsky

Siegfried Kramarsky

Covered the cost of the Dora voyage with his business partner Salomon Flörsheim, and possibly others.

Born in 1893 in Lubeck, Germany, Siegfried Kramarsky was a German banker, art collector and philanthropist. He settled in Amsterdam in 1923. With his partner, Salomon Flörsheim, Kramarsky took over the "Lisser & Rosenkranz" bank in Amsterdam which he headed from 1923 until 1938.

From 1933 to 1939, Kramarsky was active in enlisting support for Jewish victims of the Hitler regime who had fled to the Netherlands.

While in Amsterdam, Kramarsky compiled a large art collection that included works by Cezanne, Toulouse-Lautrec, Renoir, Seurat, Gauguin, and Vincent van Gogh, including the Portrait of Dr. Gachet which was sold in 1990 by his heirs for $82.5 million, making it one of the most expensive paintings in the world.

Siegfried Kramarsky and his family came to the United States after fleeing the Netherlands in 1940, aided by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, a family friend who later became the first president of Israel.

His wife, Lola Popper Kramarsky, was active in the Youth Aliyah movement and was president of Hadassah from 1960 to 1964.

Siegfried Kramarsky died in Manhattan in 1961.

Sources:
wikipedia.org

Salo (Salomon) Jakob Flörsheim

Participated in financing the Dora voyage with his business partner Siegfried Kramarsky, and possibly others.

Born in 1893 in Hamburg, Germany. Died in 1979 (86) in Kfar Shmaryahu, Israel

S. J. Flörsheim and his family emigrated to Amsterdam, Netherlands around 1922, and he continued to work in private banking and brokerage business in Amsterdam, where he joined with another emigrant from Hamburg, Mr. Siegfried Kramarsky, a well known art collector.

In 1944 the Flörsheims were first sent to the Westerbork transit camp, then to Thereisenstadt, where they survived the war. Salo and his wife Eva made Aliyah during the 50s and settled in Kfar Shmaryahu, where Eva passed away in 1975, and Salo in 1979.

He befriended many Rabbis, scholars, and community leaders, and was personally acquainted with the early leaders of the State of Israel, including presidents Weizmann and Ben Zvi.

He was an active philanthropist who practiced charity without fanfare. In the late 30s, he urged family and friends to flee Hitler's Germany. His home was often the refugees' first stop, for a day, week or month, and for those who could not afford it, he even paid for the trip, thus saving many families from the Holocaust.

Sources:
www.geni.com

Saly Mayer

Saly Mayer

Contributed to financing the voyage of the Dora.

Saly Mayer, 1882-1950. Swiss businessman, friend of Gertrude van Tijn. Chairman of the Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities from 1936 to 1943, and Representative of the Joint Distribution Committee in Switzerland from 1942.

In the spring and summer of 1944, Saly Mayer was approached by the Nazis who offered to spare the life of Hungarian Jews in exchange of 10,000 trucks and supplies. Although the deal ultimately fell through, Saly Mayer is credited with saving thousands (up to 200,000) of Hungarian Jews by employing "every imaginable dilatory tactic" over several months of negotiations. He "walked the tightrope of negotiating with the Nazis to save Hungarian Jews while refusing the Nazis' requests for resources that would have prolonged the war."

After the end of the war he became a middleman on behalf of the Joint in financing illegal immigration to Palestine.

Sources:
Wasserstein, "The Ambiguity of Virtue", p 65 (on the financing of the Dora)
www.jta.org

Rudolf "Ru" Cohen

Rudolf 'Ru' Cohen

Head of the Deventer Association, the second largest group of pioneers who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam

Rudolf Ephraim Cohen ("Ru") was born 27 July 1889 in Deventer, Netherlands. Ru Cohen founded the Deventer Association for Vocational Training for Palestine Pioneers in 1918 in Deventer, and continued to be its driving force until his end. His brother was David Cohen, chairman of the Committee for Jewish Refugees, who would later be chairman of the Jewish Council for Amsterdam during the German occupation.

The goal of the Deventer Association was to provide agricultural and vocational training (Hachshara) for Jewish boys and girls in preparation for immigration to Palestine. The "Palestine pioneers" (chalutzim) were placed with farmers near Deventer or with a furniture makers. Originally designed for Jewish youth from the Netherlands, the organization took on refugees from Germany and Eastern Europe in the late 1930s.

Ru Cohen was deported and died in Bergen-Belsen on February 27, 1945.


The Passengers

According to records from Mossad leAliyah Bet, the Dora carried 480 passengers to its destination. A few sources mention slight variations: Gertrude van Tijn, who took part in the rescue operation, cites 310 passengers in Amsterdam, including 50 pupils from Werkdorp Nieuwesluis, with an additional 157 passengers in Antwerp, for a total of 467, while some authors have rounded the number to 500.

Two lists of passengers have been found so far: one from Amsterdam, with 183 names, and one from Antwerp, with 171 additional names, for a total of 354. The difference between the 480 given by Mossad can mostly be explained by the fact that the the lists from Amsterdam were compiled by Zionist groups and only include passengers who belonged to their groups. Refugees, who were not affiliated with any Zionist organization, were not included in those lists. The Antwerp list contains a mix of chalutzim and refugees. It appears to have been compiled by the Belgian authorities, and may be comprehensive.

To date, 387 (80%) names have been identified out of 480, with biographical details available for more than 200 of them.

List 1: List of Passengers who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam on 16 July 1939 (from the HeHalutz lists).

Source: Dutch National Archive (Courtesy Rina Offenbach, Director BeNetivei Haapalah, Illegal Immigrant Database and Information Center, Atlit Detention Camp, Israel.)

I compiled the Amsterdam list below from 18 pages of names from several Pioneering organizations:

The last seven lists follow a similar format an were most likely prepared by the same person, presumably from the Hechalutz organization. The other lists are all different and were most likely created by their respective groups. Some names are appear on more than one list.

This list doesn't include all the passengers who boarded from Amsterdam for several reasons:

Note: Four names on these lists were crossed out, without further explanation. My assumption is that these are people who may have decided at the last minute to not board the Dora, or were unable to do so.

Although incomplete, the Amsterdam list includes interesting demographic data on the passengers:

Gender:


Nationality:


Organizations:

A few individuals came from additional locations: Markelo, Almen, Zenderen, Zeddam and Delden.

For the list of additional passengers who boarded from Amsterdam, see further down under "Additional Passengers".

Note: Dates of birth are given as they appeared on the original lists with the following format: dd.mm.yy. In a few cases, the dates are incorrect (i.e. "3" instead of "8"). These dates are marked with an asterisk (*).

Total: 180

Name Pioneer Organization Group Last adress? D.O.B
(dd.mm.yy)
Bio
Abram, Susanna
  • Susanna Abram
  • Susanna Benima
  • Shoshana Benima
  • שושנה אברם
  • שושנה בינימא
  • שושנה בנימה
The Deventer Society
Amsterdam
Henriette, Korte Meerhuizenstr. 3
Amsterdam Henriette, Korte Meerhuizenstr. 3 26.8.1912
Amsterdam
Polish*

Susanna Henriette Abram (later: Shoshana Benima) was born August 26, 1912, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Simon Abram, a diamond cutter from Amsterdam, and Gesiena, née Nieweg, from Leek. She had one brother, Heiman (1914).

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Abramczyk, Bruno
  • Bruno Abramczyk
  • Baruch Ben Avram
  • ברונו אברמציק
  • ברוך בן אברם
The Deventer Society
Amsterdam
"De Vondelhof"
Amsterdam "De Vondelhof"
Frederikstr. 18
Amsterdam
2.12.1919
Jastrow
German

Bruno Abramczyk (later: Baruch Ben Avram) was born on December 2, 1919, in Jastrow, Westpreußen (now Jastrowie, Poland), the son of Max Abramczyk and Mina Brasch. He had one sister.

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Adler, Alfred
  • Alfred Adler
  • Asher Adler
  • אלפרד אשר אדלר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 3.1.1912
Lauterbach
Stateless

Alfred Adler (later: Asher Adler) was born January 3, 1912, in Lauterbach, Germany, the son of Meir Adler.

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Altberger, Karl
Reuven Altberger
  • Karl Altberger
  • Reuven Altberger
  • ראובן אלטברגר
The Deventer Society F.H. Evers "De Eekhorst", Hummelo 18.11.1919
Köln
Czechoslovak

Karl Altberger (later: Reuven Altberger) was born on November 18, 1919, in Köln-Lindenthal, the son of Lazar (Ludwig) Altberger and Regina Elias, the youngest of nine children.

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Appel, Rosa
  • Rosa Appel
  • Rosl Appel
  • רוזל אפל
  • Rosa Deutsch
  • רוזל דויטש
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel Euterpestr. 41 Amsterdam-Z 27.9.1914
Naumburg
German

Rosa Appel (later: Rosa Deutsch) was born on September 27, 1914, in Naumburg near Kassel, the daughter of Siegfried Appel and Johanna, née Hirsch. She had seven siblings: Käthe (1906), Jacob (1907), Hedwig (1908), Sophie (1911), Karl (1913), Hertha (1917) and Irma (1919).

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Aufrichtig, Hedwig (Hedy)
Aufrichtig, Hedwig
  • Hedwig (Hedy) Aufrichtig
  • Hedwig Khalil
  • אופריכטיג
The Deventer Society (Den Haag) Den Haag L. Beestenmarkt 135 23.7.1916
Vienna
German (Öst.)

Hedwig "Hedy" Aufrichtig (later: Hedwig Khalil) was born on July 23, 1916, in Vienna, Austria, the daughter of Siegfried Aufrichtig, from Boskovice (Czechoslovakia), and Flora Holzer, from Graz (Austria). She had two siblings, Elise (1915) and Hans (1921).

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Bagainski, Margot
  • Margot Bagainski
  • Miriam Timnah
  • מרים תמנה
The Deventer Society (Gouda) Gouda Ridder van Katzweg 61 10.11.1919
Berlin
German

Margot Sophie Bagainski (later: Miriam Timnah) was born in Berlin on November 10, 1919, the daughter of Hermann Bagainski, from Gniezno (now: Poland), and Helene Bagainski, née Ruschin, from Schokken (today Skoki). She had two brothers, Julius (1921) and Arno (1924).

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Baum, Charlotte
  • Charlotte Baum
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam Kasernestr. 4 28.7.1919
Beuthen
Stateless
Baum, Günter
Günter Baum, Alon Gideon
  • Günter Baum
  • Guenter Baum
  • Gideon Alon
  • גדעון אלון
The Deventer Society MIDDELBEEK bij Voorst bij Frederiks

Papenstraat 45, Deventer
22.12.1918
Waltrop
German

Günter Baum (later: Gideon Alon) was born on December 12, 1918, in Waltrop, Westphalia, the youngest son of Jakob, from Mengede, and Martha Baum, née Bendix, from Dortmund. He had two brothers, Helmut (1913) and Werner (1915).

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Beifuss, Berthold
  • Berthold Beifuss
  • Baruch Lavi
  • ברוך לביא
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.1.1917
Laasphe
German

Berthold Beifuss (later: Baruch Lavi) was born on January 15, 1917, in Laasphe, Germany, the son of Herz and Mina Beifuss, née Stern. He had two younger sisters: Irma and Hertha; three younger brothers: Robert Reuven, Arthur Abraham, and Julius; and three older half-brothers from his father's first marriage: Siegfried, Leonhardt, and Joseph.

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Bekker, Hymann
Hymann Bekker in Kibbutz Franeker.
  • Hymann Bekker
  • Hijman Bekker
  • Chaim Bekker
  • חיים בקר
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 24.10.1918
Den Haag
Dutch

Hijman Bekker (later: Chaim Bekker) was born October 24, 1918, in The Hague, Netherlands, the son of Mendel Bekker and Rachel Swaan. He had six siblings: Hanna Roza (1911), Juda Levie (1912), Golderiesje (1915), Betsy (1916), Joseph (1921) and Sophia (1923).

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Benedikt, Franz
  • Franz Benedikt
  • Peretz Benedikt
  • פרץ בנדיקט
The Deventer Society (Deventer) Deventer Papenstraat 45, Deventer 21.3.1918*
Unterberg-Eisenstadt, Austria
German* (Östr.)

Franz Benedikt (later: Peretz Benedikt) was born March 21 (or 29*), 1918, in Unterberg-Eisenstadt, a Jewish enclave near Vienna, the son of Ignaz Benedikt and Berta, née Hacker. He had six siblings: Martin Isidor (Isidore) (1911), Miksa (Max) (1913), Eugin (Eugene) (1915), Ernst (1920), Robert (1923), and Lili (Livia) (1926).

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Benima, Max
  • Max Benima
  • Moshe Benima
  • משה בינימא
  • משה בנימה
The Deventer Society (Rotterdam) Rotterdam 20.9.1913*
Amsterdam
Dutch

Max Frederik Leopold Benima (later: Moshe Benima) was born September 12, 1913, in Amsterdam, the son of Frederik Benima, a merchant from Winschoten, Netherlands, and Sara, née Polak, from Bunde, Germany. He had one sister, Bertha Lea (1914).

His father died in May 1923 when Max was not yet thirteen. His mother later married Salomon Schwartz, a traveling textile salesman, in January 1926.

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Benjamin, Julius
  • Julius Benjamin
  • Yehuda Benjamin (Osh)
  • יהודה יוליוס בנימין (אוש)
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 24.3.1921
Königsberg
German

Julius Benjamin (later: Yehuda Osh) was born in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) on March 24, 1921, the son of Bernhard Benjamin and Hedwig Jaffe. He had five siblings: Susi (1914), Willi (1917), Betty Batja (1917), Ruth (1918), and Manfred (1923).

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Benjamin, Rudolf
Rudolf Benjamin, Binyamin Ozi
  • Rudolph Benjamin
  • Uzi Binyamin (Rudi)
  • רודולף בנימין
  • עוזי בנימין (רודי)
The Deventer Society (Almelo) Almelo: Erve "De Kooi" tijd. Celebesstraat 49E Den Haag 1.1.1917
Barmen
German

Rudolph Benjamin (later: Uzi Binyamin) was born on January 1, 1917, the son of Albert Abel Benjamin and Anna Meijer in Barmen, Germany. He had two siblings: Erich (1915), and Erika Jeanette (1918).

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Berger, Otto
  • Otto Berger
Markelo: Op het Reef Kerkspeelchor K. 51 G.W.A Brunnekreeft, Op, 't Reef, Kerspel
Goor K.51. Gem. Markelo
5.3.1912
Zoornik
Czechoslovak
Bergmann, Jaacob
  • Jacob Bergmann
  • Jakob Bergmann
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.1.1914
Gr. Rackchen
German

Jacob Bergmann was born on January 16, 1914, in Gross Kakschen (Birkenhain), the son of Albert Bergmann, a trader/merchant and Anna Reissmann. He had three siblings, Wanda (1908), Gerda (1915), and Arthur (1916).

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Besser, Wolfgang
  • Wolfgang Besser
  • Oded Betzer
  • עודד בצר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.8.21
Breslau
German

Wolfgang Besser (later Oded Betzer) was born August 22, 1921, in Breslau, the third child of Albert Besser and Ilse Pinkus. He had one brother, Hans (ca 1924) (TBC), and one sister, Elisabeth Margarete (TBC).

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Bing, Marianne
  • Marianne Bing
  • Miriam Mohr
  • מריאנה בינג
  • מריאנה מור
  • מרים מור
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 1.3.1921
Nürnberg
German

Marianne Bing (later: Miriam Mohr) was born March 1, 1921, in Nuremberg, the only child of Dr. Siegmund Bing and Charlotte "Lotte" Bing (Pickard).

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Binstock, Fritz
  • Fritz Binstock
  • פריץ בינשטוק
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 23.3.1921
Vienna
German (Austrian)

Fritz Binstok was born on March 23, 1921, in Vienna, the son of Adolf Abraham Aron Binstok, a shop keeper, and Klara Chaje Rifka Sternberg, both originally from the Lviv region. He had three sisters: Grete Margaret, Erna Golde, and Gusti (1912).

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Birnbaum, Ruth (Grete)
  • Grete Birnbaum
  • Ruth Birnbaum
  • Ruth Keret
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.5.1922
Hamelin (Hameln)
German

Ruth Berta (Grete) Birnbaum (later: Ruth Keret) was born on May 12, 1922, in Hamelin, Germany, the eldest child of Max Birnbaum and Margarete Goldstein. She had a younger brother, Alfred (1924).

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Birnbrey, Rosel
Rosel Rachel Birnbrey

ca. 1950s?

  • Rosel Birnbrey
  • Rachel Sharon
  • בירנבריי
  • רחל שרון
The Deventer Society (Herwikerwaard) Herwikerwaard p.a. Veldhorst 23.11.1921
Stettin
German

Rosel Birnbrey (later: Rachel Sharon) was born on November 23, 1921, in Stettin, Germany (now Szczecin, Poland), the daughter of Siegfried Birnbrey, from Stettin, and Elizabeth (unknown maiden name), from Berlin.

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Blau, Hanna
  • Hanna Blau
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.2.1921
Köln
Stateless

Hanna Blau was born on February 7, 1921, in Cologne.

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Blumenfeld, Erich
  • Erich Blumenfeld
  • Sigmund Erich Blumenfeld
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk 29.7.1912
Husen
German

Erich Siegmund Blumenfeld was born on July 29, 1912, in Husen, Lichtenau, the son of Simon Blumenfeld, a cattle dealer, and Berta Reinhold. His father died fighting for Germany in France in 1918. At the time, Erich was not 6 yet.

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Blumenstein, Chana
  • Chana Blumenstein
  • Hanna Julia Blumenstein
  • Hannah Eady
The Deventer Society (Voorschoten) VOORSCHOTEN Veurssche weg 348 19.12.1919
München
German

Hanna Julia Blumenstein (later: Hannah Eady) was born December 19, 1919, in Munich, the daughter of Carl Blumenstein, from Gunzenhausen, and Ida, née Kohnstamm, from Munich. She had one brother, Ernst (later: Yosef Even) (1922).

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Boehm, Walter
  • Walter Boehm
  • Walter Böhm
  • Yaakov Aloni
  • יעקב אלוני
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 17.8.1919
Breslau
German

Walter Jakob Boehm (later: Yaakov Aloni) was born on August 17, 1919, in Breslau (now Wroclaw), the son of Hans (Naftali) and Hilda Boehm. He had one brother, Bernhard (1921).

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Bomze Marie
  • Marie Bomze
  • Miriam Besser
  • מרים בומזה
  • מרים בסר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 18.4.1921
Vienna
German (Austrian)

Marie Bomze (later: Miriam Besser) was born April 18, 1921, in Vienna, the daughter of Abraham Chaim Bomze, from Mikulince (Poland, now Ukraine) and Gisela Fränkel, from Vienna. She had two brothers, Leo (1907) and Joseph (1917). Her father was a jeweller and goldsmith.

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Braun, Ruth
  • Ruth Braun
  • רות בראון
  • ? רות כהן
Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 22.4.1920
Nürnberg
German

The matching of the passenger to this person needs to be confirmed but is most likely correct:

Ruth Braun was born on April 22, 1920, in Nuremberg, the daughter of Aaron Braun (TBC).

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Brock, Ernst
  • Ernst Brock
The Deventer Society (Colmschate) COLMSCHATE G. Beekman, De Snippeling C.6 Colmschate 3.8.1916
Frauenkirchen
German

Ernst Brock was born August 3, 1916, in Frauenkirchen (Austria-Hungary, now Austria), the son of Ignatz Brock and Flora (Friedel, Fanny) Spielman. He had a brother, Richard (1904), and a sister, Hanna. His father died in 1920 when Ernst was not 3 years old yet.

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Brück, Walter
Walter Brück
  • Walter Brück
  • David Barkai
  • דוד בריק
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 1.12.1919*
Bingen
German

Walter Brück (later: David Barkai) was born on December 7, 1919, in Bingen, Germany, the son of Carl Brück and Lily (Elisabeth) Natt. He had one sister, Lotte (1922). His father was a merchant and a partner in the wine wholesaler Brück Söhne.

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Calmann, Ludwig
  • Ludwig Calmann
  • Arieh Calman
  • אריה קלמן
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.5.1917
Ratibor
German

Ludwig Calmann (later: Arieh Calman) was born May 12, 1917, in Ratibor, Silesia (now Racibórz, Poland), the son of Carl Calmann and Selma Suchowloski. He had one sister, Eva (1915). His mother died around 1930.

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Chambon, Wilhelmina
Malka Admon

1958

  • Wilhelmina Chambon
  • Wilhelmina van Dam
  • Malka Admon
  • מלכה אדמון (רוטפלד) (לבית ואן דם)
Berg-Stichting, Laren Berg-Stichting, Laren (North Holland) 7.4.1915
Groningen
Dutch

Wilhelmina van Dam (Chambon, later: Malka Admon) was born April 7, 1915, in Groningen, Netherlands, the daughter of Frouktje van Dam, a cigar maker. She had three sisters: Anna, Christina, and Meta Gesine. Her mother married Henricus Lucas Johannes Chambon, a Roman Catholic, in 1926. He adopted her two eldest daughters, Wilhelma and Anna, and they took the name Chambon, but did not live with their mother. Frouktje died in July 1931 when Wilhelmina was not yet 16 years old, and her adoptive father remarried in November that year. Wilhelmina and her sisters were raised in the Berg-Stichting Jewish Home in Laren, a village near Amsterdam.

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Cohen, Justus
  • Justus Cohen
  • Justus Hartog Cohen
  • Zadok Cohen
  • Tzadok Cohen
  • צדוק כהן
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam Amstellaan 235 28.3.1918
Groningen
Dutch

Justus Hartog Cohen (later: Tzadok Cohen) was born on March 28, 1918, in Groningen, the son of Levie Cohen (Levie Yehuda Abrahams Cohen) and Flora Steren. His father was a civil servant of the Jewish Community: religious teacher, mohel, shochet and a hazzan. He had three siblings: Abraham (1904-1919), Rebecca (1908) and Channa/Hanny (1905). His mother Flora died in March 1931, less than two weeks before Justus turned thirteen. His father then married Rosa Boutelje a year later, and Justus doesn't seem to have been sent to an orphanage.

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Cohen, Paul
  • Paul Cohen
  • Jehuda Cohen
The Deventer Society (Utrecht) UTRECHT Croeselaan 144 15.3.1911
Dinslaken
German

Paul Cohen (later: Jehuda Cohen) was born March 15, 1911, in Dinslaken, a town in Nordrhein-Westfalen, about 50 miles from the Netherlands. He was the son of Hermann "Chaijim" Cohen, a merchant born in Dinslaken, and Julie Platz. He had three siblings: Hilde (1909), Grete (1913), and Anni (1915). His father died in 1937.

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Cohen, Philipp (Flip)
Flip Cohen

In Kibbutz Franeker

  • Philip "Flip" Cohen
  • Oeri Cohen
  • Uri Cohen
  • אורי כהן
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam Kastanjeplein 3 30.5.1918
Amsterdam
Dutch

Philip "Flip" Cohen (later: Uri Cohen) was born in Amsterdam on May 30, 1918, the son of Jacob Cohen and Sara Cohen - Brandon. Philip had three brothers and three sisters: Izak (1917), Hartog (1920), Keetje (1921), Greetje, Samuel (1926), and Mirjam (1931).

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Cohn, Bernd
  • Bernd Cohn
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.1919
Berlin
German

Bernd Cohn was born May 25, 1919, in Berlin, the son of Erich Cohn, a lawyer, and Paula Cohn (née Zade). He had one brother, Klaus (1913).

Bernd's mother, Paula Cohn, died on November 2 1936, and the announcement of her death only mentions her two sons and her brother, suggesting that her husband, Bernd's father, had already died.

Bernd's last place of residence in Germany was Berlin. He left Germany and came to the Netherlands, where he attended Werkdorp Wieringermeer.


Bernd's brother, Klaus Cohn, was deported from Berlin to Auschwitz on December 9, 1942, where he perished.

Bernd's mother is listed as a "Holocaust victim" online, although the date of her death (1936) predates the start of the Holocaust. The circumstances of her death are not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (brother)
www.myheritage.com (mother)

Cohn, Heinz
  • Heinz Michel Cohn
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.2.1920
Berlin
German

Heinz Michel Cohn was born on February 27, 1920, in Berlin, the son of Alex Cohn and Rosa Cohn (born Mann). He had two siblings, Feodora (1911) and Werner (1922). His father died in 1927 when Heinz was 7 years old.

He lived on Grosse Hamburger Strasse, 13-14, in the Mitte district of Berlin, a street that housed a school for boys, an old age home, and a cemetery operated by the Jewish community.

He attended a vocational "retraining center" (Hachshara) in Berlin.

He was incarcerated in Buchenwald, presumably following Kristallnacht. (His presence is documented on a "Geldverwahrungskarte" between December 2 and December 14.)

Following his release from Buchenwald (most likely before the end of December 1938), he came to the Netherlands, from where he would board the Dora.


His mother Rosa Cohn was deported to the Lodz Ghetto (Litzmannstadt) on October 24 1941, then to the Chelmno death camp on May 4 1942 where she was murdered.

His brother Werner Cohn was murdered in the Brandenburg Euthanasia killing center on July 20 1940. He was 18 years old.

His sister Feodora Loewenfeld (born Cohn) emigrated to England.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.myheritage.com (mother)

Daube, Elie
  • Elias Daube
  • Elie Daube
  • Eliyahu Daube
  • אליהו דאובה
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 21.1.1915
Königsbad*
German

Elias Daube (later: Eliyahu Daube) was born January 21, 1915, in Koenigsbach, Baden, the son of Meier (Max) Daube and Sophie Beissinger. The youngest of four children, his three siblings were David (1911), Gershon (1912) and Leah (1913). [Other sources have three more siblings: Willie Wolf (1906), Jacob (1908), Hermann (1909).]

Koenigsbach, near Alsace and the French border, had a relatively large Jewish community until 1938, with 220 people, around 10% of the total population, in 1875. Nothing is known about Elias Daube's background, but he most likely grew up in a religious family, based on his later joining Noar Agudati.

Elie left Germany and came to the Netherlands. There he joined Hachscharah of Agudas Yisroel, a religious Zionist organization (Noar Agudati) in Enschede.

On July 16, he traveled to Amsterdam about 100 miles away to board the Dora. It's assumed that he was with the group of seven youngsters from the Enschede Hachshara. According to the daily "Het Volk", "The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

Elie married Hanna Heilbronn and the couple had two children.

Elie Daube died in 1988 in Israel. His epitaph read "God's servant in truth and faith".


Most of Eliahu's family emigrated to Eretz Israel. The only exception was his brother, David.

Elie's brother David Daube emigrated to Antwerp. He was later deported to Auschwitz on May 19, 1944. He was then evacuated to Dachau during the January 1945 death march. He died before the liberation of the camp in April that year.

Elie's parents emigrated to Palestine in October 1938. His sister Leah (later Leah Sonn) emigrated in February 1937. Elie's His brother Gerson also survived and lived in Israel. [The three possible additional siblings also survived. ]

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com

Note: The passenger list incorrectly has "Koenigsbad" instead of Koenigsbach for his place of birth.

Dinner, Sara
Sara Dinner
  • Sara Dinner
  • Sara Ben Aharon
  • שרה בן אהרן
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 13.12.1911
Amsterdam
Dutch

Sara Dinner (later: Sara Ben Aharon) was born on December 13, 1911, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Israel Dinner and Henrietta Auerbach. She was the eldest of four children. Her siblings were Lea (1913), Joseph Hirsch (1915) and Esther (1920).

Sara joined the Kibbutz Franeker in October 1935. Her brother Joseph Hirsch would join her there a month later. In January 1936, she moved to the Beverwijk Kibbutz at Kanaalweg 75 in Beverwijk. Then in November of that year, she left for the "Berg foundation" in Laren (N.H.). She then returned from Laren in September 1937 and started working at the Jewish Home for the Disabled on Weesperplein in Amsterdam. On July 19, 1938, she returned to Kibbutz Franeker. Finally, in the spring of 1939, Sara returned to the Beverwijk kibbutz, now located in Velsen-Noord. There she awaited her departure for Palestine with a group of 29 Palestine-goers. Sara left the Netherlands on Sunday morning July 16, 1939, with the Dora from the port of Amsterdam.

Sara married Zeev Wolfgang Ben-Aharon in 1940. The couple had three children.

Sara died in Kvutsat Yavneh, Israel in May 2007, at the age of 95.


Sara's parents emigrated to Palestine with her sister Esther Goldberg in 1937.
Her other sister, Lea Avieli, had already left for Palestine in 1935.
Her brother Joseph Tzvi Dinner also came to Israel after attending Kibbutz Franeker for two years.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
oorlogsslachtoffersijmond.nl
geni.com
Kibboets-op-de-Klei.pdf (pdf)

Ebel, Siegismund
  • Sigismund Ebel
  • Siegismund Ebel
  • Shmuel Ebel
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam "De Vondelhof"
Frederikstr. 18
Amsterdam"
28.7.1915
Beuthen
German

Siegismund Ebel (later: Shmuel Ebel) was born on July 28, 1915, in Beuthen, Germany, (now Bytom, Poland), the son of Emil Ebel, an insurance agent, and Else Goldstein. He had five siblings, including Kathe (1901), Bernhard (1904) and Charlotte Naomi (1907).

He came [from London?] to the Netherlands to practice agriculture. He first stayed at the farm of the Arnold ten Kate family in Deurningen no. 17, near Weerselo, from November 1936 to April 1938. Ewald Sondheimer, another refugee from Germany and a passenger of the Dora also worked in the farm during that time.

He then briefly stayed at the Deventer Association building at Brink 70, in Deventer. From here he went to Klarenbeek near Voorst and later to the youth hostel in "De Assumburg" in Heemskerk. From May 1939 he worked at the De Vondelhof orphanage run by the "youth aliyah" in Amsterdam which was led by Simon Berlinger, after which he left for Palestine with the Dora in 1939.

Shmuel (Siegismund) Ebel had no children.


His father survived the war and died in Bytom in 1949.

The fate of his mother, Else Ebel is not known.

His sister Charlotte Naomi Brauer (born Ebel) left for Palestine in June 1939.
His sister Kathe Traubner also emigrated to Palestine and lived in Beit Yitzhak-Sha'ar Hefer.
His brother Bernhard Ebel emigrated to Brazil.

The names and fates of his two other siblings is not known but they presumably also emigrated, or survived the war.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
Amnon Rimon

Englard, Leo (Leiba)
Leo Englard

1940

  • Leiba Englard
  • Leo Englard
  • Arieh Englard
  • אריה אנגלרד
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.7.1921
Przemyśl (Pshemishl)
German

Leo Englard (later: Arieh Englard) was born July 7, 1921, in Pshemishl, Poland, the son of Zvi and Tsila.

Leo Englard lived in Berlin and attended school until the age of fourteen and a half, at which point he started to work, assumedly as an apprentice or trainee.

Starting in November 1936, Leo Englard went to Hachshara, first in Munich, later in Schniebinchen, then to Elgut in Silesia. After Kristallnacht (November 9, 1938), he fled to the Netherlands where he continued his Hachshara in Wieringen.

In Israel, he changed his name to Arieh. According to his idendity card issued in December 1940, he was a labourer and lived in Rehovot. (Being an illegal immigrant, it is not clear how he was able to receive an ID card.)

Arieh Englard served in the Jewish Brigade during the war. In 1947, he married Fanny Dominitz, a German Holocaust survivor. The couple had known each other in Germany and had corresponded throughout the war. (According to another version, Fanny Dominitz came to Belgium after the war, where she met Leo Englard.) They emigrated to Palestine in 1947.

The couple had two daughters and lived in Moshav Beit Hanan.

Leo Englard died in November 2004.


Leo Englard's mother and sister were murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.

Sources:
berlin.museum-digital.de
collections.ushmm.org
collections.arolsen-archives.org (Index card from Reichsvereinigung der Juden in Deutschland)
buecher.hagalil.com

Fischer, Ernst Jacob
Ernst Jacob Fischer
  • Ernst Fischer
  • Ernst Jacob Fischer
(Almen: Het Laren) ALMEN: Het Laren p.a. Woestenenk 17.8.1918
Frankenthal
German

Ernst Jacob Fischer was born August 17, 1918, in Frankenthal.

Ernst Fischer prepared for his immigration in the Jägerslust Hachshara near Flensburg. He was arrested during Kristallnacht on November 9-10 1938 and was incarcerated in Sachsenhausen until his release on December 28, 1938. He then fled Germany and came to the Netherlands.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com

Förder, Ernst
  • Ernst Foerder
  • Ernst Förder
  • Schlomo Porat
  • שלמה פורת
Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 8.1.1918
Beuthen
German

Ernst Foerder (later: Schlomo Porat) was born January 8, 1918, in Beuthen, Upper Silesia (now Bytom, Poland), the son Jakob (Jacques) Foerder and Anny Foerder (née Froehlich). He had one sister, Ruth (1910).

He married Mirjam and the couple had two children. He changed his name to Schlomo Porat.

Schlomo Porat (Ernst Förder) died in January 2003 in Haifa.


His parents, Jakob and Anny Foerder, and his sister, Ruth Kutner, emigrated to England.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Friedman, Meir
Meir Friedman
  • Meir Friedman
  • Mejer Frydmann
  • Meir Bar Shalom
  • מאיר פרידמן
  • מאיר בר שלום
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
5.11.1917*
Postawie
Polish *

Meir Friedman (later: Meir Bar Shalom) was born on November 5, 1917*, in Postavy, Lithuania (later Poland, now Pastavy, Belarus). (*Other sources have December 5). His father, Yaakov Friedman, was a tinsmith and his mother, Adelaide, a shop owner. He had four siblings: Moshe, Hanoch, Lea, and (unknown).

He studied in an elementary school in his town, in a small yeshiva, then in high yeshiva. He later went to a yeshiva in Monterrey, Switzerland.

From there he then went for Hachshara in the Netherlands to prepare for immigration. There he met his future wife, Susi (Zuzi) Katz, and together they boarded the Dora to Eretz Israel.

Meir and Susi first lived in Kibbutz "Rodges" (Kfar Avraham near Petah Tikva), a religious kibbutz named after the farm in Germany (in Fulda, Hesse) where some of the founders of the religious kibbutz were trained. After about two years, in 1941, Meir and his wife Shulamit Bar-Shalom (Susi Katz) were among the founders of Kvutzat Yavne, another religious kibbutz. There they married in 1942 and in 1944 their eldest daughter was born.

Meir and Shulamit had five children.

Meir Bar Shalom (Friedman) died in April 1990.


His father, Yaakov, his mother, Adelaide Friedman, and his brother, Hanoch Friedman, were deported to Lithuania where they were murdered.

His brother, Moshe Friedman, emigrated to Palestine and died in Ashdod.
His sister Lea Shapira emigrated to Canada.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.yavnet.org.il
Kibboets-op-de-Klei.pdf (pdf)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)

Note: Assuming "Mejer Frydmann", as he appears on the passenger lists, is the same person as "Meir (Meyer) Friedman" listed on the maapilim.org site, even though the birth dates and nationalities don't match: Maapilim has birth date: 1918 and nationality: Lithuania.

Geisel, Siegfried
  • Siegfried Geisel
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.10.1910
Bullay
German

Siegfried Geisel was born October 6, 1910, in Bullay, a village in Rhineland-Palatinate, about 30 miles from Luxembourg and the Belgian border.

In the 1930s he lived in Kyllburg, another small town in the same region.

He left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer.


Bullay, a municipality with a population of about 654 in in 1905 (1,090 in 1939) had a very small Jewish population, numbering about 20 in 1930. By then the Geisel family seems to have left already. One can assume that at least one other Geisel born in Bullay was Siegfried's sibling: Alfred Geisel (Dec 22 1911), who emigrated to Eretz Israel in 1935. A second possible sibling could be Klothilde Geisel (Dec 29 1913), who survived and lived in Luxemburg.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
bullay-de

Goldbach, Ilse
  • Ilse Goldbach
  • Ilse Horin
  • אילזה גולדבך
  • אילזה חורין
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 25.11.1914
Marktbreid, Germany
German

Ilse Goldbach (later Elsa Horin) was born November 25, 1914, in Marktbreit, a small town near Frankfurt, the daughter of Abraham and Carla Goldbach née Blum. She had a younger sister, Martha, and a brother.

Ilse's father was a fabric merchant and the owner of a fabric and clothing store in Marketbright, where her mother also worked. He also served as one of the heads of the Jewish community and as the head of the town's Chevra Kadisha.

After finishing her high school studies, Ilse joined Bachad (Brit Halutzim Datiyim - Union of Religious Pioneers) at the Beit Halutz in Frankfurt. After Kristallnacht, Ilsa went to visit her parents in Marktbright and immediately after that she fled with the training staff to the Netherlands. (Other sources have "Ilse Goldbach fled to the Netherlands in March 1939.") From there she boarded the Dora in July 1939.

According to her son: "She immigrated to Israel on the Dora in August 1939. She arrived in Israel on the coast of Shefayim. They were lowered with the help of activists on land and taken to hiding places before the English found them."

After her landing, she first went to Rodges, a training kibbutz of the religious kibbutz (Kfar Avraham near Petah Tikva) for three days. From there she went to kibbutz Tirat Zvi. There she met her future husband Moshe Frank (later: Moshe Horin). They were married a year later and the couple had three children.

Elsa Horin (née Ilse Goldbach) died in April 2013 in Kibbutz Tirat Zvi. She was 98.


Ilse's parents attempted to emigrate to South America in vain. They wrote to their daughter: "I see this pessimistically, especially since the mail connection with the USA is very bad. By the time you get a reply to the letter from there, immigration to the country in question is already blocked again." Avraham and Clara Goldbach were deported in 1942 and sent to Lublin in Poland and from there to the Izbica ghetto where they were murdered.

Her sister Martha Speier came to Palestine with the Aliyah Bet vessel "Pacific" in November 1940. The ship was intercepted by the British, and she was interned in Athlit.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
musaf-shabbat.com (Obituary)

Goldschmidt, Arno
  • Arno Goldschmidt
  • Asher Goldschmidt
  • אשר גולדשמידט
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 25.8.1907
Rixdorf (Berlin-Neukölln)
German

Arno Goldschmidt (later: Asher Goldschmidt) was born on August 25, 1907, in Rixdorf (Berlin-Neukölln), the son of Hermann Hirsch Goldschmidt, from Danzig, and Lisbeth (Elisabeth), née Mandel, from Posen. He had one brother, Rudi Rafael (1909).

His father was a merchant who initially traded in footwear, then manufactured and sold women's dresses and blouses. The family lived in four different addresses in Rixdorf, a working-class district in Berlin. In most cases, business and apartment were under the same roof. His brother Rudi worked as a cutter, tailor, and salesman for his father.

Arno Goldschmidt studied medicine at Berlin University from 1927 to 1933. His mother, Lisbeth Goldschmidt, died of a heart attack in October 1934.

Arno Goldschmidt came to the Netherlands and prepared for emigration in Werkdorp Wieringermeer. He arrived on May 26, 1937 in Barsingerhorn from Amsterdam, then moved to Wieringermeer on January 2, 1938. He presumably met his future wife and fellow Dora passenger Karla Weinberg during his time in the Werkdorp.

In Israel, he lived in Ness Ziona. He was married to Karla Weinberg and changed his name to Asher Goldschmidt.

He was a doctor in the Negev during the War of Independence. He worked as a doctor in Ness Ziona, then managing physician in a clinic in Rehovot.

Asher (Arno) Goldschmidt died in 1988 in Ness Ziona.


Arno's father, Hermann Goldschmidt, was deported to the East in the fall of 1941 and murdered.
His brother, Rudi Rafael Goldschmidt, was deported with Transport 23 from Berlin to Auschwitz Birkenau on November 29, 1942. He was murdered there on December 22, 1942.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Dutch registers)
www.stolpersteine-berlin.de
billiongraves.com
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother)
1983 list of former chalutzim from Werkdorp Wieringermeer, courtesy of Amnon Rimon.

The passenger list has "Recksdorf" instead of Rixdorf.

Goldschmidt, Julius, Ernst
  • Julius Ernst Goldschmidt
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 30.03.1920
Berkach
German

Ernst Julius Goldschmidt was born on March 30, 1920 in Berkach, Thüringia.

Berkach, a small village in Thuringia of 400 to 500 residents, had a Jewish presence since the 17th century, with a synagogue, a Mikveh, a school, and a cemetery. Up to half the hamlet population was Jewish.

Ernst Julius Goldschmidt came to the Netherlands and was registered in Barsingerhorn on November 2, 1936. At least two other future Dora passengers, Manfred Hirsch and Siegbert Kahn, were registered the same day. Other future Dora passengers there included Martin Grünpeter, Ernst Kaufmann, Robert Mainzer and Karla Weinberg (later Goldschmidt).

Ernst Goldschmidt died in 1948 in Israel.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Dutch registers)

Goldstein, Lilo (Lieselotte)
  • Lieselotte Goldstein
  • Lilo Tachover (Tachauer?)
  • לילו גולדשטיין
  • לילו טחובר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 12.2.1918
Berlin
German

Lieselotte Goldstein (later Lilo Tachover) (Tachauer?), was born February 12, 1918, in Berlin, the daughter of Jacob and Julia Goldstein, (born Levin) . She had two brothers: Rudolf (Rudi) (1908), and Hans (Tuvya) (1912).

Lieselotte attended the Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreehagen in 1937-1938. She then came to the Netherlands where she continued her training in Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

Lieselotte Goldstein first came to Kibbutz Machar and married Alfred Avraham Tachover (Tachauer?) in 1941. In 1942 the couple moved to Kibbutz Gvar'am. They had four children.

Lilo Tachover (Tachauer?) (Lieselotte Goldstein) died in August 2006 in Kibbutz Gvar'am.


Lilo's mother, Julia Goldstein, emigrated to Eretz Israel.
Her brother, Hans (Tuvya) Goldstein, made Aliyah in August 1936.
Her brother Rudi also emigrated to Palestine.

The fate of her father Jacob Goldstein is not known.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.ushmm.org
www.gevaram.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.gevaram.org.il

Gottlieb, Mary
Mary Gottlieb (Miriam Weisskopf)

1946

  • Mary Gottlieb
  • Miriam Weisskopf
  • מרים (מרי) וייסקופף
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.12.1921
Vienna
German (Austrian)

Mary Gottlieb (later: Miriam Weisskopf) was born December 15, 1921, in Vienna, the only child of Mendel Emanuel Gottlieb, originally from Sieniawa, Galicia (now Poland), and Ester Gittel Gottlieb (née Bohm), from Ottynia, Galicia (now Ukraine).

Her parents lived in Vienna since 1919 and were well-to-do. Her father was a hosiery and knitwear manufacturer who had studied business and accounting.

On May 18, 1938, two months after the Anschluss, her father filled out an immigration application with the IKG. He had learned a new profession - chauffeur. Unlike most applicants, he still had a monthly income of S700 - S800, but didn't know how much he would be allowed to take with him to emigrate. He was hoping to emigrate to the USA, where he had five relatives, or to Palestine. At the time, Mary, 16, was a student milliner.

According to one source,

"Following the annexation [March 38] of Austria, she left her home in Vienna and went to the Netherlands to receive training for her immigration. On Kristallnacht [Nov 38], Mary was home in Vienna and witnessed riots that hit her family's apartment."

According to another source,

"Mary had to leave Vienna after Kristallnacht, because the Nazis had taken a picture of her without her knowledge since she was active in a leftist Jewish organization. She saw the picture in the Nazi newspaper Der Stürmer with the title 'Sarah, pack your bags, you are listed in Der Stürmer'. A high-ranking Nazi official, who lived in the same building as her father, advised her father to get Mary quickly out of the country because she was to be arrested. She left Vienna immediately and went to hachshara in Holland."

Mary met her future husband Herward (Zvi) Weisskopf in the hachshara. Together they boarded the Dora in July 1939.

At first, Miriam and Zvi lived in Kibbutz Hazorea. They got married in 1941 and moved to Kfar Yedidya, where they took over Zvi's older brother farm. Miriam opened her home and they became a foster family for children, including Holocaust survivors. The couple had two children.

Miriam Weisskopf (Mary Gottlieb) died in 2001 at the age of 80 in Kfar Yedidya.


Her parents were able to emigrate to the USA in April 1940.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
irgun-jeckes.org
www.geni.com
www.archives.gov.il
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration file)

Goudsmit, Marianna
  • Marianna Goudsmit
  • Marianna Pridan
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Pres. Brandtstr. 74 13.9.1918
Amsterdam
Polish

Marianna Goudsmit (later: Marianna Pridan) was born on September 13, 1918, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Philip Goudsmit and Jette Israels. She had four siblings: Eliëzar (1917), Leentje (1920), Jonat Janos (1922), and Mozes (1923). Her father died in 1930 when she was 12 years old.

Marianna's profession before her immigration was seamstress.

Marianna married Max Friedlander (later: Moshe Pridan) and the couple had one son. She changed her name to Marianna Pridan.

Marianna Pridan (Goudsmit) died in Jerusalem.


Marianna's entire family disappeared in the Holocaust.
Her mother Jette Goudsmit was murdered in Auschwitz on October 26 1942.
Her brother Mozes Goudsmit was murdered in Auschwitz on September 30 1942 at the age of 19.
Her sister Leentje Depken was murdered in Sobibór on June 11 1943 at the age of 20.
Her brother Jonat Janos (21) was murdered in Sobibór on March 13 1943.
Her brother Eliëzar Goudsmit (26) was murdered on March 31 1943.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
www.myheritage.com

Griver, Norris
Norris Griver

1940

  • Norris Griver
The Deventer Society 25.5.1915
London
British

Norris Griver was born on May 25, 1915, in Bethnal Green, in the East End of London. His father was Russian and his mother British. He was an electrician by trade.

His story is unique among the passengers of the Dora. The only citizen from England, he seemingly had no reason to attempt a risky voyage to Palestine as an illegal immigrant. A British national, he wasn't a dispossessed refugee fleeing National Socialism, and was eligible for a legal immigration visa.

His son explains:

"My father was an ardent Zionist and wanted to get to Palestine. I believe he was associated with Habonim, and spent some time at the David Eder Farm in Sussex, UK, for Hachshara. As a UK citizen, he had a valid visa to Palestine, but it was used by a European refugee, so he had to get to Palestine illegally."

"After leaving London, he spent a few months in Europe, in Paris and in Amsterdam. To the best of my knowledge, he was waiting for a way to get to Palestine for the whole of this period, and I assume the waiting was under the auspices of the organizations arranging Aliyah Bet. He eventually got to Palestine on the Dora."

"On landing, he was taken to Raanana, and then he joined the Kibbutz Anglo-Balti, which was in Binyamina at the time and eventually set up Kibbutz Kfar Blum in the Upper Galilee."

"On 7th May 1940 he joined the British Army at Sarafand (today Tsrifin) and served in the Middle East until the end of 1944, when he was posted to the UK. After VE Day he served in Belgium, Holland and Germany and was finally demobilized in London in early 1946. He married in 1947 in London where he set up a successful electrical contracting business, and lived there till his death in February 2000."

His two children live in Israel.

Sources:
Photo and message from his son, Jon Griver, May 2021.

Gross, Simon
  • Simon Gross
  • Shimon Gross
  • שמעון גרוס
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.5.1918
Vienna
German (Austrian)

Simon Gross (later: Shimon Gross) was born in Vienna on May 14, 1918, the son of leo (Leib) Gross, from Nadworna (now Nadvirna, Ukraine) and Scheindel Gross (born Schreier), from Bohorodchany (Ukraine). He had five siblings: Igo (Israel) (1897), Rosa (Reizel) (1899), Thea (Taube) (1901), Munio (Mojzesz) (1903), and Max (Markus) (1905).

Nadworna, where Simon's father and his three siblings oldest siblings were born, was a town of about 7000 inhabitants, half of them Jewish, known for its Hasidic dynasty and rabbinical families. The family left Nadworna sometime between 1901 and 1903 and came to Stanislawow, the nearby regional capital where two more siblings, Munio and Max, were born. Finally, the family settled in Vienna in 1915 where Simon was born.

Simon left Vienna and came to the Netherlands possibly in the early 1930s, where at least three of his siblings already lived.

Simon married Flora "Niza" Marx and the couple had two children.

Shimon Gross died in April 1988 in Ein Carmel.


Shimon's parents and at least some of his siblings left Vienna before May 1938 and came to Amsterdam.

Shimon's father, Leo Gross, was deported from to the Sobibór death camp where he was murdered on April 09, 1943 (69).
His sister, Thea (Taube) Landau (née Gross), emigrated to the Netherlands and later fled to France. She was arrested there and was deported to Auschwitz, where she was murdered on September 30, 1942.

Shimon's mother Scheindel Gross survived, presumably in hiding in the Netherlands where she remained after the war.
Shimon's brother Munio (Mojzesz) Gross emigrated to Amsterdam presumably in the 1920s, where he worked as a diamond cutter and got married in 1930. He survived the war, presumably hiding in the Netherlands.
Shimon's brother, Markus (later: Menachem) Gross, was the only member of the family still in Austria after the Anschluss, and filled out an immigration form with the Jewish Community in Vienna (IKG) in May 1938. He presumably was able to emigrate with his wife and two children to an unknown destination, and survived the war. He later emigrated with his wife and a five-year-old child to Israel in December 1948. (The fate of their two daughters, Erika and Gertrude, is not known. Their names don't appear next to their parents on the immigration list.)
Shimon's sister, Rosa (Reizel) Honig (née Gross), emigrated to Amsterdam and later to Palestine.
Shimon's brother Igo (Israel) Ross (Gross) emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)
www.myheritage.com (brother Markus)
www.myheritage.com (brother Munio)

Grünberger, Philip
  • Philip Grünberger
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 3.1.1913
Boskowitz
German
Grünpeter, Martin
Martin Grünpeter

Photo: Roman Vishniac.

  • Martin Grünpeter
  • Mordechai Sela
  • מרדכי סלע
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.1.1914
Breslau
Stateless

Martin Grünpeter (later: Mordechai Sela) was born January 2, 1914, in Breslau, to Emil Grünpeter, from Koenigshuette, and Recha Juliusburger, from Kattowitz. He had two sisters, Hanni (1918), and Naomi (ca 1920). His father was a butcher ("Master butcher"), a profession that was passed down in the family from generation to generation. He ran a traditional Jewish home, and at the same time was a German nationalist.

Martin Grünpeter changed his name in Israel to Mordechai Sela.

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Gusdorf, Hans Rudolf
  • Hans Rudolf Gusdorf
  • Reuven (Haro) Gidron
  • ראובן (הארו) גדרון
  • ראובן גדרון
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 10.4.1921
Berlin
German

Hans Rudolf Gusdorf (later: Reuven Gidron) was born in Berlin on April 10, 1921, the son of Max Gusdorf, from Detmold, and Helena Gusdorf (born Oppenheimer). His father had been a soldier in World War I and was a merchant who dealt in women's clothing. His father was away for the week and was only home on the weekend, and Hans was raised by his mother and a nanny. He was named after two cousins, Hans and Rudolf, who had fallen in World War I. Later he would be nicknamed "Harrow", from the combinations of both names. Hans had one sister ten years older than him, Erika.

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Gutmann, Gustav Gerhard
  • Gustav Gerhard Gutmann
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.9.1920
Berlin
German

Gustav Gerhard Gutmann was born September 28, 1920, in Berlin, the son of Gustav Gutmann and Berta Gutmann (née Lewin). He had two siblings: Hildegard (1902) and Heinz (1908). A sister, Anneliese (1907), died in 1918.

His father died in May 1920, four months before Gerhard was born, explaining why Gerhard also carried his father's first name.

Gerhard attended elementary school starting in 1926, then middle school starting in October 1933. At the time, he lived in Berling-Schöneberg. He left (presumably was made to leave) school in February 1935, at the age of 14.

Nothing more is known about him.


His mother, Berta Gutmann, emigrated to Israel.
His brother, Heinz Gutmann, emigrated to Palestine as early as 1935. He enlisted in the British Army in December 1940.

The fate of his sister, Hildegard Schlüßler, is not known.

Sources:
collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (father)
www.myheritage.com

Note: there is a "Zeev Gerhard Gutmann" born in 1919 associated with the same online family trees. This appears however to be an unrelated person as his parents' names and his date of birth don't match.

Guttmann, Heinemann
  • Heinemann Guttmann
  • Elhanan Gutman
  • Elhanan Moshe Gutman
  • אלחנן גוטמן
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 13.12.1915
Burgpreppach
German

Heinemann Gutmann (later: Elhanan Gutman) was born on December 13, 1915, in Burgpreppach, the son of Meier Max Gutmann, and Amalia Emanuel. Burgpreppach, a village in Bavaria, had a Jewish population of 200 at the end of the century and was home to a yeshiva, a mikveh, a Jewish elementary school, and a Talmud Torah, where his father was a teacher. He had four siblings: Betty (1914), Sara (1916), Zipora (1920) and Leo Eliezer (1923).

His father died in 1926 of a stroke in when Heinemann was not yet 11 years old. Following his death, his widow moved to her hometown Fulda with her five children.

Heinemann joined Ezra, an orthodox Jewish youth movement affiliated with Agudat Yisrael, the religious Zionist organization (Noar Agudati). He eventually came to the Netherlands where he joined the Hachscharah of Agudas Yisroel in Enschede.

He provided the following details on maapilim.org.il:

"I did not finish school because of the rise of the Nazis. At the age of 17 I was sent to the Czech Republic to study in a yeshiva and learn carpentry. The Nazis did not allow me to return to Germany, so I traveled through Austria, Switzerland, France and the Netherlands to be trained in the organization of the Agudat Israel workers' movement. After many difficulties we sailed in July 1939 from the port of Rotterdam [Amsterdam]."

On July 16, he traveled from Enschede to Amsterdam, about 100 miles away, to board the Dora. It's assumed that he was with the group of seven youngsters from the Enschede Hachshara. According to the daily "Het Volk", "The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

Heinemann later changed his name to Elhanan Gutman. He married Hanna Eschwege who had come to Israel in 1945 and the couple had four children.

Elhanan Moshe (Heineman) Gutmann died in May 2000 in Jerusalem.


His sister Zipora Gutmann emigrated to the Netherlands and lived in Enschede where she worked as a teacher's assistant at the Jewish Center for Vocational Training. She was deported from the Westerbork transit camp to Auschwitz on September 21, 1943. She was murdered on arrival three days later on September 24, 1943.

His mother survived the war and died in Utrecht 6 months after the end of the war.
His sister Betty Ullmann survived the war.
His sister Sara (later: Sara Lowy) emigrated to England, and later to Israel.
His brother Leo Eliezer Gutmann lived in Jerusalem.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
spurenimvest.de

Haas, Edwin
  • Edwin ("Edde") Haas
  • Gad Haas
  • גד-אדווין האס
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.1.1920
Mannheim
German

Edwin ("Edde") Haas (later: Gad Haas) was born on January 13, 1920, in Mannheim, Germany, the son of Karl Haas and Anna Kayem. He had and elder sister Getrud (1915), and a twin sister Lily (1920). His father died in 1927 when Edwin was 7 years old.

Edwin grew up in a fairly assimilated family. He recalled:

"We didn't belong to a very conscious Jewish family. There were certain rules, sometimes Friday evenings, we went to the synagogue, but in every other respect we were like the [...] population, [...] we were Germans, first of all. [...] We combined Weihnachten (Christmas) and Hanukkah, and we said 'Weinukka.'"

Edwin joined Habonim at a young age. He had to leave the general school in 1934 at the age of 14. A year and a half later, in 1935, he joined an occupational school in Kaiserslautern, 60 km from Mannheim. Although he did well and liked working with his hands, nobody would take a Jewish apprentice. He explained:

"It was clear that after one year of Hitler, I mean from 33 to 34, that there's no future in Germany. [...] There was no choice, we knew we had nothing to do anymore... [...] to get an education, to get to learn something which will secure our future."

In January 1936, at the age of 16, Haas left Mannheim and came to the Netherlands. He was registered in Barsingerhorn (Het Joods Werkdorp) on February 3, 1936. He then moved to the Wieringermeer location on January 2 1938.

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In Israel, Edwin changed his name to Gad Hass. He married Marga whom he had met in the Werkdorp two years earlier. (She had emigrated to Palestine before him thanks to a legal certificate). The couple had two children.

Edwin (Gad) Hass died in April 2007, at the age of 87, in Haifa.


His mother Anna Haas came to visit her elder daughter Getrud in Palestine in 1937, then returned to Germany. She was later deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered on August 10, 1942.

His elder sister, Tamar Demayo (born Getrud Haas), went to Hachshara in Yugoslavia, then came with a so-called "capitalist certificate" - granted to emigrants who had one thousand English pounds - and she settled in Haifa. His twin sister, Lilly Kahn (Haas), came to Palestine in 1937 and attended the agricultural school for girls in Nahalal, before moving to a kibbutz.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.geni.com (Hebrew)
Quotes from Interview with Lilian Peters (1989), courtesy of Ariane Zwiers from Joods Cultureel Kwartier.

Heineberg, Walther (Walter)
  • Walter Heineberg
  • Gabriel Heinberg
  • גבריאל היינברג
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.7.1920
Düsseldorf
German

Walter Heineberg (later: Gabriel Heinberg) was born in Düsseldorf on July 28, 1920, the son of Paul Heineberg and Anna Weinberg. He had an elder sister, Liesel, born in 1913. His father, a non-commissioned officer on the staff of the Reserve Field Artillery Regiment, was wounded during WW1.

Walter was a member to the Habonim ("Builders") youth group. He left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Wieringermeer Werkdorp.

Walter Heineberg later changed his name to Gavriel Heineberg in Israel. He lived in Kibbutz Dorot and married Shoshana Herrmann. The couple had three children. One son, Uzi, tragically died in the Golan in 1968.

Gabriel (Walter) Heineberg died in Kibbutz Dorot in January 2012.


His father Paul Heineberg was arrested in the November Pogrom and incarcerated in Buchenwald, where he remained until his release on December 8, 1938. His parents, Paul and Anna Heineberg were deported to Minsk on November 10, 1941. They vanished in the Shoah.

His sister Liesel managed to emigrate to England.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
spurenimvest.de

Hirsch, Eva
  • Eva Hirsh
  • Eva Ilse Hirsch
  • Ilse-Eva Hirsch
  • Eva Wolff
  • Chava Hirsch Wolff
  • חווה (אווה) וולף הירש
  • חווה וולף
The Deventer Society (Apeldoorn) Apeldoorn: "Het Apeldoornsche Bosch" 15.9.1916*
Berlin
German

Eva Ilse Hirsch (later: Chava Wolff) was born on September 15, 1916*, in Berlin, the daughter of Paul Hirsch and Else Mathilde, née Dresel. Her father was an engineer and had served as an officer's lieutenant in the First World War. She had a twin sister, Ruth. Her mother died in 1934 when Eva was 14 years old.

Eva Hirsh was raised in a secular family. She recalled growing up in a home with books of poetry, travel, science and novels from Germany, France and England. Her mother was an amateur photographer and played the piano. She remembered a happy childhood in the west of the city where there were many gardens. Every Sunday Eva and her sister walked with their father, visited museums and walked in parks, lakes and forests in the area.

They didn't talk about Judaism at home, her parents didn't believe in a particular religion and celebrated the Christian holidays - "German holidays" - Christmas and Easter. At home they didn't talk much about the Jewish holidays and at school there were few religious lessons. Since most of the students were Jewish, she was hardly aware of anti-Semitism.

Eva and her sister wanted to join the "Kameraden" youth group - a socialist Jewish organization, but her parents were afraid of "Communism". Instead, at the age of 16 (1932) Eva and her sister joined a youth movement connected to the Social Democratic Party. Then they joined a Jewish-German youth movement and then moved to the "Werkleute" Zionist movement. Eva later studied for a while at a Jewish seminary for horticulture. After graduation, she worked for a short time as a kindergarten teacher for a family with small children, and then left for training in Frankfurt am Main.

For a year and a half, she worked in the "Pioneer House" (Beit Hechalutz) in housekeeping, and, in order to receive a certificate to emigrate to Palestine, she worked in agriculture at a training farm in Urfeld. There she met her future husband, Yehuda (Fritz) Wolff.

[According to the list of trainees of the Sennfeld Hachshara, Eva joined the Hachshara in Sennfeld, Bavaria, a training camp that operated between 1936 and 1939 on land owned by Isaak and Adolf Neuberger. She arrived there in April 1937 from Frankfurt, and left a year later on April 4, 1938, when she returned to Berlin.]

In 1938 Eva and Fritz then moved to Elgut where they replaced as guides Santa and Giura who had left for Palestine.

After Kristallnacht, the Nazis evacuated Elgut, the young men were sent to Buchenwald and Eva returned to Berlin to look for her family. After the release of the men, she returned to Elgut from where the boys went to Holland for field training. On July 15, 1939, Eva sailed from the port of Amsterdam on the Dora. On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the Dora, she would recall:

"We as a group were the ushers, the guards and the policemen on the ship, and this was only for the better, because we did not suffer from inaction, like most of the immigrants on the ship.

There were two kitchens on the ship, one kosher, where the religious people ate, who brought calves for kosher slaughter, and a regular kitchen that also received all the religious who stood in line a second time for a meal.

The loose equilibrium of the "Dora" required a constant balanced distribution of the people on the ship."

She first went to Kibbutz Givat Chaim and from there to the "nucleus" (גרעין) in Ra'anana, then settled in Kibbutz Galed. Eva Hirsch was married to Yehuda (Fritz) Wolff and the couple had two children.

Chava Wolff (Eva Hirsh) died in October 1990 in Kibbutz Galed at the age of 71.


Eva's father Paul Hirsch died in April 1941 in a forced labor camp in Berlin.

Eva's sister Ruth Ganann (born Hirsch) emigrated to England, then to Palestine. She died in Kibbutz Beit Hashita.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.galed.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
digipres.cjh.org (Sennfeld Hachshara) Eva's reminiscence about the Dora cited from the Gilad newsletter, August 22, 1969, courtesy of Ora Benami. (2024).

*Note: the passenger list has 1916 as her year of birth, and so does the Sennfeld Hachshara list; her obituary from Kibbutz Galed has 1919.

Hirsch, Issy
Issy Hirsch

1939

  • Issy Hirsch
  • Yitzhak Hirsch
  • יצחק (איזי) הירש
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 13.11.1919
Düsseldorf
German

Issy Hirsch (later: Yitzhak Hirsch) was born on November 13, 1919, in Düsseldorf, the youngest child of Avigdor Hirsch, and Guste Gittel Sprei, both from Galicia. He had three siblings: Benno Ben Zion (1909), Yvonne (1911), and Abraham Rudy (1913).

Issy's parents had a furniture store. In December 1934, at the age of 15, Issy was sent to Frankfurt to start his studies at the Breuer Yeshiva, an Orthodox yeshiva. In addition to studying Gemara and the laws of kashrut, prayers, and blessings, the yeshiva also included a secular studies program as well as classes in Jewish history and Nevi'im.

On October 28, 1938, Issy's parents and his brother Benno were rounded up during the so-called Polenaktion, and were deported to the Polish border, where they would remain until 1939. Issy, who was back in Düsseldorf, saw his parents and his brother Beno being rounded up in their street; he turned around and immediately ran away.

Issy Hirsch left Germany and came to the Netherlands, crossing the border through the woods with the help of a member of a Jewish youth group. There he joined the Enschede religious Zionist Hachscharah of Agudas Yisroel led by Rabbi Hillel Bruckenthal.

Issy was part of the group of seven members of the Enschede Hachshara who traveled to Amsterdam about 100 miles away to board the Dora on July 16. According to the daily "Het Volk", "The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

Issy Hirsch joined Kfar Avraham in Petah Tikva. There he received an ID card that allowed him to move around the country.

Issy Hirsch lived in Kibbutz Hafetz Haim, a religious kibbutz near Gedera. It was the first ultra-Orthodox kibbutz in the country, founded by religious pioneers from Germany and members of the Ezra youth movement and Agudat Yisrael in 1944. Yitzhak (Issy) Hirsch married Miriam Katz and the couple had six children.

Yitzhak (Issi) Hirsch died in Kibbutz Hafetz Haim, in November 1977, at the age of 58.


Issy's parents, Avigdor and Gittel Hirsch, and his brother, Benno Hirsch, were deported to the Rzeszow (Reichshof) Ghetto in 1939. They were murdered in November 1943 in the mass shooting in the forest of Dobrucowa/Szebnie.

His brother Abraham Rudy Hirsch emigrated to Eretz Israel.

His sister Yvonne Tannenbaum née Hirsch emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
www.myheritage.com
Eltsafan Tovia, grandson of Issy Yitzhak Hirsch (2024)
Avigdor Hirsch, son of Issy Yitzhak Hirsch (2024)

* The marriage is inferred by the presenced of a tombstone for Miriam Hirsch next to Yitzhack's.

Hirsch, Manfred
  • Manfred Hirsch
  • Moshe Rafaeli
  • מנפרד הירש
  • משה רפאלי
  • משה הירש- רפאלי
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.3.1920
Berlin
German

Manfred Hirsch (later: Moshe Raphaeli) was born March 29, 1920, in Berlin, the son of Raphael and Dora Hirsch.

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Hochberger, Abraham
  • Abraham Hochberger
  • Avraham Hochberger
  • אברהם הוכברגר
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 21.6.1918
Vienna
German

Abraham Hochberger was born June 21, 1918, in Vienna, the son of Zacharyasz Binder Hochberger (Zacharias Hochberger), a merchant (and/or a Rabbi*), and Perl Berta Blumenkranz. Both parents originally came from Bobowa in Poland, a village 50 miles from Kraków, that once was one of the largest centres of Hasidism in Polish lands and a pilgrimage site for Jews from all Eastern European countries. Avraham had (at least) five brothers: Nathan (born in Bobowa, 1902), Simon (born in Bobowa, 1903), Josef (1913), Moritz (1914), and Isaak (1916), and (at least) two sisters, Jette (Jetti?) and Rose.

The family left Bobowa and came to Vienna in 1906 where Abraham and several of his siblings were born.

Abraham and most of his family left Vienna, presumably before May 1938 as no IKG emigration forms have been found.

Abraham Hochberger lived in Haifa in 1956. He later emigrated to the USA, where he resided at least by 1962.

Abraham Hochberger died in March 1998 (79) in the state of New York.


Abraham Hochberger's parents Zacharias and Perl Hochberger emigrated to Antwerpen. They were deported in 1942 to Auschwitz were they were murdered.

His brother, Simon Hochberger emigrated to Antwerp in February 1939 with the help of the IKG. He was later deported to France, then to Auschwitz, and finally to Dachau in January 1945. He survived the camps and came to Eretz Israel after the war.

Abraham's brother Josef Hochberger emigrated to Palestine and lived in Tirat Tsvi, a religious Kibbutz.
His brother Yitschak Hochberger emigrated to Palestine in 1938.
His brother, Nathan Hochberger, emigrated to Palestine with his wife and his two children.
His sister Rose Reinhold (born Hochberger) also emigrated to Palestine and lived in Bnei Brak.
His sister, Jetti Singer, emigrated to Palestine and lived in Herzlia.

Sources:
www.familysearch.org
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
yvng.yadvashem.org
yvng.yadvashem.org (brother Nathan)
www.myheritage.com (brother Simon)

*Abraham's father, Zacharias Hochberger, is called a Rabbi on his son Nathan's tombstone.

Hoffmann, Heinz
  • Heinz Hoffmann
  • Haim Bar-Tikva
  • חיים בר תקוה
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 6.11.1916
Schreiberhau
German

Heinz Hoffmann (later: Haim Bar-Tikva) was born on November 6, 1916, in Schreiberhau (Lower Silesia, now Szklarska Poreba in Poland), the son of Julius Joseph Hoffmann and Clara Hoffmann (née Richter). He had one sister, Anni (Helena) (1918).

He changed his name to Haim Bar-Tikva (חיים בר תקוה)

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His parents emigrated to Italy then reached Palestine in the summer of 1944.
His sister, Anni (Helena) Hoffman, emigrated to the USA.

Horowitz, Marcus (Max)
  • Marcus Horowitz
  • Mordechai Horowitz
  • מרדכי הורביץ
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 17.1.1914
Frankfurt
German

Marcus Horowitz (later: Mordechai Horowitz) was born on January 17, 1914, in Frankfurt am Main, the son of Jakob and Lotte Horowitz.

His father and grandfather were rabbis in the community. They were Orthodox and opposed Zionism. Mordechai's grandfather was from Hungary. His father graduated in philosophy from university and established German-Jewish cultural and social enterprises. Mordechai's mother came from a Zionist home, and in her youth had visited Israel. All five children of the Horowitz family were in Zionist youth movements and immigrated to Israel.

Marcus Horowitz attended a Jewish elementary school, a trade school and worked in a textile trading house. He was a member of the Kadima movement. Marcus left Frankfurt and came to the Netherlands where he lived in a training farm for almost two years, working in the vegetable garden and barn. He was first registered in Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid) on July 29 1937, then on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer.

After his arrival in Israel, he first stayed with his sister in Givat Haim. He later moved to Kibbutz Beit Hashita. He changed his name to Mordechai Horowitz.

Mordechai (Marcus) did not start a family. He died in September 1985 at the age of seventy-one in Kibbutz Beit Hashita.

Sources:
www.albumjezreel.co.il
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com

Israel, Manfred
  • Manfred Israel
  • Moshe Israel
  • משה ישראל
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.9.1920
Schlawe
German

Manfred Israel (later: Moshe Israel) was born September 7, 1920, in Schlawe, a small town near the Baltic Sea in Pomerania (now Poland), the son of Samuel (Sally) Israel,a merchant from Friedrichsbruch (Prussia, now Poland), and Paula Israel (born Klahr), originally from Zolondowo, Poland. He had one younger sister, Inge Charlotte (1924).

His parents' home was a traditional Jewish home, which kept kosher and celebrated Jewish holidays, but his parents considered themselves to be Germans of the religion of Moses.

When Manfred was 13 years old, the Nazis came to power and the persecutions began immediately. Manfred suffered beatings and harassment. At the age of 14 he left home and went to the hachshara of Werkleute in Silesia, a Zionist youth movement which later joined the National Kibbutz movement.

Manfred left Germany in the spring of 1938 and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Werkleute group in Werkdorp. In July 1939 he boarded the Dora and arrived in Israel on August 12, 1939, just before the outbreak of World War II.

He first lived in Kibbutz Hazorea for two years, then joined the Elgavish nucleus in Ra'anana where he met his wife Rachel Altertum. In July 1943 he came to Kibbutz Kfar Menachem. The couple had four sons. Manfred later changed his name to Moshe Israel.

During his work in the fields he discovered archeological artifacts, which formed the basis for the archaeological museum he would later found. For many years he taught at the regional high school. In 1973, he founded the "Museum of the Lowlands" ("מוזיאון השפלה") in Kfar Menachem. He also wrote literary and artistic criticism articles in various publications. He authored "Waehle sagt mir die Erinnerung" (Altius Verlag, 1996), a collection of poems, a play, and a diary.

Moshe (Manfred) Israel died in Kfar Menachem in March 2005.


Manfred's father Sally Samuel Israel was incarcerated in Sachsenhausen, presumably following the 1938 November Pogrom.

Manfred's parents, Sally Samuel Israel (54) and Paula Israel (45), and his sister, Inge Charlotte Israel (17), a student, were deported to Riga on November 27 1941. They were murdered three days later on November 30 1941.

Sources:
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
yvng.yadvashem.org
Wähle, sagt mir die Erinnerung: Juden und Deutsche in einer Kleinstadt der dreissiger Jahre (German Edition)
Knut Bergbauer (2020)

Jacob, Leopold Siegfried
  • Leopold Siegfried Jacob
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk 10.6.1917
Berlin
German

Leopold Siegfried Jacob was born on June 10, 1917, in Berlin.

He left Berlin and came to the Netherlands, arriving in Franeker on October 30, 1936. He did an internship with a cattle farmer in Achlum, a village about 7 km southwest of Franeker. He then left Franeker at the end of April 1938 for Amsterdam. From there he boarded the Dora in July 1939.

Sources:
historischcentrumfraneker.nl

Jacobsohn, Ernst
  • Ernst Jacobsohn
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 18.7.1916
Hamburg
German

Ernst Jacobsohn was born on July 18, 1916, in Hamburg, the son of John Jacobsohn, a merchant from Lübeck, and Else Jacobsohn (née Rosenblum), from Salzwedel, Saxony. He had one brother, Manfred (1922).

Ernst's mother had completed a commercial apprenticeship in the clothing industry and worked as a buyer at the Tietz department store in Hamburg. Ernst's father owned a shop selling stationery and travel souvenirs near the main train station in Hamburg. He died in 1928 when Ernst was 12 years old. After his death, his mother Else continued the business until August 1938, by which time the anti-Jewish discrimations contributed to ending her business and made Else Jacobsohn dependent on welfare services from the state and the Jewish community.

Ernst Jacobsohn was able to complete an apprenticeship as a bookseller, but was unable to find a job because of his Jewish origins. He left Hamburg in 1936 and lived in Cologne and Nuremberg. He then fled Germany and emigrated to the Netherlands at the beginning of 1938. There he trained in preparation for his immigration in Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

Ernst Jacobsohn later immigrated to the USA. He was married and the couple had two sons.

Ernst Jacobsohn died in Sepember 1996 at the age of 80 in Nassau, New York.


Ernst Jacobsohn's mother Else Jacobsohn was forced to live in a "Judenhaus". She was then deported to the Minsk ghetto in Belarus on November 18, 1941, where she was murdered.

Ernst's brother Manfred Jacobsohn was incarcerated in a concentration camp in 1938, most likely following the November pogrom. After his release at the end of 1938, he fled to the Netherlands at the age of 16 but did not (or couldn't?) go to Palestine. He was interned in the Westerbork transit camp, from where he was deported to Auschwitz in November 1943; there he was murdered on January 2, 1944. He was 21 years old.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.berlin.de
www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de
www.myheritage.com

Jonas, Max Gerhard
Gerhard (Gershon) Jonas
  • Gerhard Jonas
  • Gershon Jonas
  • גרשון יונס
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 16.4.1921
Berlin
German

Gerhard Jonas (later: Gershon Jonas) was born on April 16, 1921, in Berlin, the son of Erich Jonas, Dr. PhD, and Annie Gertrud Jonas (née Loewenthal). He had one brother, Peter Lutz (1924).

His father, Erich Jonas, owned a hat decorations factory in Berlin. He would die in November 1938 "as a result of the stress of having to forcibly turn over his business because of anti-Jewish legislation".

After completing school in 1937, Gerhard attended a private Jewish school to learn English in order to attend University in England. An excellent student, he had planned to become a lawyer, but the antisemitism in Germany drew him into the circle of Zionist groups and, having become an ardent Zionist, he eventually decided to go to Palestine instead. His mother desperately wanted both her sons to leave Germany but at the beginning didn't want Gershon going to Palestine; she preferred that he go to England.

"When I completed school (at the end of 1937) [my parents] didn't know what to do with me. I went to a private Jewish school, learning English. Matriculation exams were in English so that I could go to university in England. But this was not what I wanted to do.

My mother resigned herself to the idea of my going to Palestine. She realized that I had no future in Germany."

Gershon left Germany in September 1938 and came to the Netherlands where he would follow agricultural training in Werkdorp Wieringermeer:

"I decided together with Mother to go to Holland for agricultural training. She did not want me staying in Germany because it was too dangerous. My father agreed because there was no other choice."

Although the departure of the Dora would be delayed time and again (it would be another seven months before the Dora would finally leave in July), the planning for the trip was ongoing, with passengers starting to be chosen as early as December or January. In January 1939, Gershon made the decision to go to Palestine, against his mother's wishes, as evidenced by two family letters:

January 14, 1939:
"I expect that you know about Gerhard. He is phoning this evening to say goodbye to Mother and Brother. Without direct consent from Annie [his mother], he has decided to go to Palestine with his Zionist group. He says he had been the only hesitant one. We can only wish with all our hearts, that this will be lucky for him."

Another letter reinforces how vague and uncertain the plans for the Dora were at this early stage: somehow, it was believed that the departure could be imminent, even though a ship had not yet been purchased, and would not be ready to leave for another six months:

January 31, 1939:
"Gerhard [...] still does not know the day of his departure, but it could well happen these days. I find it difficult to write to him, because he made the decision against his mother's wishes and against ours. But who can know what is right?”

It would be another six months before Gershon was finally able to board the Dora. About the journey, Gershon later recalled:

"We got on a ship of Greek sailors and a Greek Captain. [...] The second officer of the ship was Danish, and there was a Spaniard from the Spanish Civil War. [...]

Four hundred passengers were on that ship. [...] It took one month to get from Holland to Palestine. [...] The ship was very crowded, we slept on the floor. [...] I remember sailors fighting among themselves over one girl! [...] At one point, we drank only boiled salt water mixed with tea and ate only biscuits."

"[We] sailed to Turkey. There was a leak in the water pipes and no more food. There were orders from the Haganah to wait in Turkey, but then the Greek Captain got cold feet. He thought the British would capture his ship, or that he would be arrested. We had been two weeks at sea, and another week in Turkey when the Greek sailors said, 'We only got paid for two weeks, and we've been three weeks on the way. We won't continue until we get more money.' Four hundred dollars was collected from the Jewish passengers.

We got news from the Haganah to proceed, so we sailed through the British blockade at night. We jumped to the water, the children were taken by boat*, and we got to land. Haganah soldiers were on land with rifles... I had never seen that before! The Jewish settlements surrounding the ship's landing area had a festival. They had invited the British and got them drunk."

(This testimony is notable for two reasons. It is the only memoir that provides a credible explanation of what caused the rebellion: not only had the voyage taken longer than planned, but the Dora had not been meant to leave international waters until a last minute change of plan that would now put the ship at risk of being impounded by the British Authorities. The other surprise is the mention of children beting taken by boat. Although there are a few very brief and rare mentions of young orphans having been on the Dora, it is generally believed that there were no passengers younger than 15 aboard, and no evidence of their presence has been found so far.)

Gershon concluded:

"Just an empty ship left on shore was what the British patrol encountered the next morning."

This most likely refers to a lifeboat that had been left behind, although details about what happened to it seem to vary. The Dora, however, sailed away and was not discovered by the British.

He explained how he was able to avoid getting caught by the British:

"I got papers. A British officer was bribed to give identity papers to illegal immigrants, and that's how we became legal."

About life in Palestine, Gershon said:

"I was sent to Kibbutz Kfar Ruppin in the Jordan Valley in November 1939. It was very hot and very primitive. We lived in a wooden house, six in one room; there was also a tent. [...] Up until 1943 I was farming, draining swamps and planting bushes."

Gershon enlisted in the Palmach in the 7th company, within the German division. He went through a military course and trained with his friends to operate in the rear of the German enemy. In the end, they only practiced because Rommel was defeated in Egypt. He said:

"In 1943* (or 1944), I volunteered for the Palmach. A unit was established of young German Jews to act as guerrillas behind German lines, (in case) the war would reach Palestine."

He also participated in "the Saison" operations to suppress the Irgun's insurgency against the government of the British Mandate in Palestine.

He then enlisted together with the members of his department in the Jewish Brigade. In 1944* (or 1945), I volunteered to the 'Jewish Brigade' along with 5,000 other Jews in Palestine."

During the War of Independence, he served as deputy commander of a platoon in the 13th Battalion of the Golani Brigade. He participated in battles against the Iraqis in and around Jenin, in battles on the Egyptian front, on Hill 86 in front of Khan Yunis and took part in the occupation of Eilat.

In Israel he adopted the name Gershon Jonas. He married Tirza Möller and the couple had two children. He was a farmer in the Bnei Dror Moshav. He later also served as a tour guide for tourists.

Gershon died in May 2012 in Bnei Dror, Israel.


Gershon's father Erich Jonas died in November 1938 (55) "as a result of the stress of having to forcibly turn over his business because of anti-Jewish legislation".

His mother, now Annie Gertrud Klestadt after her second marriage in 1940, emigrated to the USA.

His brother Peter Lutz Jonas fled on the Kindertransport in 1939. He served in the British Army in WWII and later emigrated to the USA in 1949.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.geni.com
www.palmach.org.il
Oral account by Gershon Jonas recorded by his family ca. 2003-2008, and ca. 2012. Transcript courtesty of his niece, Annette Jonas Galula. (2018)

Kahn, Siegbert
  • Siegbert Kahn
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 5.7.1920
Lichtenfels, Germany
Stateless

Siegbert Kahn was born July 5, 1920, in Lichtenfels, the son of Arthur Kahn, a cattle dealer, and Carry Oppenheimer. The family moved to Memmelsdorf in 1934.

Siegbert Kahn left Memmelsdorf at the end of October 1936 and came to the Netherlands. There he joined Werkdorp Nieuwesluis (Werkdorp Wieringermeer) in December of that year.

In Israel, Siegbert Kahn lived in Sha'ar HaNegev. He later changed his name to Simcha Cohen.

Simcha Cohen (Siegbert Kahn) died in December 2004 in Beit Ha Shita, Israel.


His father commited suicide in the Ebern police jail in November 1937. His mother Carry Kahn, his uncle Berthold Kahn, his aunt Mina Kahn and their son Manfred Kahn were deported from Munich to Kaunas (Kovno) on November 20, 1941, where they were murdered five days later in the Ninth Fort massacre.

Sources: Steven Kahn (2019)
www.ushmm.org
maapilim-org-il
spurenimvest.de

Kampf, Heinrich
  • Heinrich Kampf
  • Uri Oren*
  • אורי אורן
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 24.2.1916*
Vienna
German

Heinrich Kampf (later: Uri Oren*) was born February 24, 1915*, in Vienna, the youngest son of Aaron Adolf Kampf, a representative and commercial clerk, originally from Opatowice, Poland, and Lea Buxdorf, from Brody. He had two brothers, Siegfried (1906) and Alfred (1911), and one sister, Regina (1908). The family lived in Vienna since 1904.

Heinrich Kampf left Austria and came to Germany for his hachshara. He lived in Augsburg in Bavaria from November 11 1938 to January 17 1939. He presumabley attended one of the two agricultural and horticultural training centers organized by HeChalutz located near Augsburg, Bannacker or Fischach. He then briefly returned to Austria.

On February 13, 1939, back in Vienna, Heinrich filled out an emigration application with the IKG (Vienna Jewish Community). He planned to go to the Netherlands to attend a hachshara. He stated his intention to leave for Holland on February 25, and that he was in possession of a valid passport (issued in Augsburg on January 11 1939) and the necessary entry visa. Two days later, on February 15, he was alloted 45RM to travel to the Netherlands, and an additional 30RM allowance by the emigration department of the Jewish Community.

At the time, Heinrich was almost 24 years old. He was single and didn't list a profession aside from "intern" with hachshara training. In addition to German, he spoke "Ivrit" - modern Hebrew.

Although in posession of a valid passport and entry visa, Heinrich Kampf's name doesn't appear on Dutch resident registers. It is assumed that he attended Werkdorp Wieringermeer from late February or early March 1939 until his departure on the Dora in mid-July that year.

Note: the following is believed to be correct based on circumstancial evidence. See footnote (*).

In Eretz Israel, Heinrich Kampf changed his name to Uri Oren.

He met his future wife Edna while living in Haifa and they were married in 1947. The couple had two children and decided to move to a kibbutz. His wife however fell ill, and after her death, Uri and his two children came to Kibbutz Galed.

Uri Oren died in Kibbutz Galed in July 1982. He was 67.


His father, Aaron Kampf, filled out an emigration application in Vienna in July 1938 for himself, his wife and two of his sons, Alfred and Siegfried. He was hoping to get to the USA where a brother of his lived in the Bronx, or to Palestine. His effort to get his family out were in vain. Heinrich's parents Aron and Lea Kampf, and his two brothers Siegfried and Alfred Kampf, were deported from Vienna to Kovno (Kaunas) in Lithuania on November 23 1941. They were murdered on arrival six days later on November 29, 1941.

His sister, Regina Katz, and her husband, Siegfried Katz, emigrated to Shanghai around March 1939. According to Uri Oren's obituary, they later came to Palestine, then emigrated to Australia.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Application)
www.galed.org.il (obituary)
www.myheritage.com (father's Vienna application)
yvng.yadvashem.org
www.myheritage.com (sister's Vienna application)

Note: The passenger list incorrectly has his year of birth as 1916 instead of 1915.

* It is almost certain that Heinrich Kampf later changed his name to Uri Oren. According to his obituary in Kibbutz Galed, Uri Oren was born on 24.2.1915. Heinrich Kampf, whose name appears on the Amsterdam list, is the only man from Vienna born that day who had a family matching the obituary (parents and 2 brothers who were murdered, one sister who emigrated). One possible discrepancy: according to the Vienna immigration form, his sister and her husband emigrated to Shanghai; the obituary however states that she came to Palestine "after" her brother and that they lived together in Haifa, before finally emigrating to Australia. It is possible that the "after" means the period immediately after the end of the war.

Kapelner Heinrich
  • Heinrich Kapelner
  • Heinrich Kapellner
  • Haim Heini Kaplaner
  • חיים הייני קפלנר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 31.3.20
Köln
Polish

Heinrich Kapelner (later: Haim "Heini" Kaplaner, or Kapelner?) was born March 31, 1920, in Cologne, the son of Yehuda and Miriam Kapelner.

Heinrich Kapelner left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer. He was registered in Barsingerhorn in the Stichting Joosche Arbeid in December 1936, then was registered on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer.

He was married to (unknown) Braun and the couple had two children. Heinrich Kapelner changed his name to Haim Kapelner.

Haim (Heinrich) Kapelner died in 2008 and is burried in Yehud Monosson.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com

Katz, Albert (Katz, Abraham)
  • Albert Katz
  • Abraham Katz
  • אברהם אלברט כץ
The Deventer Society (Weelsche Broek)
(Deventer society: Papenstraat 45, Deventer)
Weelsche Broek Papenstraat 45, Deventer
p.a. Gerritsen
1.7.1916
Nyirgelse
Hungarian

Albert Abraham Katz was born in Nyírgelse, a village near in Nyírmihálydi in Hungary, on July 7, 1916, the son of Lajos Katz, from Máriapócs, and Eszter née Fellner, from Fényeslitke. He had two siblings: Szerena (1912) and Ferencz (1914)

Albert's father, Lajos Katz, died in 1916 of pneumonia, two months after Abraham was born. His mother, Eszter Katz, died in 1924 when Abraham was 8 years old.

Albert Katz came to the Netherlands and was registered in Hengelo, along with Günter Russ, another Dora passenger.

Abraham Albert Katz married Rachel Spitzer in Haifa and the couple had one child.

Abraham Albert Katz died in Haifa in 2010.

Abraham Albert Katz appears in one list as "Abraham Katz" and in another as "Albert Katz", both from Hungary; Only one entry has a date of birth, so it's impossible to confirm that both entries are for the same person. One entry lists the Deventer Society (Weelsche Broek), last address: p.a. Gerritsen. The other the Deventer society, Papenstraat 45, Deventer.


His brother, Ferencz (Francois) Katz emigrated to Palestine in November 1935.
His sister, Szerena Rajnai (Róth), either survived or emigrated.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Dutch residence)

Katz, Susi
Susi Katz - Shulamit Bar-Shalom.
  • Susi Katz
  • Susi Friedmann
  • Shulamit Katz Bar-Shalom
  • שולמית בר-שלום
  • זוזי בר-שלום
  • שולמית בר שלום (פרידמן) (לבית כץ)
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 25.7.1918
Posen
German

Susi Katz (later: Shulamit Bar-Shalom) was born on July 25, 1918, in Posen, Germany (now: Poznań, Poland), the daughter of Ludwig Katz and Hedwig Katz (born Engel). She had one brother, Theodor (Tuvya) (1914). Her father died in 1924, when Susi was 5 years old.

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Contact us to gain access to this profile.
Katzenstein, Gerhard
Gerhard Katzenstein
  • Gerhard Katzenstein
  • Gershom Nevo
  • גרשם נבו (קצב)
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.7.1920*
Berlin
Stateless

Gerhard Katzenstein (later: Gershom Nevo) was born July 5, 1920*, in Berlin, the son of Simon Katzenstein and Henriette (Jettka) Katzenstein (born Rubin). He had two siblings, Hans Siegmund (1916) and Anna Sophie (1918).

Gerhard Katzenstein changed his name to Gershom Nevo.

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Kaufmann, Ellen
  • Ellen Kaufmann
  • אלן קאופמן
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.1.1920*
Berlin
German

Ellen Margot Kaufmann was born on January 28, 1920, in Berlin, the daughter of Alfred Kaufmann and Paula Lea Adler. The second child in a family of four children, she had two brothers: Ernst (1918) and Herbert Peter (1925) and one sister, Ruth (1923).

According to Ellen's memorial page, "[She] was born to a family rooted in Germany for hundreds of years, and only when Hitler came to power did they realize their Jewish affiliation."

In October 1933, the Kaufmann family emigrated to the Netherlands, and there the four children joined the Zionist youth movement Maccabi HaTsair. Ellen later went to agricultural training, apparently against the will of her father. This training would last for three years, because the Netherlands, considered safe for Jews - unlike Germany or Austria - did not get certificates for Palestine. In April 1938, Ellen joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer, and, on July 16, boarded the Dora with her brother, Ernst Kaufmann.

Ellen and her brother Gad joined Kibbutz HaBoneh in Hadera (now Dorot), but the Kibbutz life did not suit her and she left for Haifa where she got married. Her marriage would not last and Ellen built an independent life for herself, including a long stint managing the tourist shop on an Israeli ship, which allowed her to sail around the world. Following the closing of the Zim passenger lines, she eventually moved to Kfar Menachem where her brother Gad lived.

Ellen Kaufmann died in Kibbutz Kfar Menachem in October 1983.


Ellen's parents, Alfred and Paula Kaufmann received "Palestine certificates" as part of a prisonner exchange, and were among a group of 222 Jews incarcerated in Bergen-Belsen who were exchanged for German Templars from Palestine interned by the British. They arrived in Haifa in July 1944.

Her brother Ernst (Gad) Kaufmann was also on the Dora. Her sister Ruth Salamon also emigrated to Palestine.

Ellen's brother, Peter Kaufmann was sent to the Westerbork transit camp on July 6, 1942. His fate is unknown.

Note: The memorial page for Ellen Kaufmann from Kibbutz Kfar Menachem lists her date of birth as January 20, 1920.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.kfar-menachem.org.il

Kaufmann, Ernst
Ernst Kaufmann

Photo: Roman Vishniac

  • Ernst Kaufmann
  • Gad Kaufmann
  • Gad Canaan
  • גד כנען (קאופמן)
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.9.1918
Berlin
Stateless

Ernst Kaufmann (later: Gad Canaan) was born on September 22, 1918, in Berlin, the son of Alfred Kaufmann and Paula Lea Adler. The eldest in a family of four children, he had two sisters, Ellen (1920) and Ruth (1923), and one brother, Herbert Peter (1925).

According to his sister Ellen's memorial page, "[He] was born to a family rooted in Germany for hundreds of years, and only when Hitler came to power did they realize their Jewish affiliation."

In October 1933, the Kaufmann family emigrated to the Netherlands, and there the four children joined the Zionist youth movement Maccabi HaTsair. Ernst belonged to the Werkleute movement and in February 1937, he registered as a trainee at the Werkdorp Nieuwe Sluis in Barsingerhorn (Het Joods Werkdorp). He was then re-registered with all Werkdorper at the Wieringer Meer Werkdorp, where his sister joined him in April 1938. There he met his friends Omri Mainzer and Moshe Israel.

Ernst Kaufmann appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniac in the work camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1938 or 1939.

On July 16, along with 75 other members of the Werkdorp, he boarded the Dora with his sister, Ellen Kaufmann and with other members of the "Elgavish" nucleus.

He first came to the "Habonim" nucleus in Hadera, which was intended for Kibbutz Dorot, but left and moved to Kibbutz Hazorea, and from there in 1941 to the "Elgavish" nucleus in Ra'anana, a kibbutz composed mainly of veterans of the German Hashomer Hatzair, which then merged in July 1943 with Kibbutz Kfar Menachem.

He enlisted in the British Army in a transport unit [other source has "Company 870 of the engineering corps"] and reached Basra in Iraq. At the end of the war, he was released from the British Army and joined the kibbutz. [other source has "After his release from the brigade, he served as a policeman in the mandate police until the establishment of the IDF.] In Israel, he changed his name to Gad Canaan.

After the War of Independence, he enlisted in the IDF and took part in Operation Kadesh (1956 Sinai Campaign), later serving as a military instructor in the Ministry of defense. From there he joined the Ministry of Agriculture as an agricultural instructor in Iran and Nepal. Gad later returned to the kibbutz.

After his release from the army he traveled across the world: South and North Poles, North and South America, Alaska, Africa, Europe, India, Australia and New Zealand. He mastered four languages: Hebrew, English, German and Dutch.

Gad Canaan (Ernst Kaufmann) never married and didn't start a family. He died in Kfar Menachem in 2002.


His parents, Alfred and Paula Kaufmann received "Palestine certificates" as part of a prisonner exchange, and were among a group of 222 Jews incarcerated in Bergen-Belsen who were exchanged for German Templars from Palestine interned by the British. They arrived safely in Haifa in July 1944.

His sister, Ellen Kaufmann, another passenger on the Dora, and his sister Ruth Salamon also came to Palestine.

His brother, Peter Kaufmann was sent to the Westerbork transit camp on July 6, 1942. His fate is not known.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
Photo by Roman Vishniac, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
Joods Cultureel Kwartier
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
www.infocenters.co.il/yadyaari
archive.kfm.org.il

Klestadt, Hans (Kleestadt)
  • Hans Klestadt
  • Hanan Keret
  • חנן קרת
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.4.1920
Geseke
German

Hans Klestadt (later: Hanan Keret) was born April 19, 1920 in Geseke, the son of Berthold Klestadt, a doctor, and Toni Sahmer. Hans had a younger brother, Bernhard (Bernt) Klestadt (1923).

His father died in August 1923 when Hans was 3 years old. The family later moved to Cologne, possibly because of Klestadt relatives who ran the Rheinische Papierwaren-Fabrik Max Klestadt.

Hans left Cologne on July 15, 1936, and came to The Hague in the Netherlands. In February 1937 he joined the Werkdorp Nieuwe Sluis (Werkdorp Wieringermeer). In July 1939, Hans boarded the Dora for Palestine together with other chalutzim from the Werkdorp and his future wife, Ruth Birnbaum.

Hans married Ruth (Grete) Birnbaum, another passenger of the Dora. In Israel Hans Klestadt changed his name to Hanan Keret. The couple lived in Kvar Sava and had two daughters.

Hanan Keret died August 22, 1992 in Berlin. He is buried in Kvar Sava.


His mother died in Cologne in May 1938.

His brother Bernt Klestadt (Benjamin Bobby Keret) emigrated to Israel.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de

Kornicker, Peter, J.
  • Peter Kornicker
  • Peter Joachim Kornicker
  • Dan Karni
  • פטר קורניקר
  • דן קרני
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.12.1917
Breslau
German

Peter Joachim Kornicker (later: Dan Karni) was born December 14, 1917, in Breslau, the son of Georg Korniker, a lawyer and notary born in Breslau, and Herta Cohen. His mother died in 1919 while he was still one year old. His father married Else Hirshel in a second marriage.

Peter came to the Netherlands where he attended a Hachschara. In September 1937, he registered in Barsingerhorn, the location of Het Joods Werkdorp. Another future Dora passenger, Marianne Bing was registered there at the same time. Kornicker had previously been registered in Borne, near Hengelo. He left on January 2 1938 for Wieringermeer.

In Israel, he married Hanna (Herta) Abrams and the couple had three children. He changed his name to Dan Karni. At first, he resided in a kibbutz. He then joined the Jewish Brigade from 1942 to 1946, and sustained a serious injury in combat. He later joined the Israel Army, which he did not leave until the age of 55. An official in the Ashkelon City Council, he also volunteered for the police department and for Magen David Adom.

Dan Karni (Peter Kornicker) died in Ashkelon in February 1985.


His father, Georg Korniker, was deported to Auschwitz on March 4, 1943 with his second wife, Else Korniker, where they were murdered.

Sources:
Mitteilungen des Verbandes Ehemaliger Breslauer, via Knut Bergbauer.
www.myheritage.com (Dutch residence registration)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
yvng.yadvashem.org

Lampelz, Saul
  • Saul Lampelz
  • Isidor Saul Eisig Lampelz
  • Saul Eisig (Isidor) Lampelz
  • Isaac Ben Hanoch
  • יצחק בן חנוך
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 27.10.1920
Stuttgart
Polish

Saul Eisig (Isidor) Lampelz (later: Isaac Ben Hanoch) was born on October 27, 1920, in Stuttgart, the son of Enoch Heinrich Lampelz and Udel Fiskus, both originally from Galicia. He was the eldest of five children, his siblings being: Klara (1919), Rose (1922), Julius (1925) and Max Maksymiljan (1928). [possibly four more siblings.]

His father had come to Stuttgart in 1907 at the age of 20. There he ran a successful fabric and white linen business. According to a compensation claim filed after the war,

"Before 1933, [he] earned a very good income from his business and was able to support his numerous family in a middle-class manner."

In the summer of 1937 Saul emigrated to the Netherlands with his brother Julius, and Saul joined the Aguda (Religious Zionist) training camp in Enschede. His brother Julius - probably too young to join the Hachshara as he was only 12 - went on to Amsterdam, where he was deported as a foreigner after three months. He then tried to get to Antwerp in Belgium but was not successful and eventually returned to Stuttgart.

On July 16, Saul traveled to Amsterdam about 100 miles away to board the Dora. It's assumed that he was with the group of seven youngsters from the Enschede Hachshara. According to the daily "Het Volk", "The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

Saul Lampelz later changed his name in Israel to Yitzhak Ben Hanoch. He was married and had two children.

Yitzhak Ben Hanoch (Lampelz) died in September 1972 (51) and is buried in Kiryat Bialik.


Saul's parents, Enoch Heinrich and Udel Lampelz, were deported from Stuttgart to Riga on December 1, 1941. They were later murdered in Riga at the end of March 1942 in a mass shooting during the so-called Dünamünde Action.
Saul's youngest brother Max Lampelz was also deported to Riga on December 1, 1941. He vanished in the Shoah around the age of 14.
His sister Klara Muniches (Lampelz) also disappeared in the Shoah. Her last sign of life came from the Lodz ghetto in 1941.

Saul's sister Rosa Lampelz (Rosa Pickholtz?) was able to escape Europe in January 1941 with a group of Chaluzim via Moscow, Odessa and Istanbul, finally arriving in Haifa on March 12, 1941. She later married Pickholz.

Saul's brother Julius Lampelz fled to Yugoslavia in March 1940, then finally reached Palestine in April 1941 via Greece, Turkey and Syria before his sixteenth birthday.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.stolpersteine-stuttgart.de
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com

Landsberger, Walter
  • Walter Landsberger
  • Walter Zeev Landsberger
  • וולטר לנדסברגר
  • וולטר זאב לנדסברגר
The Deventer Society (Klarenbeek bij Voorst) KLARENBEEK bij Voorst Papenstraat 45, Deventer 20.3.1920
Goslar
German

Walter Landsberger (later: Zeev Landsberger) was born March 20, 1920, in Goslar, Germany, the son of William Landsberger and Gertrud Landsberger (born Friedmann). He had one older brother, Max (1915). His mother died two weeks after his birth in April 1920.

Because his whereabouts following the November Pogrom match the experience of other Elgut pioneers, it is almost certain that Walter Landsberger attended the Elgut Hachshara. Following the so-called "November Pogrom" ("Kristallnacht"), he was brought in from Oppeln and incarcerated in Buchenwald on November 12. His incarceration card described him as an agricultural worker, and his address was listed as "Aunt Anna Friedmann, Römhild/Thür". He was released from Buchenwald on November 30.

His last residence in Germany was Bielefeld, after which he came to the Netherlands.

(According to Kurt Nattenheimer's testimony, the young men from Elgut were taken to Oppeln then to Buchenwald. After their release, they were concentrated in Bielefeld, from where they were escorted by the Gestapo to the Netherlands.)

In Israel, he lived in Beit Yitzhak. He was married and had three children.

Walter Landsberger died in January 2001 in Beit Yitzhak.


His brother Max Landsberger emigrated to South Africa.
His father William Landsberger emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
Amnon Rimon
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
collections.arolsen-archives.org

Leefsma, Eduard (Eddy)
  • Eduard Leefsma
  • Eliahu Leefsma
  • אליהו ליפסמא
  • לפסמה אליהו
(Zenderen) ZENDEREN; near Borne 1.5.1917*
Den Haag
Dutch

Eduard (Eddy) Leefsma (later: Eliahu Leefsma) was born on May 31, 1917, in The Hague, the son of Mozes (Moshe) Leefsma, a commercial agent, and Marianne (Miriam), née Snijders. He had three siblings: Ella (1920), Raphaël (1924), and Fritz (1931). In 1927 the family moved to Amsterdam.

To prepare for his immigration, Eduard first went to the hamlet of Rande no. 230 near Diepenveen to Hasselo. From June 1938 to February 1939 he then lived in Hasselo no. 55 on the farm 'De Bongerd' of the family of Jan Lambertus Snuverink. He then stayed with the Smit family in Zenderen. He passed the two-year agricultural course at Zenderen in April 1939, then left for the youth hostel 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk. Finally, in July 1939, Eduard left for Palestine on the Dora.

He first joined Kvutzat Huliot, which later became Kibbutz Sde Nehemia, where he lived from 1939 until 1945. He changed his name to Eliahu Leefsma. He married the widow Clara Helena Goldschmidt and the couple had two children together.

Eliahu (Eduard) Leefsma died in January 2009 in Yokne'am, Israel.


Eliahu Leefsma compiled a list of 31 family members who were victims of the Shoah.

His parents, Moshe Leefsma (50) and Marianne Leefsma (50), and his brothers Raphaël (19), and Fritz (12), were murdered in Sobibór on July 23, 1943.
His sister Ella Nenner (23) and her husband were murdered in Sobibór on November 30, 1943.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
archief.amsterdam
www.geni.com
www.sde-nehemia.com
billiongraves.com

*Note: the passenger list has an incorrect date of birth. The correct date is May 31, 1917, as it appears on his birth record.

Lesser, Eva
  • Eva Lesser
  • Eva Schmerzler
  • Chava Schmerzler
  • חוה שמרצלר
  • Chava Shomrat
  • חוה שמרת
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk 26.4.1919
Berlin
German

Eva Therese Lesser (later Chava Shomrat) was born on April 26, 1919, in Berlin, the daughter of Robert Lesser and Flora Mathilde Lesser (born Ring). She had one brother, Alfred. He mother died in 1937 when Eva was 18 years old.

Eva grew up in a very well-established home in Berlin and studied medicine, but was thrown out of school by the Nazis in her second year at the university.

Eva Lesser left Berlin and came to the Netherlands and from there boarded the Dora.

She first joined Kibbutz Yagur where she met her future husband, Eli Schmerzler. They were married in Rishon LeZion in 1939 and in January 1940 moved to Nahariya. She changed her name to Chava Shomrat. The couple had two sons.

Chava Shomrat was a girls' gymnastics teacher. She also continued with physiotherapy treatments, which she had studied in Berlin/Germany and was a caregiver for children infected with polio.

Chava Shomrat (Eva Lesser) died in May 1986 in Nahariya.


Her father Robert Lesser survived the war and is buried in the Netherlands.
Her brother Alfred Lesser emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
museum.rutkin.info (Obit)
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
museum.rutkin.info (Obit)
web.archive.org (Obit)
Communication with her niece, Naomi Clayden (November 2022)

Note: Shimon Berlinger, another Dora passenger was married to an unrelated Eva Lesser.

Levie, Kurt
  • Kurt Levie
  • Kurt Levi
  • קורט לוי
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam 7.10.1912*
Essen
Polish**

Kurt Levie was born on October 7, 1920*, in Essen, the son of Hugo Levie, from Hamburg, and Olga Henriette Schweizer, from Wesel. He had an older brother, Rudy.

Kurt attended the Hachshara Lehrgut Gut Winkel near Spreenhagen from 1935 to 1937. According to the Hachshara register, he was a Dutch citizen (and not Polish as recorded on the passenger list). His residence in 1936 was listed as Kaldenkirchen, near the Dutch border. From 1937 until April 20, 1938, he attended another Hachshara in Grüsen, Hesse.

Kurt then came to Amsterdam in April 1938, presumably with his family. There he joined the "Pioneer" (Hechalutz) movement.

In June 1939 he met his future wife Hetty (Heintje) Worms in the Beit Chalutz in Amsterdam, with whom he would board the Dora a month later.

In December 1939, his personal file in the Amsterdam Archives marked him as "V.O.W." (Vertrokken onbekend waarheen: "Left town, destination unknown").

Upon their arrival, Kurt and Hetty joined Kibbutz Yagur and got married in 1941. the couple had three children.

In 1944 he enlisted in the British Army, where he served for four years as a driver. In 1950 he started working as a member of "Egged", where he worked until his retirement.

Kurt Levi died in October 2008, on his 88th birthday.


Kurt's mother, Olga Levie (Schweizer) was arrested in Amsterdam on December 23, 1942 for not wearing the "Jewish star", and for carrying forged papers. She was murdered in Auschwitz on January 14, 1943.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.ushmm.org
archief.amsterdam
archief.amsterdam
spurenimvest.de
pneiyagur.co.il
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)

* Note: The Amsterdam list has 7.10.1912, but should read 7.10.20, as it appears on two different Hachshara lists, in his personal file in the Amsterdam Archives, and in his obituary. ** Also, Kurt Levie was born in Germany but was a Dutch citizen. There seems to have been a mixup in passengers list which listed him as Polish.
There are many discrepancies between his obituary, and various surviving records. For instance, his obituary states that he was born in the Netherlands, whereas the passenger list has him born in Essen. According to his obituary, Kurt Levie came to the Netherlands after the death of his father, but, according to Dutch archives, his father died in the Netherhalands in 1929 and died in 1942. In addition, there is a file in the Dutch archives for a Kurt Levie being fit for army service in Holland. It is not clear if this was indeed the case, or if this is about a different individual. His obituary clearly states that he boarded the Dora with his future wife Hetty.

Levy, Hans
  • Hans Levy
  • Hanan Levy
  • חנן לוי
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.7.1918
Berlin
German

Hans Levy (later: Hanan Levy) was born on July 6, 1918, in Berlin, the son of Abraham (Adolf) Levy, from Strzałkowo (Poland), and Marta Levy (born Buttermilch), from Lisa (Poland).

Hans left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he attended Werkdorp Wieringermeer to prepare for his emigration.

He later changed his name to Hanan Levy and was married to Rita Friedmann. The couple had one child.

Hanan (Hans) Levy died in January 1998 in Jerusalem.


According to Hanan's testimony, his parents were deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto where they died in 1943. Other sources have: "Deported to the Kovno Ghetto were they were murdered: his mother Marta Levy on November 25 1941; his father, Abraham (Adolf) Levy on August 26 1942."

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Levy, Ruth
  • Ruth Levy
  • Ruth Teichler
  • רות לוי
  • רות טייכלר
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 22.3.1921
Ahrweiler
German

Ruth Levy (later: Ruth Teichler) was born March 22, 1921, in Ahrweiler, the only child of Wilhelm Levy, from Ahrweiler, and Recha Kaufmann. Her father was a cattle dealer and the synagogue leader. In 1933 Ahrweiler was home to 31 Jewish residents.

Ruth Levy attented Kalvarienberg Gymnasium (Calvarienberg) in Ahrweiler until 1937. It was a private Catholic high school run by nuns, and she was one of seven Jewish students there. Hilde Reiter, another Jewish student who attended the school at the same time as Ruth recalled:

"In my time there were seven Jewish students on Calvary. [...] The youngest was Ruth Levy from Ahrweiler. [...] The Sisters on Calvary treated us just like any other student. [...] Most of [my] classmates were very nice, at least until 1934. After that, many joined the Hitler Youth, and most of them went across the street when they saw me coming."

With the increasing violence against the Jews, Ruth Levy decided to secretly flee Germany and she left in 1938 at the age of 17, against the will and without the knowledge of her parents. She came to the Netherlands where she joined Kibbutz Dat veEretz, a religious-Zionist Hachshara of the Mizrachi movement.

In Israel Ruth Levy married Emil (Menachem) Teichler. At the time of his naturalisation application in 1946, he was a diamond cutter and lived in Jerusalem. Ruth and Emil had two (or three?) children.

Ruth Teichler (Levy) died in June 2009 and was buried in Tel Aviv.


Ruth's parents, Wilhelm and Recha Levy, were deported to the Krasniczyn Ghetto in Poland in late April or early May 1942, and were murdered in Treblinka.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
docplayer.org (Stolpersteine)
relaunch.kreis-ahrweiler.de
www.bad-neuenahr-ahrweiler.de
billiongraves.com

Lewinsky, Hans, Arnold
  • Hans Lewinsky
  • Hans Arnold Lewinsky
  • Chanan Arnold Levinsky
  • Arnold Levinsky
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.12.1919
Neustettin
German

Hans Arnold Lewinsky (later: Arnold Levinsky) was born December 6, 1919, in Neustettin, the son of Leo Lewinsky and Grete Lewinsky (born Engel). He had one brother, Gerhard (Shlomo) (1914).

The family moved to Bad Polzin where Hans attended school. In 1935, sixteen-year-old Hans was abruptly called out of his classroom and into the office of the director of his high school, who informed him that his fellow students refused to continue learning as long as there were Jews in the classroom. He was ordered to leave immediately.

Following this event, Hans Lewinsky joined his brother in the Lehrgut Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreehagen in August 1935.

In 1938, he left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer. Within a year, he received a telegram advising him to leave shortly for Palestine on an illegal ship - the Dora. Four weeks later, Hans boarded the Dora in Amsterdam.

According to "Arnold Levinsky: A Soldier of the Jewish Brigade", by the Museum of Jewish Heritage, "It was hardly a coincidence that shortly before the ship's arrival the British coast guard facility had been bombed by the Haganah. [...] Under cover of night, Levinsky and the other halutzim swam ashore, and walked miles to a kibbutz, where they spent their first night in 'Eretz Israel'. The next morning, Zionist dream met the tough reality of primitive living conditions and severe food shortages on the kibbutz where Levinsky began to work." Eventually, Lewinsky moved to Kibbutz Ashdot Ya'akov, where be learned the baker's trade.

Arnold Lewinsky enrolled in the British Army with the Palestine Regiment, and in September 1944 became a member of the Jewish brigade group. He worked as a motorcycle dispatch rider in Alexandria, then was dispatched to Italy where the Brigade took part in the early stages of the final Allied offensive in April 1945. After the war, he and other brigade members helped to smuggle survivors from the Displaced Persons camps in Italy into Palestine. Of the 5,000 soldiers who had served in the Jewish Brigade, Chanan Arnold Levinsky was one of 323 members to be decorated.

In Brussels to visit family after the war, Levinsky met his future wife, Mary Offentier, also originally from Germany. She had spent years in hiding in Holland and was liberated in Brussels in 1944.

Levinsky was discharged from the British Army and returned to Palestine, where he saw service in the Israeli War of Independence.

The couple (at least) one child. They eventually emigrated to America in 1957.

Arnold Levinsky (Hans Lewinsky) died in April 1999.


His parents, Leo Lewinsky and Margarete Lewinsky were deported from Berlin to Auschwitz on February 19 1943 were they were murdered.

His brother, Gerhard (Shlomo) Lewinsky, emigrated [presumably to Palestine].

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.ushmm.org
www.imuseum.im
mjhnyc.org

Lewinsohn, Curt
Curt Lewinsohn
  • Curt Lewinsohn
  • Yoram Arieli
  • יורם אריאלי
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 13.12.1912
Osterode
German

Curt Lewinsohn (later: Yoram Ariely) was born December 13, 1912, in Osterode, Prussia (now Ostróda, Poland), the son of Martin Lewinsohn, from Osterode, and Grete Lewinsohn (born Herzfeld), from Peine, Saxony. He had one sister, Hildegard (Hilda) (1916). His father, Martin Lewinsohn, had taken over the family business - a distillery producing liquor, wine, and soda, which also included a bar on the ground floor.

After his "Abitur" (high-school diploma at age 18), Curt went to Freiburg University to study medicine. He was halfway through but unable to continue because of the Nazi laws.

Curt then left Germany and came to the Netherlands and worked in a farm to prepare for a life in Palestine. He first arrived in Lochem on April 23 1937 where he spent six months. He then left on October 21 1937 for the Association of Palestine Pioneers in Deventer.

Curt lived in a kibbutz (possibly Kibbutz Maoz Haim) where he met his wife Miriam Klejmann. He changed his name to Yoram Ariely. In 1946, at the time of his wife's naturalization application, the couple lived in Tel Aviv. He had at least one son.

Yoram Arieli (formerly Curt Lewinsohn) died in January 1982 (69).


After being forced to sign over the family business over to the Nazis, Curt's parents left Osterode and came to Berlin. Martin and Grete Lewinsohn were deported from Berlin to the Riga Ghetto on January 19, 1942 where they were murdered.

Curt's sister Hildegard (Hilda) Goldsmith emigrated to England in April 1939. She later emigrated to the USA after the end of the war.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.berlin.de
www.maozhaim-album.co.il
erfgoedcentrumzutphen.nl
www.myheritage.com

Litten, Harry
  • Harry Litten
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 20.2.1910
Posen
German

Harry Litten was born February 20, 1910, in Posen (now Poznań, Poland), the son of Richard Raphael Litten and Gertrud née Loewy, from Moschin, Poland. He had a brother, Manfred (1909).

The family left Posen and came to Berlin, presumably after 1920 when it became part of Poland following the Treaty of Versailles.

Harry Litten left Berlin and came to the Netherlands. In August 1936 he left Amsterdam and registered in Barsingerhorn (Het Joods Werkdorp) then was registered on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer.

Harry Litten married Ruth Baruch and the couple had one child.

Harry Litten died fighting in Israel's Independence War in May 1948.


Harry's father died in January 1940 in Berlin under unknown circumstances.

His mother, Gertrud Litten, was deported from Berlin to the Warsaw Ghetto on April 14 1942. She is believed to have then been deported to Majdanek, or to Sobibór on June 13 1942.

His brother, Manfred Litten, a teacher, had been a pedagogical director in the Steckelsdorf Hachshara run by Bachad (religious Zionist). He emigrated to the Netherlands and lived in Amsterdam. He was in the "Jewish Farm" in Gouda until July 1943, at which point he was sent to Westerbork. He was then deported from the Westerbork transit camp to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on September 4, 1944, then to Auschwitz on October 1, 1944, where he was murdered. His child Gideon survived the war.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Netherlands Register)
yvng.yadvashem.org
hachschara.juedische-geschichte-online.net (brother in Steckelsdorf)
yvng.yadvashem.org (fate of brother)

Loeb, Hans
Hans Loeb
  • Hans Loeb
  • Hans Ludwig Loeb
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 20.10.1921
Düsseldorf
German

Hans Ludwig Loeb was born on October 20, 1921, in Düsseldorf, the son of Sali August Loeb and Eleonora (Nora) Maurer. He had an older sister, Hannelore (1920) and a younger brother, Fritz (1924).

In January 1934 the Loeb family emigrated from Düsseldorf to Amsterdam. In January, 1938, following in the footsteps of his sister Hannelore, Hans joined the Werkdorp Wieringermeer. Hans Loeb appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniac in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939.


The fate of Hans Loeb's parents and younger brother Fritz is unknown.

His sister, Hannelore Loeb emigrated to Palestine and married Heinz Jacobinski.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
Joods Cultureel Kwartier
photo by Roman Vishniac, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.

Loewenthal, Bernhard
  • Bernhard Wolfgang Löwenthal
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.7.1920
Schoneberg
German

Bernhard Wolfgang Löwenthal was born July 22, 1920, in Berlin.

He left Berlin and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Stichting Joosche Arbeid Werkdorp Nieuwesluis in Barsingerhorn on February 27 1937. He was then registered in Wieringermeer on January 2 1938.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Loszynski, Ernst
Ernst Loszynski
  • Ernst Loszynski
  • Yitzhak Loszynski
  • Ernst Yitzhak Loszynski (Loki)
  • (לוקי) ארנסט יצחק לושינסקי
The Deventer Society (Hall, bij Eerbeek) HALL, bij Eerbeek. p.a. H. J. Maaldering 23.
Papenstraat 45, Deventer
23.4.1919
Breslau*
German

Ernst Loszynski (later: Yitzhak Loszynski) was born on April 23, 1918, in Oschersleben, the son on Nathan Loszynski, a merchant from Schokken, Pomerania (Skoki, Poland), and Martha, née Hirshfeld, from Bromberg (Bydgoszcz). He had three siblings: Miriam Margarete (1911), Dorothea (1913), and Arno Heinz (1914).

His parents first came to Rathenow in Brandenburg, in eastern Germany, where his two sisters were born in 1911 and 1913. The family then moved to Oschersleben, sometime between November 1913 and October 1914, where Ernst and his brother Heinz Arno were born. The family finally settled in Breslau (now Wrocław) sometime after Ernst's birth.

Ernst Loszynski joined the Habonim youth group and presumably attended a Hachsharah in Germany. He may have been incarcerated in a camp for a couple of weeks following the November Pogrom (aka Kristalnacht). After his release he likely would have been directed to the Bielefeld camp where other former Hachshara students were regrouped, and this was his last place of residence in Germany, before emigrating to the Netherlands.

In Israel, he first lived in Raanana and worked in carpentry and agriculture. He changed his name to Yitzhak Loszynski.

Yitzhak Loszynski married Hannah Tuteur and the couple had three children. They lived in Kibbutz Neot Mordechai.

Yitzhak (Ernst) Loszynski died in July 2004 in Kibbutz Neot Mordechai.


His parents, Nathan and Martha Loszynski, were deported from Breslau on May 3, 1942, to Izbica, Lublin, where they were murdered.

His brother, Arno Heinz Loszynski, was incarcerated as a political prisoner in the Brandenburg Görden Prison, a prison for inmates with lengthy or life sentences at hard labor. After his release, he emigrated to Palestine where he died in the Beilinson Hospital in December 1941.

His sister, Miriam Margarete Baruch, née Loszynski, emigrated to Palestine before the war.
His sister, Dorothea (Thea) Ball (née Loszynski, later Strumpf), emigrated to Palestine in April 1937 with her husband, David Ball. .

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
www.myheritage.com (parents)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (brother)

*Breslau is listed as place of birth on the passenger list, but this was his place of residence before coming to the Netherlands. He was born in Oschersleben.

Luft, Günter
  • Günter Luft
  • Eliezer Luft
  • גונטר לופט
  • אליעזר לופט
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Topaasstr. 7. p/a. Koopman 21.9.1912
Lubschau
German

Günter Luft (later: Eliezer Luft) was born on September 21, 1912, in Lubschau, Prussia (now: Lubsza, Poland), the son of Paul Ludwig Luft, an innkeeper from Peiskretscham, Silesia (now Pyskowice, Poland), and Selma née Pinczower, from Tworog, Upper Silesia (now Tworóg, Poland). He had four siblings: Joachim (1910), Hanns* (1915), Elfriede (1916), and one more unnamed sibling.

The Luft family left Lubschau, presumably in 1922 or shortly thereafter, after it was ceded by Germany to Poland, and came to Breslau (Wrocław).

Günter Luft left Breslau and came to the Netherlands, presumably before November 1938, since his name doesn't appear on any list of concentration camp inmates arrested after Kristallnacht. He belonged to the Deventer Association, and there he met his future wife, Alida (Eliza) Verdoner. Together they would board the Dora in Julay 1939.

Günter Luft married Alida (Eliza) Verdoner and the couple had two children. Günter changed his name to Eliezer Luft.

Eliezer (Günter) Luft died in July 1988 and is buried in Haifa.


Eliezer's father, Paul Ludwig Luft, died in June 15 1940, reportedly murdered by the Nazi regime. Circumstances of his death are not known.
Eliezer's mother, Selma Luft, was deported from Breslau on March 4, 1943, to Auschwitz where she was murdered.

His sister, Elfriede Luft, still lived with her parents at the time of the mid-May 1939 Minority Census. She emigrated to England where she worked as an unpaid domestic.
His (presumed) brother Hanns emigrated to Palestine in September 1936.
His brother Joachim and his other unnamed sibling are believed to also have emigrated.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (brother Hanns)
www.geni.com (brother Joachim)
www.myheritage.com (Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com (sister)
www.myheritage.com (father)
collections.arolsen-archives.org (father)
yvng.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
billiongraves.com

*It is assumed that Hanns was one of Gunter's brothers based on circumstancial evidence only.

Mainzer, Alfred
Alfred Mainzer
  • Alfred Mainzer
The Deventer Society (Hummelo) HUMMELO J.E. Hupkes, Op de Kip, A, 109 Hummelo 25.3.1920
Wissek
German

Alfred Mainzer was born March 25, 1920, in Wissek, Posen (Prussia, now Wysoka, Poland), the son of Ernst Mainzer and Olga Salomon. He had a twin brother, Herbert Mainzer, and a half-sister, Ruth Leiser (1914).

The Mainzer family left Wissek and came to Oos, a municipality in Baden-Württemberg in June 1920 following the cession of West Prussia to the Polish Republic under the terms of the Versailles Treaty. Alfred and his twin brother Herbert were just 3 months old when the family moved. There the Mainzers established a store that sold clothing, fabrics and the "trousseau" for young women.

Alfred attended Hachshara in Germany with his twin brother Herbert, as their names appear on a list of members from the Jüdische Jugendhilfe. He later came to the Netherlands, as evidenced by the passenger list which shows he was in Hummelo with the Deventer Society.

Nothing more is known about his life in Palestine.

Alfred Mainzer later left Israel and emigrated to the USA. He lived in San Antonio, Texas and died in 2002.


Alfred's father Ernst Mainzer was incarcerated in Dachau after Kristallnacht on November 12, 1938, where he remained until December 8, 1938. Alfred's parents later obtained an emigration visa for Cuba and embarked on the MS St. Louis on May 13, 1939. The ship was bound for Cuba with 937 passengers, most of them Jewish refugees, but was not allowed to anchor in either Cuba or New York and was forced to return to Europe. The Mainzers were able to come to the Netherlands where they lived for almost three years. Ernst and Olga Mainzer were deported to Auschwitz in August 1942 and were murdered on August 31, 1942.

Alfred's brother Herbert Mainzer attended the Sennfeld Hachshara for two months in 1938. He emigrated to Australia.
His half-sister, Ruth Palmer (Hueneberg) (née Leiser) emigrated to the USA.

Note: The Gedenkbuch mistakenly state that the Mainzer twins emigrated to England on February 1939. This is clearly incorrect in the case of Alfred since he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Sources:
gedenkbuch.baden-baden.de
gedenkbuch.baden-baden.de
www.lorlebergplatz.de
www.ushmm.org
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com (U.S. Social Security Death Index)

Mainzer, Robert
Robert Mainzer, Omri
  • Robert Mainzer
  • Omri Mainzer
  • עמרי רוברט מיינצר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.1920
Lüdinghausen
German

Robert Mainzer (later: Omri Mainzer) was born May 27, 1920, in Lüdinghausen, the son of Fritz Mainzer and Erna Friede. He had one brother, Hans (Jehuda)(1922).

Robert and his brother were born in a house in Lüdinghausen that belonged to their maternal great-grandfather, David Elias. Their great-grandfather had been religious, and the next generation still kept Kosher. Robert's parents however were non-religious Jews and viewed themselves as Germans of the Mosaic faith. Their children, Robert and Hans (Yehuda) "didn't understand why they weren't allowed to eat pork, since it was so tasty".

Robert's parents were sales agents. His mother died in 1930 when Robert was 10 years old, and his father then wed Bina Muhr in a second marriage.

Robert Mainzer attended school from the age of 7 to 16. He didn't belong to any Zionist youth groups in Germany. He left Lüdinghausen and emigrated to the Netherlands October 5, 1936 on his own. A month later he registered in the Wieringen Werkdorp, Nieuwesluizerweg 42, Slootdorp (Wieringen). There, he made friends with people who later came along with him to Israel on the Dora, including Gad Kaufman, Moshe Israel.

In January 1938 Robert Mainzer deregistered from the Werkdorp. [According to Kfar Menachem's obituary, "He left Germany in 1936 and moved to a cattle farm in the Netherlands, where he stayed for three years."]

A year after arriving in Eretz Israel, he decided to join the National Kibbutz Hashomer HaTza'ir movement out of an ideological choice. He joined Kibbutz Elgavish in Ra'anana, a kibbutz composed mainly of veterans of the German Hashomer Hatzair, then, following its merger, came to Kfar Menachem in July 1943 where he would remain for 64 years.

Robert changed name in Israel to Omri Mainzer. He married Laura (Lore) Bender, a holocaust survivor who had come with the S.S. BIRIA, an Aliyah Bet ship in 1946. The couple had three daughters and many grandchildren.

Robert Omri Mainzer died in Kibbutz Kfar Menachem in November 2006.


Omri's father, Fritz Schlomo Mainzer, and his stepmother Bina Mainzer, were able to emigrate to Bolivia through the mediation of an officer from the Dortmund police headquarters. They later emigrated to Israel and lived in Givat Brenner.

His brother Hans Mainzer emigrated to Palestine around 1938 with the help of Hechaluz and also lived in Givat Brenner.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.ushmm.org
spurenimvest.de
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
Tali Avnat, granddaughter of Robert Mainzer (2024)

Maks, Rita (Heintje Hendrika)
  • Heintje Hendrika Maks
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk 23.10.1914
Haarlem
Dutch

Heintje Hendrika Maks was born on October 23, 1914, in Haarlem, Holland, the daughter of Gerard Maks and Lea de Klijn. She worked as a nanny and a maid.

A registration card kept in the Amsterdam archives provides a detailed list of her addresses over the years:
Doesburg, AH (1931), Velsen (1935), Ezinge (1936), Steenderen (1937), Voorschoten (1938), Gron[ingen](November 1938), Palestine (Jan 17, 1939), Amsterdam (March 1948), Margate, GB (1954).

All locations between 1935 and 1938 are small municipalities and villages, suggesting she was receiving agriculture training in various farms.

She left Israel and returned to the Netherlands in 1948, then immigrated to the UK. She married Albert Charles Bennell, and the couple settled in Sydney, Australia.

Rita Benell (Maks) died in 1916, at the age of 101. An inscription on her grave ("Safe in the arms of Jesus") indicates that she had converted.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
billiongraves.com

Margulius, Heinz
  • Heinz Margulius
  • היינץ מרגוליוס
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 28.5.1921
Berlin
German

Heinz Margulius was born May 28, 1921, in Berlin, the son of Heinrich (Chanan) Margulius and Gertrude Salomon.

Heinz Margulius attended the Elgut Hachshara in Steinhau. He was incarcerated in Buchenwald following the November Pogrom. After his release, he went to Bielefeld where the young men from the Hachshara were gathered in a temporary camp before their emigration.

He then came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

Heinz Margulius married Blumah Dudek and the couple had two children.

Heinz Margulius died in January 1998 in Holon.


Heinz' parents emigrated, either to Eretz Israel, or to South America. (His father died in Bolivia where he is buried; it is not clear if this was where he had emigrated, or was simply visiting. His mother remarried and lived in Haifa.)

Sources:
collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com

Marx, Ernst
Ernst Marx 1940's
  • Ernst Marx
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 30.9.1916
Erfurt
German

Ernst Luitpold Marx was born September 30, 1916, in Erfurt, Thuringia, the son of Gabriel Marx and Emma Marx (born Schönfeld).

Ernst Marx left Erfurt and emigrated to the Netherlands as early as January 1937. At the time his profession was listed as decorateur. He resided for a time in Brummen, where several other future Dora passengers also spent time, presumable among farmers as part of an invidivual hachshara. For a short while he belonged to Hashomer Hatzair, the Marxist-Zionist organization. He then left because he [or "it"?] advocated general Socialism and not specifically Jewish-Zionist Socialism.

During World War II he enlisted in the British Army, at first with the "Buffs" (Royal East Kent Regiment), then in making mines (or as a saper?) and reached the rank of sergeant. After his demobilization, the joined the Notrim ("Gaffirs"), an auxiliary Jewish police group under nominal British control. After the end of his service he joined Kibbutz Ma'ayan Tzvi where he found the combination of Zionism and socialism he had been looking for.

At the outbreak of the War of Independence, he specialized in sabotage and served as a sabotage sergeant in the Negev Brigade. Eliyahu fell in "Operation Yoav", on October 16 1948, while attempting to breach a minefield.


Ernst's mother, Emma Marx had emigrated to the Netherlands. She was deported to Gurs in October 1940 where she was murdered on March 25 1943.

The fate of his father is not known.

It is not know if Ernst had any siblings.

Sources:
www.openarch.nl
www.izkor.gov.il
yvng.yadvashem.org

Masur, Klaus
  • Klaus Masur
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.2.1920
Breslau
German

Klaus Masur was born February 29, 1920, in Breslau.

He left Breslau and came to the Netherlands where he registered in Barsingerhorn (Het Joods Werkdorp) on October 4 1937, then in Werkdorp Wieringen three months later on January 2, 1938.

No further information is available.

Sources
www.myheritage.com (Netherlands Register)

Matuszak, David (Mattuscak)
  • David Matuszak
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 24.7.1917
Gelsenkirchen
Polish

David Matuszak was born in Gelsenkirchen on July 24, 1917, the son of Hendryk Chaim Matuszak, from Kalisz (Poland), and Berta (née Gady), from Pabianice (Poland). One of eight children, he had three older siblings born in Kalisz: Hermann Matuszak (1911), Frieda (Franja) Matuszak (1913), and Abraham (1915), and four younger ones born in Gelsenkirchen: Fanny (1919), Max (1921), Cecilia (Cäcilie) Cilli (1923), and Adele (1927).

Kalisz, a Polish town with 30% of its population Jewish, was destroyed at the beginning of WW1: out of roughly 68,000 citizens in 1914, only 5,000 remained in Kalisz a year later. The birth of Abraham Matuszak in Kalisz in February 1915, and of David Matuszak in Gelsenkirchen in July 1917 indicate that the Matuszak family left Kalisz between 1915 and 1917.

David Matuszak left Germany and emigrated to the Netherlands. He was with the Deventer Association, and later stayed in the Assumburg youth hostel until mid-July. He was then bussed to Amsterdam and boarded the Dora.

David Matuszak eventually left Israel and returned to Germany.

David Matuszak died in April 2004 in Cologne.


David's mother, Berta Matuszak, was deported with her daughters Adele and Cäcilie on January 27, 1942, to the Riga Ghetto where she was murdered.
His father, Hendryk Chaim Matuszak, is presumed to have disappeared, a victim of the Shoah.
David's brother, Hermann Matuszak, his wife and two children, were murdered, presumably in Izbica after April 1942.
David's brother, Max Matuszak, was deported to Poland. His last sign of life came from Hrubieszow in July 1942. He was presumably murdered in Sobibor after the liquidation of the Ghetto in October that year.

David's sister, Cäcilie Matuszak, had attended the Gut Winkel Hachshara in 1939. She was deported to the Riga Ghetto, then to the Stutthof concentration camp. She survived and later lived in Berlin in East Germany.
David's brother, Abraham Matuszak, attended the Hachshara in Paderborn in July 1939. Arrested in February 1940 as an "enemy alien", he was sent to Sachsenhausen in October 1940, then to Auschwitz. He was on the "Schindler's List" and survived. He returned to Gelsenkirchen in 1946.
David's sister, Adele Matuszak (later Adele Jungman), was deported to Riga on January 27, 1942, then to the Stutthof concentration camp. She survived and lived in Enschede, Netherlands.
David's sister, Frieda (Franja) (later: Frieda Schmerler), got off the train to Bentschen during the roundup of Polish Jews on October 28, with the promise to emigrate to Belgium immediately. She emigrated to England in 1939, then to the USA in 1950.
Fanny Matuszak (later Nachmani) was able to flee to England and later emigrated to Israel.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.ushmm.org
www.stolpersteine-gelsenkirchen.de

Mendelsohn, Kurt
  • Kurt Mendelsohn
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 31.1.1921
Gr. Strelitz
German

Kurt Mendelsohn was born January 31, 1921, in Strelitz.

Because of his presence in Bielefeld before his coming to the Netherlands, it is assumed that Kurt Mendelsohn attended the Elgut Hachshara. After the November Pogrom, and after their release from Buchenwald, the young men from the Hachshara were gathered in Bielefeld before their emigration to the Netherlands.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Meyer, Behrend (Meyer Berend, Leo), (Mayer, Berend Leo)
  • Behrend Meyer
  • Berend Leo Meyer
  • Berend Leo Mayer
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 26.2.1914
Hamburg
German
Münzer, Walter
  • Walter Münzer
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 28.4.1912
Berlin
German

Walter Münzer was born on April 28, 1912, in Berlin, Germany, the son of Max Münzer and Hedwig Dzialowsky (* other sources have Bernhard Münzer, merchant, and Henriette Lachotski).

Walter fled Berlin and came to the Netherlands as a pioneer with the Deventer Association and stayed in the Deventer Association building at Brink 70 in Deventer. He then moved to Hasselo no. 60 at the Gerhardus Leuveld family farm 'de Kogelboer' in the municipality of Weerselo, from February 1937 to February 1939. After his stay in Hasselo he left for the youth hostel 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk.


His father died in 1933, his mother was a victim of the Holocaust.

His sister Dorothea emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Naftalie, Erich
Erich Naftalie
  • Erich Naftalie
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 3.5.1920*
Dortmund
German

Erich Naftalie was born on May 8, 1920, in Dortmund, the son of Wilhelm Naftalie, originally from Soldau, Pomerania (now Działdowo, Poland), and Rosa Naftaniel, originally from Lautenburg (now Lidzbark, Poland). He had a young brother, Hans Claus Naftalie (1930).

The family moved from Dortmund to Berlin in 1926, then finally settled in 1929 in Bochum. His father was a self-employed salesman in Bochum, initially for textile goods and later for confectionery. He bought confectionery from a confectionery factory, and sold it on his own account, supplying the booths at fairs and smaller shops.

Erich first attended elementary school on Koepenicker Strasse in Berlin. After moving to Bochum in August 1929, he attended the Jewish elementary school for six months, then briefly switched to the Goethe high school for three months in 1930.

A neighbor of the Naftalie family in Bochum wrote:

"The Naftalie family lived in a large, 3-room apartment. [...] The Naftalie apartment was furnished with good furniture throughout. After 1936 Mrs. Naftalie started to sell household objects in order to be able to live. In the evening people came and left with things. Ms. Naftalie said that she received very little and did not know who the buyers were. My sister bought a sideboard, a rug and a dining set. [...] [At some point] Ms. Naftalie had to move [...] there she had only had furniture for 1 room."

From June 1935 to July 1936, Erich attended a Hachshara of the HeChaluz movement in Lobitten ["on the Lobitten estate"] where he received his initial training. He then moved to a "middle Hachscharah" affiliated with Hechalutz (or possibly Habonim) in Grüsen, near Frankenberg, Hesse, until May 1937, (Kibbutz Hagschamah). This training location offered vocational training for 15- to 17-year-olds. Finally, he joined the Hachshara in Elgut near Steinau, until its abrupt end in November 1938.

On November 10, 1938 during the so-called "November Pogrom", Erich was arrested in the Elgut Hachshara by the SA and deported to Buchenwald.

The same day, his father was arrested and deported to Sachsenhausen.

Three weeks later, on December 3, his mother Rosa Naftalie wrote about the recent events in a letter:

"... I don't know where my Erich is. The Hachshara Kibbutz Elgut has of course ceased to exist since the 10th/11th and I have not heard from my dear [son]. [...] Now the children are to be sent abroad from here to Holland and Palestine - our Hans will probably also go to Holland (because Palestine only takes children from the age of 10 and Hans is 8 years old). I have already given my consent with an aching heart, and got the necessary papers. Then I'll be left all alone with my grief, but I cannot question it, the future of the child is more important, there is no longer any opportunity for education or livelihood here."

[...] "I think that your loved ones in Poland [i.e. who were deported to Poland during the 'Polenaktion'] can be grateful to fate despite their misery, that parents and children can be together and that not all family ties are torn." [This echoes what my grandparents told my mother then. They too had been deported to Poland the same day, but not my mother who had been hiding on the day of the roundup. She called them to ask what she should do and they told her to come to Krakow so "at least the family would be together".]

Erich was released from Buchenwald one month after his arrest with the help of the Jewish Agency, and against the assurance that he would leave Germany within two months. On February 8, 1939, he filled out the questionnaire for emigrants sent by the foreign exchange office. In it he confirmed that the travel expenses were paid for by the welfare office of the Jewish community in Bochum, and on February 9, 1939, Erich received his emigration permit.

On February 12, 1939, he arrived in the Netherlands and came to Werkdorp Wieringen. There he waited for permission to enter Palestine. After a few months of waiting in vain for his entry permit to Palestine, he decided to get there illegally and managed leave aboard the Dora.

In Israel, Erich Naftalie first lived in Kibbutz Gal'Ed from until 1946, after which he worked for various farmers for a year. He was then drafted into the army in May 1948. After his release in January 1950, he lived in Moshav Arbel in the Galilee. In April 1955 he left the settlement and came to Petah-Tikva where he worked as a youth group leader in an agricultural school. He stayed there for the next few years and married.

As of 1956 he had no children, and he was still alive in 1969. No further information is available.

There is a tombstone in Holon for one Eli Naftali, deceased in June 1986, whose father was named Ze'ev. Since "Ze'ev" may be the hebraicized version of "Wilhelm", this could be the resting place of Erich Natfalie, and would indicate that he had adopted the name Eli. There is nothing more at this point to confirm the connection.


Hans Naftalie, Erich's brother, emigrated to the Netherlands in 1939 with a Kindertransport. Starting in March 1942, he lived in the Jewish Orphanage of Rotterdam. From there he was taken to the Westerbork transit camp in October 1942, then deported to Sobibór where he was murdered by gas immediately upon arrival on March 5, 1943. He hadn't turned 13 yet.

Erich's father, Wilhelm Naftalie, was incarcerated in Sachsenhausen following the November Pogrom. From 1939 to 1942, he was assigned to forced labor in a mine near Bochum and on road construction. He and his wife Rosa were deported in January 1942 to Riga. Wilhelm was then sent to the Salaspils camp near Riga. He was last seen alive in August 1944.

Erich's mother, Rosa Naftalie, was transferred from Riga to the Stutthoff concentration camp on October 1, 1944. In April 1945 she was liberated from the Thorn camp. She first returned to Bochum, then emigrated to London in 1954, then to Israel in 1955 where she died in 1963.

Sources:
www.bochum.de (pdf) (Stolpersteine text by Sabine Krämer)
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
Photo of Erich Naftalie taken in Belgium: Margot Showman née Feigmann

* The Amsterdam list incorrectly has May 3rd.

Nattenheimer, Kurt
Kurt Nattenheimer

1937, Elgut

  • Kurt Nattenheimer
  • Kurt Netta
  • Aricha ("Langer") Netta
  • אריכא (לנגר) נטע
The Deventer Society (Hasselo) HASSELO 5 p.a. Sanderman

Papenstraat 45, Deventers
4.8.1920
Hamburg
German

Kurt Nattenheimer (later: Aricha "Langer" Netta) was born on August 4, 1920, in Hamburg, the son of Siegfried Nattenheimer, from Regensburg, and Erna Speyer, from Göttingen.

At the age of 6, he started attending elementary school in Tedsen [?], a place where strict Prussian discipline prevailed. After 4 years he moved to secondary school (Realschule), which he had to leave when the Nazis came to power. He then studied at a Talmud Torah (or Jewish school?) until 1935.www.galed.org.il

During this period he decided to immigrate to Palestine and joined the Habonim youth group. He got a job as an intern with a farmer in Schleswig-Holstein, where he learned the basics of agriculture. In 1937, Kurt moved to Bad Oldesloe where he worked as a guide (?). (Obit: "About a year later he moved to the 'Nietzsche' (?) (ניטשאו) farm where he stayed for about a year.") He then decided to join the Hachshara in Elgut in Upper Silesia. There the young men worked until 2:00 PM and then studied for 3-4 hours.

Kurt Nattenheimer was in Elgut during the November Pogrom. He said:

"The local population was antisemitic. On Kristallnacht, in the middle of the night, they got us out of bed, and with the help of beatings brought us to the dining room. We saw that a large mob from the surrounding area had gathered there. They beat us indiscriminately, boys and girls, and then they loaded the boys onto trucks and drove us to Oplen. There a special train was awaiting that transported all the Jewish men to the Buchenwald concentration camp that night."

Hechalutz [presumably, or else another Jewish organization] organized their release in exchange of the assurance that they would leave Germany.

"After 6 weeks we were released and returned to Elgut. We found the farm gutted and partially burned, and our personal belongings gone. We packed what remained and returned to our parents' house to say goodbye. That's when I saw my father for the last time."

All the members of the Elgut group were then concentrated in Bielefeld, and from there, accompanied by two Gestapo officials, they traveled to the Holland border.

After his release, Kurt Nattenheimer left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he was a pioneer with the Deventer Association and worked for a farmer. He lived in Weerselo until the end of June 1939. From there he went to "De Korenbloem" in Deventer, where he stayed until his departure for Palestine on board the Dora in mid-July.

Like several other passengers, he assumed that the Dora was just a small vessel that would bring them to the actual ship:

"When we got to the ship, I still thought that the boat (i.e. the Dora) was coming to take us to the ship, and I was almost shocked when it turned out that the ship was meant for sailing and not only that, but that, in addition to our group and those who were already inside, we had to board more.

When they arrived in Antwerp to pick up another 120 immigrants, the North Sea was at low tide and the immigrants got off the ship from the dock, which was higher than it."

In Palestine, the group from the Elgut hachshara intended to continue on a common path and its members were first sent to Givat Haim. About a year later, they moved to a camp near Ra'anana (Hagarin).

He enlisted in the British Army on May 31 1942 and joined the Jewish Brigade, and belonged to the Jewish Brigade Group Provost Unit (CMP = Corps of Military Police). He served in Libya, Italy, Holland and Germany, where at the end of the war he helped the Jewish refugees to immigrate illegally to Palestine.

After his release from the army in May 1946 he returned to Palestine to his friends, who in the meantime had founded Kibbutz Gal'ed. In June 1946, he applied for naturalization. His application recorded that he had entered Palestine in August 1939, with the means and/or port of entry captured as two question marks: "? ?". At the time of his application he resided in Hagarin, Raanana. One of the witness in his application was Giora Yoseftal, one of the founders of Kibbutz Gal'ed.

Kurt Nattenheimer married Gerda Gila Lipper and lived on Kibbutz Gal'ed. He changed his name to Aricha Netta and had 3 children

In the 1950s, he began to establish a herd of beef cattle in Gal'ed and in 1970, he was asked by the Ministry of Agriculture to establish herds of cattle in the Golan Heights. He engaged in this work for 15 years and received an award for his contribution to the establishment of the cattle industry in Israel. He then returned to Kibbutz Gal'ed.

Aricha Netta (Kurt Nattenheimer) died in October 1991 in Kibbutz Gal'ed. He was 71 years old.


Kurt Nattenheimer's parents emigrated to Chicago in 1939, where his father died in 1942.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
collections.arolsen-archives.org
geni.com
www.myheritage.com
www.archives.gov.il
maapilim.org.il
www.galed.org.il (Obituary)
www.jwmww2.org (Obituary)
Aricha Neta's reminiscence about the Dora cited from the Gilad newsletter, August 22, 1969, courtesy of Ora Benami. (2024).

His name also appear on the maapilim site, listing his departure from Amsterdam, but on an incorrect ship - the Dalin which sailed after the war from Italy. According to the Maapilim entry, he belonged to Habonim and had first resided in Givat Haim.

Niedermann, Simon E.
Simon Niederman

ca 1941-1944

  • Simon Ernst Niederman
  • Shimon Navon
  • ארנסט שמעון נידרמן
  • שמעון נבון
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 8.9.1920
Frankfurt
German

Simon Ernst Niederman (later: Shimon Navon) was born Septempber 8, 1920, in Frankfurt Am Main, the son of Ferdinand Niedermann, from Sindolsheim, Baden, and Hedvic, née Strauss, from Frankfurt. He had one brother, Issak Kurt (1922).

The family seems to have emigrated to the Netherlands as early as 1933. (Both parents died in Amsterdam in 1939 and 1941 respectively; His brother Isaak Kurt is known to have resided in Amsterdam since June 1933.)

Simon Niederman came from Amsterdam to Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid) on January 16 1937. He was then registered in Wieringermeer on January 2, 1938. He boarded the Dora from Amsterdam a year and a half later.

Ernst Simon Niederman enlisted in the British Army in January 1941 at Sarafand and was released in March 1944.

He was naturalized on May 13 1946. His naturalization application noted "Entered Palestine in 1939 illegally". At the time of his application, he lived in Haifa, was a weaver and was married to Marianne Pauli (later: Aviva Navon).

Ernst Simon Niederman later changed his name to Shimon Navon. He had three children.

Shimon Navon (born Simon Ernst Niedermann) died in July 1980 in Kiryat Motskin.


Ernst's father Ferdinand Niedermann died ca 1939 in Amsterdam.
His mother Hedwig Niedermann (born Strauss) died in May 1941 in Amsterdam.

Ernst's brother Isaak Kurt Niedermann emigraged to the Netherlands on June 1 1933. He was deported from the Westerbork transit camp to the Blechhammer concentration camp, an Auschwitz subcamp near Sławięcice / Slawentzitz, where he died on January 21 1945 (23).

Sources:
www.archives.gov.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com(brother)

Noafeld, Wolfram
  • Wolfram Noafeld
  • Wolfram Noafeldt
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.4.1921
Königsberg
German

Wolfram Noafeld was born April 2, 1921, in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia).

He left Königsberg and came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

No other information is available.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Nussbaum, Paul, Karl (Paul)
  • Paul Nussbaum
  • Yoram Nussbaum
  • יורם נוסבאום
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.3.1920
Berlin
German

Paul Nussbaum (later: Yoram Nussbaum) was born on March 27, 1920, in Berlin, the son of Otto and Sophie Nussbaum. His father was a teacher and one of the heads of the Social Democratic teacher organization in Berlin. A soldier during WW1, he had been a prisoner of war in South Africa. His mother was engaged in commerce.

Paul Nussbaum said:

"I came from a very liberal, broad-minded family. emancipated, completely Germanized - very assimilated. I had almost no idea that I am a Jew. Almost all of my friends were Christians, almost all of them." [...] "My parents lived for many many generations in Germany and they were so bound with this country."

Immediately after the Nazis came to power, his father lost his job: "In a matter of days, our entite existence changed at once." A year and a half later, Paul Nussbaum had to leave the gymnasium because of the numerus clausus. His parents then put him for a short time in a Jewish school, as he couldn't enter a German school anymore.

At the age of 14, he joined the Werkleute movement. He attended a Hachshara in Neuendorf, in the Berlin area, where he learned agriculture for two years. He then went to Frankfurt where he worked with a German farmer, while he waited to be able to leave the country.

After seven months, he finally received the permit to leave Germany, and on on June 6, 1938, took a train to the Netherlands, where he joined the Werkdorp Wieringermeer kibbutz.

From there he would sail to Israel on the Dora, against his father's wish, who firmly "believed in Germany, and in German culture", and was convinced that Hitler would not remain in power.

"My father didn't want me to leave for Palestine. He was very anti-zionistic till the very end."

Paul's older brother had left a few years before for Palestine:

"My father never got the idea that my brother and I were leaving for Palestine, never... [...] My father almost went out of his mind, a 'traitor', he left the family for such an idiotic idea."

A few months later, he would talk to his parents for the last time: "I had the last phone call with my parents after Kristallnacht, I wanted to make sure if they're still at home, or taken away, and so on."

On the Dora, Paul Nussbaum travelled with three friends from Werkdorp Wieringermeer, including Ernst Kaufmann and Moshe Israel. He recalled:

"We had to throw out our papers away in the Mediterranean [...] We had to throw away everything, even letters, with our names. And I did it!"

He added that he thought some people didn't follow the directive.

Reminiscing about the Dora, Nussbaum said "It took more than half a year, from December/January untill July - about seven months." He insisted on how crucial Gideon Raphael had been:

"That's thanks to Gideon Raphael. [...] [He] was the man to take us out of Holland. Several others tried before him, but he did it. [...] He organized everything. [...] Without him, we wouldn't be alive, none of us, that's for sure. [...] As a matter of fact, he was a neighbor of my mother in Berlin, two houses away from us, his mother came a lot to my mother after the Nazis came to power."

In Israel, he changed his name to Yoram Nussbaum. He first joined Kibbutz Hazorea, then settled in Kfar Menachem where he would remain for the rest of his life. There he met and married Rachel Gross, an Auschwitz survivor from Hungary. The couple had two daughters and a son.

His political involvement led him to participate in various activities for public and social issues, and he worked extensively on the kibbutz's political committee. When he reached retirement age, he devoted himself to studies at the Hebrew University, at the Buber Institute, and at Givat Haviva.

About the shared experience of his friends, he noted:

"We had the same past in Germany, more or less, so it was like they don't have to tell each other... because everybody and his story - it's always the same story, in some way or another."

Yoram Nussbaum died in September 2001 at the age of 81.


Yoram Nussbaum's parents were forced to move into a so-called "Judenhaus". Their last message to their son was a Red Cross postcard in 1940, which said "We are well, papa, mama.". Otto and Sophie Nussbaum were later deported to Riga where they were murdered.

His brother fled Germany for the Netherlands in 1933, from where he emigrated to Palestine in 1936.

Sources:
All quotes are from Interview with Lilian Peters (1989), courtesy of Ariane Zwiers from Joods Cultureel Kwartier.
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
maapilim-org-il

Ochs, Rudolf
  • Rudolf Ochs
The Deventer Society (Ellecom) ELLECOM G. Frederiks,
Binnenweg 25,
Ellecom
Frederiks. p.a.
30.6.1918
St. Ingwert
German

Rudolf Ochs was born June 30, 1918, in Sankt Ingbert, Saarland.

His last place of residence in Germany was the nearby Saarbrücken, the capital of Saarland. He then emigrated to the Netherlands, from where he boarded the Dora in July 1939.

Nothing more is known about Rudolf Ochs.


In 1925, the Jewish community of Sankt Ingbert counted a total of 90 members. Because of small size of the Jewish community, and because of the closeness of their respective dates of birth, two people may have been Rudolf's siblings, although it's impossible to confirm without more information about their respective parents.

Eva Heimann-Ochs (née Ochs), born June 6 1914 in Sankt Ingbert. She emigrated to the Netherlands in February 1939. She was deported from the Westerbork transit camp to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on January 18 1944. From there she was deported to Auschwitz on October 4 1944. She was murdered there on October 30 1944. She was 30 years old.

Erich Ochs, born March 19 1920 in Sankt Ingbert. Like Rudolf, he lived in Saarbrücken before the war. He fled in 1937 to the Netherlands, where he briefly joined the Werkdorp, registering in November in Stichting Joosche Arbeid. He left a month later for Amsterdam, then in 1939 went to Belgium, and finally came to Paris. He was incarcerated in the Drancy camp at some point between June 1942 and March 1943, when he was deported to Majdanek, where he was murdered on arrival. He was 23.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org (Eva Ochs)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Erich Ochs)
en.wikipedia.org (Stolpersteine)

Oppenheimer, Marcus (Markus)
Marcus Oppenheimer, Mordechai Oppenheimer
  • Marcus Oppenheimer
  • Mordechai Oppeneimer
  • מרדכי אופנהיימר
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 15.8.1919*
Marktbreid
German

Marcus Oppenheimer (later: Mordechai Oppeneimer) was born August (or September) 15, 1919, in Marktbreid, Bavaria, the son of Issachar Bernhard Oppenheimer, a teacher from Marktbreid, and Klara Oppenheimer (née Levy). He was the twelfth child out of fifteen. His father died around 1925 when Marcus was about 6 years old.

Marcus Oppenheimer changed his name in Israel to Mordechai Oppenheimer (מרדכי אופנהיימר).

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Oppenheimer, Walter (Oppenheim ?)
  • Walter Oppenheimer
  • (Walter Oppenheim?)
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 30.12.1917
?
Stateless
Pollak, Edmund
  • Edmund Pollak
  • Edmund Pollack
The Deventer Society (Voorst) VOORST Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 23.11.1913
Vienna
German (Austrian)

Edmund Pollak was born November 23, 1913, in Vienna, the son of Berthold Pollak and Jolanka/ Julie Blau. He had five siblings: Wilhelm (1905), Hans (1907), Lina (1908), Erwin (1911), and Franz (1918).

Nothing is known about Edmund Pollak's life before or after the Dora.


Edmund's brother Erwin Pollak was in France during the war. He was deported from the Drancy internment camp to Sobibór on March 6 1943 where he was murdered.
His brother Franz Pollak emigrated to the Netherlands. He was deported and murdered on July 31 1944.

Edmund's sister Lina Duschak (née Pollak) lived in Riga during the war. It is assumed that she was murdered there, although no further information is available.

The fates of his parents and two other brothers Hans and Wilhelm Pollak are not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org (sister Lina)
yvng.yadvashem.org (brother Erwin)
yvng.yadvashem.org (brother Franz)

Radzewski, Bernd
Bernd Radzewski
  • Bernd Radzewski
  • Benjamin Radchewski
  • בנימין רדצ'בסקי
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.3.1916
Wriezen
German

Bernd Radzewski (later: Benjamin Radchewski) was born on March 14, 1916, in Wriezen, Brandenburg, 70 km east of Berlin, the son of David Radzewski, from Landsberg, East Prussia, (now Górowo, Poland) and Frieda Neustadt, from Kreis Rawitsch, Posen, Prussia (now Rawicz, Poland). He had a twin sister, Meta.

Bernd's grandfather, Salomon Max Radzewski, was born in Tsarist Russia and had fled to East Prussia in the 19th century to avoid military conscription. Bernd's father, David Radzewski, owned a department store in Wriezen, a town of about 10,000 inhabitants, and was one of three directors of the board of the town's Jewish Community, which numbered about 100. Bernd's uncle died in the First World War while serving in the Prussian Army.

Bernd left Germany and came to the Netherlands in 1936 where he joined the Werkdorp to prepare for his immigration. He registered on April 20 1936 in Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid), then on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer.

Bernd Radzewski changed his name to Benjamin Radzewski. He married Nani Gutman and the couple had three children.

Benjamin (Bernd) Radzewski died in Ness Ziona.


Bernd Radzewski's parents and his sister emigrated to Chile in 1938 aboard the SS Patria.
His mother Frieda would later return to Frankfurt.
Bernd's twin sister (later: Meta Krotoschiner) later emigrated to the USA then finally returned to Germany where she died in 2015.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com
www.jmberlin.de
billiongraves.com

Rath, Simon
Simon Rath

1946

  • Simon Rath
  • Shimon Rath
  • שמעון ראט
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 31.8.1919
Stanislawo
Stateless

Simon Rath (later: Shimon Rath) was born on August 31, 1919, in Stanislawów (now Ivano-Frankivsk), the son of Nathan Rath, a managing director, and Mina Stopper. His parents originally came from Ivano-Frankivska, Ukraine. Simon had three siblings: Erna (1910), Rubin Hersch (1908), and Gerson (1913).

Simon Rath left Germany and came to the Netherlands with his family. At first, he lived in Amsterdam with his parents. From June 1937 to February 1938 he stayed on the farm on Hasselo no. 46 (municipality of Weerselo) with the family Jan Willem Huiskes. He then left for Brummen and a year later to Heemskerk. At the time, his profession was listed as plumber. He left in July 1939 to Palestine with the Dora.

Simon enrolled in the British Army in December 1942. In October 1946, while still enrolled in the Police force, he applied for naturalization. His application mentioned that he had entered Palestine on August 13 1939 illegally on the Dora at an unknown location and that he had no passport. At the time of his application he was single and lived in Kibbutz Gvar'am.

Simon married Deborah Schönfeld. The couple had two children.

Simon Rath died in 2010 in Omer, Israel.


Simon's brother Rubin Hersch Rath emigrated to the Netherlands and lived in Amsterdam. He was deported to Sobibór where he was murdered on July 2 1943.
His sister Erna Rath (later Waterman) also emigrated to the Netherlands and lived in Amsterdam, where she got married. She was deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered on April 8 1944.

Simon's parents and his brother Gershon survived the war and lived in the Netherlands.

Sources:
hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
www.archives.gov.il
www.myheritage.com

Rawet, Samuel (Samuel Judel)
  • Samuel Rawet
  • Shmuel Rawet
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 12.2.1918
Altona
Polish

Samuel Rawet (later: Shmuel Rawet) was born February 12, 1918, in Altona, the son of Yaakov David Rawet and Hanna Gitel Rawet (born Brendel). He had four siblings: Avraham (1913), Eliyahu, Menahem Tzvi, and Heinrich.


His parents, Yaakov David and Hanna Gitel Rawet were murdered in 1942.
His brother Avraham was was a victim of the Holocaust.

His other three brothers, Eliyahu, Menahem and Heinrich emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

The information above is believed to be correct, however the lack of a date and place of birth in online records make it impossible to confirm the match with certainty.

Reens, Elias
Eliyahu Reens
  • Elias Reens
  • Eliyahu Reens
  • אליהו רינס
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam Pl.Muidergr. 27 3.1.1913*
Amsterdam
Dutch

Elias Reens (later: Eliyahu Reens) was born October 3, 1913, in Amsterdam, the son of Levie (Louis Yehuda) Reens and Duifje (Dvora) Waagenaar. His father was a diamond cutter from Amsterdam. He had two brothers, Asher (1909) and Alexander (1918). His mother died in September 1932, when Elias was 18 years old.

Elias Reens changed his name to Eliyahu Reens (אליהו רינס).

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Photo source: www.ioh.co.il

Riez, Hermann
  • Hermann Riez
  • Zvi Riez
  • Zvi Nachman Riez
  • צבי ריז
  • צבי נחמן ריז
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 9.9.1920
Miskolcz
Hungarian

Hermann Riez (later: Zvi Nachman Riez) was born on September 9, 1920, in Miskolcz (Miskolc, Miszkolc), Hungary, the son of Elek Eliahu Riez, a merchant from Transylvania, Romania, and Ilona (Khaia Helen) Rapaport, from Tokaj, Hungary. He had one brother: Simon Meshulam (1910), and one sister: Etel (Etelka, Ester) (1916).

From a surviving photo of his father donning a traditional hat and beard, it can safely be concluded that Hermann came from an orthodox background.

Members of his family emigrated to The Hague in the Netherlands in the 1930s: his brother Simon in 1931, his sister Etel in 1936. His mother also settled in The Hague at an unknown date.

Hermann emigrated from Miskolcz to The Hague in May 1935 at the age of 14. There his brother Simon owned of a workshop for men's shirts, and his sister, Etel (Ester Etelka), was a seamstres. It is possible that his father never left Miskolcz.

Hermann joined the Mizrachi (Zionist religious) Kibbutz Dat veEretz and worked in Beverwijk from October 1937 to March 1938. He then continued his training in Kibbutz Franeker until 13-01-1939. In the spring of 1939 Hermann returned to Beverwijk, now in its new location in Velsen-Noord. There he awaited his departure to Palestine with a group of 29 Palestine-goers. Hermann left the Netherlands on Sunday morning July 16, 1939 on the Dora.

In Israel, Hermann Riez changed his name to Zvi Nachman Riez. He lived in Yad Eliyahu, Tel Aviv in the 1950s. He married Margalit Dadashov (sp?) and the couple had four children.

Zvi Nachman (Hermann) Riez died in November 1977 (57) and is buried in Holon.


Zvi's mother, Ilona (Khaia Helen) Riez, was deported from The Hague (Den Haag) to Auschwitz where she was murdered on September 21, 1942.
His father, Elek Eliahu Riez, lived in Miskolc during the war. He was deported to Auschwitz where he was murdered in 1944.
Zvi's brother Simon Meshulam Riez was murdered in Auschwitz December 31, 1942.
His sister Ester Etelka was murdered in Auschwitz January 21, 1943, along with her husband Jacob Fonteijn.

Sources:
oorlogsslachtoffersijmond.nl
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)

Roodveldt, Jakob
Jakob Roodveldt (Yacov Admon)

1958

  • Jakob Roodveldt
  • Yacov Admon
  • יעקב רוטפלד
  • יעקב אדמון
Berg-Stichting, Laren Berg-Stichting, Laren 3.9.1915
Amsterdam
Dutch

Jakob Roodveldt (later: Yacov Admon) was born on September 3, 1915, in Amsterdam, the son of Levie Isaac* (Yehuda) Roodveldt, a merchant, and Heintje (Heni) van Thijn, the middle child of a family of four sons and two daughters. His five siblings were Izak (1912), Mietje (Miriam, 1914), Anna (1917), Samuel (1918), and Abraham (1921).

Jakob's mother died in January 1921 (presumably as a result of the birth of her last child) when he was 6, and his father died in 1924, when Jakob was 9 years old. Jakob was then raised in the Jewish Boys Orphanage "Megadle Jethomim"* (Amstel 21, Amsterdam), starting in June 1925, at the age of ten. (*"Megadle Jethomim" may be incorrect, and he may instead have been raised in the Berg-Stichting orphanage in Laren, as evidenced by the passenger list.)

Jakob Roodveldt was an optician in Amsterdam. A Zionist, he wanted to emigrate to "the land of his forefathers". In June 1936, he joined Kibbutz Franeker, a religious Kibbutz in the Friesland region, because "there was no need for opticians, but there was a need for farmers."

Jakob Roodveldt left Franeker and returned to Amsterdam in May 1938. From there, he left for Palestine a year later. He boarded the Dora together with his sister Mietje Roodveldt and his fiancee Wilhelmina van Dam (Chambon).

In Israel, Jakob Roodveldt changed his name to Yaakov Admon. (According to a 1958 article about the family, Jakob and Wihlelmina had "received their Hebrew names on the crowded emigrant ship that fled Europe in 1939.")

The couple's life in Israel was not easy. They had arrived with "only a backpack on their backs". Jakob and Wilhelmina - who now went by Malka - first lived in a Kibbutz where they got married in 1940. "The day before their wedding, Jacob bought some chests from a shopkeeper with money from the kibbutz and turned them into chairs, cupboards and a table."

The couple later decided that the Kibbutz life was not for them and they left after a few years. After the War of Independence in 1948, the couple settled in Moshav Nehalim, a religious moshav located in the former German Templer village of Wilhelma near Petah Tikva. There, the couple tilled the arid land, growing vegetables, and raised a cow and a few chicken. They had four children.

In July 1958, Malka and Jacob Admon were the subject of a two-part article in Libelle, a Dutch weekly women's magazine.

[They live in] "a bare house by our standards, ith only the bare essentials of furniture, with stone floors and stone walls, where the paint was peeling."

"They toil from early morning to late evening on a small piece of ocher-colored hillside. They are not rich. They are more likely to be poor. They live in a small house with two bedrooms. One for the parents and one for the four children."

Yacov Admon (Jakob Roodveldt) died in August 1997 in Petah Tikva.


Aside from his sister Mietje (Miriam) who had emigrated with him aboard the Dora, all of Jakob's siblings were murdered in the Shoah.

His older brother Izak Roodveldt was murdered on July 9, 1943, in Sobibór.
His sister, Anna Pront (or Freund?) was murdered on July 16, 1943, in Sobibór.
His brother Samuel Roodveldt was murdered on Apr 9, 1943, in Sobibór.
His youngest brother, Abraham Roodveldt, was murdered on September 30, 1942, in Auschwitz.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
www.maxvandam.info
Kibboets-op-de-Klei.pdf (pdf)
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
geni.com
Two-part article in Libelle (1958): part 1, part 2
Saskia Appel (December 2023)

*Note: Yaakov Admon's tombstone has his father's name as Eliahu.

Note: The date of Jakob's departure for Palestine is incorrectly recorded as February 1941 in his family card kept in the Amsterdam Archives

Roodveldt, Mietje
  • Mietje Roodveldt
  • Miriam Roodveldt
  • מרים רוטפלד
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam 5.5.1914
Amsterdam
Dutch

Mietje Roodveldt was born on May 5, 1914, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Levie Isaac (Yehuda) Roodveldt and Heintje (Heni) van Thijn, in a family of six children. Her mother died in 1921 when Mietje was seven, and her father, a merchant, died in 1924, when she was 10 years old. She then lived in the Jewish Girls Orphanage on Rapenburgstraat 171 in Amsterdam.

Mietje Roodveldt joined Kibbutz Franeker in July 1936, a month after her brother Jakob Roodveldt. There she began her training for immigration and learned housekeeping. She left Franeker three months later and returned to Amsterdam in October 1937. Almost two years later she boarded the Dora to Palestine, together with her brother Jakob.


Aside from her brother Jakob, all of Mietje's siblings were killed in the Shoah.
Her older brother Izak was murdered on July 9, 1943 in Sobibór.
Her sister, Anna Pront, was murdered on July 16, 1943, in Sobibór.
Her brother Samuel was murdered on Apr 9, 1943, in Sobibór.
Her youngest brother Abraham was murdered on September 30, 1942, in Auschwitz.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
www.maxvandam.info
Kibboets-op-de-Klei.pdf (pdf)
www.myheritage.com

Her family card in the Amsterdam Archives incorrectly lists her departure for Palestine as March 1942.

Rooz, Isaak (Isaac)
  • Isaak Rooz
  • Isaac Rooz
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 22.2.1919
?
Hungarian
Rosen, Bernhard
  • Bernhard Rosen
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 15.11.20
Magdeburg
Stateless

Bernhard Rosen was born November 15, 1920, in Magdeburg, the son of Jakob Schulim Rosen Weinberg, an orthodox religion teacher, and Rachel Landsberg. Both parents were originally from the Łódź Voivodeship in Galicia (now Poland) and came to Germany after the end of WW1. Bernhard had two brothers: Chaim Heinrich Heini (1918) and Moritz (1924).

In 1938, Bernhard went for Hachshara training in the training center of Agudas Yisroel (religious Zionist) in Enschede.

On July 16, he traveled to Amsterdam about 100 miles away to board the Dora. It's assumed that he was with the group of seven youngsters from the Enschede Hachshara. According to the daily "Het Volk", "The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."

In Palestine Bernhard enrolled in the British Army where he served from 1940 to 1946.

The January 1944 issue of The Brooklyn Jewish Center Review mentions one Bernhard Rosen, soldier in the British Army, who *may be the same person. ("Stateless" Jews were typically of Polish origin, either Polish citizens who had lost their citizenship because they had lived outside of Poland for 5 years, or Jews from Galicia who had been stripped of their German nationality acquired after WW1). "The first Polish soldier in Italy to receive a British decoration for valor is a Jew, Lance Cpl. Bernhard Rosen, it was reported in London. Rosen, who has just been discharged from a military hospital somewhere in Italy, has been awarded the Military Medal for exceptional bravery."

In 1948 Bernhard emigrated from Palestine to Canada. He died in 1955 in Montreal.


In 1939 Bernhard's parents were forced to move to a "Judenhaus" in Braunschweig. On March 31, 1942 they were deported to the Warsaw ghetto where they vanished.

Bernhard's brother Moritz had to sit on the "Judenbench" in elementary school while his teacher read from the Der Stürmer, the virulently anti-Semitic weekly. In 1937 he moved to the one-class Jewish elementary school in Braunschweig. On January 5, 1939, Max (Moritz) was able to emigrate to England on a Kindertransport. Upon turning 18, he became a soldier in the Royal Army from 1942 to 1946. After decommissioning he emigrated to Canada.

Bernhard's brother Heinrich Chaim Rosen emigrated to Palestine in 1937. He later enrolled in the British Army where he served from 1940 until 1946. In 1948 he emigrated to Canada.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
archive.org
leopard.tu-braunschweig.de

Rosenberg, Heinz
  • Heinz Rosenberg
  • Hanan Rosenberg
  • חנן רוזנברג
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.6.1917
Thorn
German

Heinz Rosenberg (later: Hanan Rosenberg) was born on June 29, 1917, in Thorn (now Torun, Poland), the son of Arthur Rosenberg, a merchant (businessman), and Gertrud, née Brenner. He had two siblings, Alice (1911) and Lutz (1913). His parents and younger siblings were originally from Schwetz (now Świecie, Poland). The family came to Thorn sometime between 1913 and 1917 where Heinz was born.

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Rosenberger, Emil
  • Emil Rosenberger
  • Yoram Rosenberger
  • יורם רוזנברגר
The Deventer Society (Vierakker) VIERAKKER H. Wagenvoort, Vierakker 12.1.1910
Iwan, Hungary
German

Emil Rosenberger (later: Yoram Rosenberger) was born January 12 1910 in Iwan (probably: Iván), (Austro Hungarian Empire, later Hungary), the son of Yitzhak Rosenberger and Katrina (?). His family moved to Austria, presumably following the dissolution of the Empire after 1918.

After the Anschluss, Emil Rosenberger fled to the Netherlands on his own. There he worked for a farmer where he learned farm work, including ploughing and milking.

Immediately after his landing, he joined Kvutzat Huliot ("חוליות"), and was later a founder of Kibbutz Sde Nehemia. There he worked in the fields, was a tractor driver, a carpenter, locksmith, and mechanic.

Of the early days, he remembered that they lived in tents with an Arab guard. [...] Because of the mosquito-infested swamps, he got malaria 9 times. He worked on a combine harvester, and even went to work for the Arabs with a tractor to plow the fields of Ayala.

Yoram Rosenberger did not start a family.

He died in January 2001 in Kibbutz Sde Nehemia.


His father and one brother were killed by the Nazis.

Three of his brothers and a sister died in Israel. One of his brother and his sister had fled to Belgium, then from there to England. They later came to Israel.

Sources:
archive.sde-nehemia.com

His last name is listed as Rosenberger on the passenger list and on his Kibbutz card, but his obituaries give his name as Rosenberg.

Geza Rosenberg (1905) born in Iwan may have been a brother of his who emigrated to Palestine.

Rosenblatt, Eli
  • Eli Rosenblatt
  • Eli Abraham Rosenblatt Karo
  • עלי אברהם רוזנבלט קרא
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 30.6.1921
Berlin
German

Eli Abraham Rosenblatt-Karo was born June 30, 1921, in Berlin, the son of Leo Yitzhak Yehuda Rosenblatt and Erna Karo. He had one sister.

Eli Rosenblatt (Rosenblatt Sofer Avraham Eli) changed his name to Abraham Eli Rosenblatt Karo (אברהם עלי רוזנבלט קרא)

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Rosenfeld, Josef, Joachim (Janos J. ?)
  • Janos J. Rosenfeld
  • Josef Joachim Rosenfeld
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 24.12.1913
Breslau
German

Appears on one list as "Janos J. Rosenfeld, Hong" (Hungarian), and as "Josef Joachim Rosenfeld, Hong, 24.12.13, Breslau". Assuming both entries point to the same person. Note that Breslau may denote his place of residence and not his place of birth.

This person could also possibly be a brother of Frida Fuchs (née Rosenfeld) from Breslau, who had a brother named Hans Joachim Rosenfeld, born in 1913.

Rottenberg, Luzia
  • Luzia Rottenberg
  • Lucia Rottenberg
  • רוטנברג
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 22.8.1921
Vienna
German (Austria)

Luzia Rottenberg was born August 22, 1921, in Vienna, the daughter of Markus David Rottenberg and Regina (Rebekka) Rottenberg (née Nussen). Her parents were originally from Galicia (later Poland, now Ukraine) and came to Vienna in 1904. Her father was a self-employed merchant in the men's cloting business. She had one brother, Fritz Leo (1924).

On June 20 1938, three months after the Anschluss, Luzia's father filled out an emigration application with the Welfare Headquarters of the IKG (the Jewish Community of Vienna). His preferred destinations for emigration were Palestine, North America or Argentina. His first choice suggests that the family was Zionist as he listed the names of relatives or friends in New York and Buenos Aires, but had none for Palestine. At the time, the family lived in Vienna's 20th district, and Luzia was a student.

Luzia Rottenberg left Vienna and came to the Netherlands where she joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer.


Luzia's brother, Fritz Leo Rottenberg, emigrated to Palestine in November 1938 at the age of 14. At the time of his naturalization in 1945 he lived in Kibbutz Neve Eitan.

The fate of her parents is not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna emigration application)
www.archives.gov.il (brother)

Rottenberg, Rubin
  • Rubin Rottenberg
Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel 10.12.1915
Berlin
Polish
Ruhemann, Ursula
  • Ursula Ruhemann
  • Ursula Bartur
  • ברטור
The Deventer Society (Zandvoort) ZANDVOORT p.a. Waldeck Breederoodeweg 45 a. 28.2.1921
Berlin
German

Ursula Ruhemann (later: Ursula Bartur) was born February 28, 1921, in Berlin, the daughter of Paul Ruhemann (birth name Itzig), a grain merchant, and Hanna (Johanna), née Heymann, both from Berlin. She had one sister, Miriam (1923).

Ursula Ruheman left Berlin and came to the Netherlands from where she later boarded the Dora in July 1939.

Ursula Ruhemann married Moshe Bartur (born Max Berger) and the couple had three children. (Moshe Bartur was a diplomat, including Israel's permanent representative to the UN in Geneva, Israel's ambassador to Switzerland and Japan).

Ursula Bartur (born Ruhemann) died in March 1972 in Kibbutz Galed*.


Ursula's mother Johanna Ruhemann was deported from Berlin to Riga on August 15, 1942. She was murdered on arrival three days later, on August 18, 1942.

Ursula's father Paul Ruhemann emigrated to Shanghai and survived the war. He is listed in the "Shanghai Musicians Association of Stateless Refugees" as a violonist.
Her sister, Miriam Tachnai, emigrated to Israel.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.lexm.uni-hamburg.de

Russ, Günter
  • Günter Russ
  • Günter Ruß
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 21.6.1914
Berlin
German

Günter Russ was born on June 21, 1914, in Berlin-Schöneberg, the son of Moritz Russ, originally from Jarocin, Prussia (later Poland), and Jettel, née Kaiser, from Koenigshuette, Silesia (later Chorzów, Poland).

Günter fled Germany and came to the Netherlands. There he was a pioneer with the Deventer Association. He first lived at Hasselo No. 42 and Deurningen No. 21, both in the municipality of Weerselo. In January 1937 he lived for a short time, along with Walter Münzer, another Dora passenger, in the Deventer Association building at Brink 70 in Deventer.

Günter Russ stayed on the farm of the Sanderman family in Hasselo No. 5 (municipality of Weerselo) from November 1938 to February 1939, after which he left for Weesperstraat 2 in Amsterdam. At this address was located the building of "Hagnosas Ourechiem", the Association to Support Emigration. In July 1939 he left for Palestine on the Dora.


Günter's father Moritz Russ died in Berlin in February 1941.

His mother, Jettel Russ, was deported from Berlin to the Lodz Ghetto on October 18, 1941. She was then sent to the death camp Chelmno (Kulmhof) on May 8 1942 where she was murdered.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
yvng.yadvashem.org

Sallein, Werner
  • Werner Sallein
  • Werner Joseph Sallein
  • Joseph Sallein
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 8.2.1918*
Berlin
German

Werner Joseph Sallein was born December 8, 1918, in Berlin, the son of Hans Sallein and Ruth, née Joseph. He had one brother, Arno (1923), and [possibly] one sister, Ruth (1920).

His brother Arno appears to have lived in a Berlin orphanage, suggesting that at least one of the parents died at an early age.

Werner Sallein left Berlin and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

Werner Sallein married Elizabeth Karolina Kahn in Haifa in February 1946. His wife Elizabeth, also born in Germany, had emigrated to the USA in 1938 and had become a US citizen in 1944. The couple emigrated to the USA in December 1946 and Werner Joseph Sallein became an American citizen in 1949. At the time he was a mechanic. The couple had two children.

Werner Joseph Sallein died in November 2001 in San Francisco.


Werner's brother, Arno Sallein, was deported to Theresienstadt in November 1944. He survived until the camp liberation in May 1945 and later emigrated to the USA in 1947.

Unconfirmed: Assuming that Ruth Sallein was Werner's sister. She was deported to Ravensbrück in 1939, then transported to the killing center in Bernburg an der Saale in the spring of 1942 where she was murdered. She was one of 1,400 women from Ravensbrück who were murdered there.

Sources:
www.ancientfaces.com
www.familysearch.org
www.inge-franken.de
www.myheritage.com (brother Arno) www.myheritage.com (brother Arno)
gedenkbuch.neu-isenburg.de (Ruth Sallein)

*Note: The passenger list incorrectly has his date of birth as 8.2.18.

Information about the family is vague and conflicting. Depending on the sources, his mother was either named Ruth or Julia. and his father Hans, Hanz, or John.

Sanders, Adolf
Amos Sanders

Holland, 1930s.
(c) Yad Vashem

  • Benjamin Adolf Sanders
  • Amos Sanders
  • בנימין עמוס סנדרס
The Deventer Society (Enschede) ENSCHEDE Prinsenstraat 12 27.2.1917
Arnhem
Dutch

Benjamin Adolf Sanders (later: Amos Sanders) was born on February 27, 1917, in Arnhem, Netherlands, the only child of Johan Ferdinand Sanders, a dentist, and Klara Sanders (née Gans), a housewife. His father died in November 1932 when Amos was 15 years old.

Amos joined a Zionist youth movement and for three years was in agricultural training in the Netherlands until he immigrated to Israel in July 1939 on the "Dora".

In Israel, he joined Kvutzat Huliot in 1939 and was one of the founders of Kibbutz Sde Nehemia, where he remained until 1950. He then joined Kibbutz Gesher HaZiv in 1962. He changed his name to Amos Sanders. Amos married Suzane (Shoshana) Friedmann and the couple had three children.

Amos (Benjamin) Sanders died in December 1990 at the age of 73.


His mother, Clara Sanders, moved to Amsterdam where she worked as a housekeeper for a widower while Amos was in Hachshara. She hoped to receive a certificate for Palestine which never came. She was deported to Auschwitz where se was murdered on November 19, 1943.

Sources:
geni.com
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.moreshet-gesherhaziv.org.il
archive.sde-nehemia.com
collections.yadvashem.org

Schelasnitzki, Horst
  • Horst Schelasnitzki
  • Yitzhak Schelasnitzki
  • יצחק שלזניצקי
Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi) 1.6.1921
Darkehmen
German

Horst Schelasnitzki (later: Yitzhak Schelasnitzki) was born on June 1, 1921, in Darkehmen, East Prussia (later: Angerapp, Germany, now Ozyorsk - Russia), the son of Bernhard Schelasnitzki, originally from Mielitzken Olecko, East Prussia, (now Poland), and Selma, née Kuschinski, from Landsberg, East Prussia (now Poland). He had two (or possibly three) siblings, Marga (1923), and Manfred (1927).

His father, Bernhard Schelasnitzki, was a textile merchant who died in April 1938 in Berlin. The family lived in Berlin Wilmersdorf, on Uhlandstrasse.

His brother, Manfred, attended a Jewish school (Volksschule der Jüdischen Gemeinde) in 1937, presumably after it had become impossible for Jewish children to attend German schools, so one can assume that Horst too attended that school.

Following the November Pogrom, Horst Schelasnitzki was incarcerated in Buchenwald from November 12, 1938, until November 30. According to his prisonner card, he was an "agricultural apprentice" and had come from Halle/Saale - presumably the location of a harchshara. Naturally, his prisoner code was "ASJ" = "Aktions-Jude", the code used for Jewish prisoners rounded up after Kristallnacht.

His participation in agricultural training suggests he belonged to a Zionist youth group, which would have acted to help secure his release from Buchenwald, against the promise to leave Germany.

Horst Schelasnitzki left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined Kibbutz Misrachi, a religious Zionist hachshara in Franeker.

After his emigration, he changed his name to Yitzhak Schelasnitzki. He joined the Jewish Brigade (3rd Battalion). At the end of the war he was stationed in the Netherlands. There he married Betty Bramson in December 1945.

The couple returned to Palestine and they had two children (daughters?).

Yitzhak (Horst) Schelasnitzki died in November 1989 in Holon.


Horst Schelasnitzki's mother, Selma Wolff (Kuschinski) remarried and emigrated to the USA in November 1939.

Horst Schelasnitzki's brother Manfred Schelasnitzki (later: Manny Shell) emigrated to the USA in 1939, presumably with his mother and sister. He later was a Mahal volunteer and served as chief stewart for an Alyiah Bet ship, the Northland-Jewish State which sailed from Bulgaria in 1947 with 2,664 Jewish emigrants on board bound for Tel Aviv. The "Northland" was intercepted by a British destroyer and the emigrants and the crew were deported to Cyprus. He later lived in Los Angeles.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.myheritage.com
www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org (brother)

Scheuer, Kurt
Kurt Scheuer
  • Kurt Scheuer
  • Reuven Scheuer
  • ראובן שויאר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.8.1919
Heilbronn
German

Kurt Scheuer (later: Reuven Scheuer) was born in Heilbronn on August 19, 1919, the son of Aaron Albert Scheuer and Emma, née Neu. He had two siblings, Ruth (1912) and Paul Joseph (1915).

His father died in 1931 when Kurt was 11 years old, and he would lose his mother six years later in 1937. He lived in a religious home until the age of 17.

He left Germany because of the antisemitism and came to the Netherlands in April 1936, at the age of 17. There he went to Werkdorp Wieringermeer, a "working village" for his hachshasra where he studied various subjects, including locksmithing. He was first registered on April 20 1936 in Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid), then on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer. He appears on several photographs taken by Roman Vishniac in the training camp in 1938 or 1939. (See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.)

In July 1939 he boarded the Dora, together with his friends from the Werkdorp. A year later he joined them in Hazorea. Together they founded - along with other groups, most of them from Germany and some from Poland - Kibbutz Elgavish in Ra'anana, and together they moved in 1943 to Kfar Menachem. He changed his name to Reuven Scheuer.

Having learned locksmithing in the Werkdorp, he later helped found the small locksmith shop in Algabish, then later the Kfar Menachem locksmith shop which grew into a metal factory, where he worked as the factory's coordinator and representative, and helped develop international exports. He was married and had three children.

Reuven (Kurt) Scheuer died in November 1982 in Kfar Menachem.


His sister Ruth Rosenstock (born Scheuer) emigrated to Palestine. His brother, Paul Joseph Scheuer, emigrated to Sweden.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.kfar-menachem.org.il

Schönebaum, Heinz
  • Heinz Schönebaum
  • Chanoch Ilan
  • חנוך אילן
  • חנוך אילן (שיינבאום)
The Deventer Society (Deventer) DEVENTER Papenstraat 45

B. Oosterink, Brinkweg 28, Rheden
23.4.1917
Heurden
German

Heinz Schönebaum (later: Chanoch Ilan) was born on April 23, 1917, in Dortmund-Hörde, the third child of Emil Schönebaum, a day laborer from Dortmund-Hörde, and Bertha, née Mueller, from Baden bei Wien in Austria. He had three siblings: Liesel (1912), Alfred (1914), and Gerhard (1919) (Gerd, later Gad Ilan).

Coming from a very modest background, he was forced after the rise of the Nazi regime in 1933 to drop out of school to help support the family. In 1937 he set out for agricultural training in preparation for immigration to Israel at a Jewish-owned mansion in East Prussia where he worked in agriculture.

After the estate was confiscated by the Nazis, he managed to flee Germany and came to the Netherlands. He first lived in Brummen starting in March, 1937 and worked for a farmer. He then left Brummen in October the same year. As the danger to Jewish life in Germany increased, he was asked by his parents to help save his younger brother Gerd [Gerhard]. Taking advantage of his connections, he managed to bring his brother to the Netherlands to the Paviljoen Loosdrechtse Rade of the youth farm of the Deventer Association.

Prior to his aliyah on the Dora, he was tasked with organizing the luggage of all the candidates for aliyah staying with various farmers throughout the Netherlands.

After the Dora arrived and dropped the anchor on the shore near Herzliya, in the hours of darkness, after they [all] had left the ship, despite the personal risk, Chanoch Ilan decided to make sure that all the illegal immigrants had left the ship. While scanning the ship he found his friend Uzi Binyamin sleeping and rescued him, saving him from going back to Europe.

With other Dora immigrants, he joined the "Mahar" company, which later became Kibbutz Gvar'am. In 1943, he married Elisheva and a month later left for Syria and Lebanon as a civilian driver in the British Army.

In 1947, he was accepted as a member of Darom Yehuda ("Southern Judea" - a transport cooperative later absorbed by Egged). During the War of Independence he was the only bus driver in the southern region. Courageously, he drove an armored bus at the head of convoys on the southern roads and assisted in maintaining the transportation connection between the southern and central settlements.

He managed to get illegal immigrants from Nitzanim Beach under the noses of British soldiers as workers who were returned due to lack of work that day. He became known for having rescued a convoy that was ambushed in the Yazur area and for evacuating the children of Kibbutz Nitzanim and Kibbutz Be'erot Yitzhak under attack by the Egyptian army.

He continued to work with Egged and took an active part in the social and economic activity in Kibbutz Gvar'am. Chanoch Ilan was the father of three children.

Chanoch Ilan died in September 2009 at the age of 92 in Kibbutz Gvar'am.


His parents, Emil and Bertha Schönebaum, were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto on July 29, 1942, then to Auschwitz on September 6, 1943, where they were murdered.

His young brother Gerd managed to remain in hiding in the Netherlands during the entire duration of the war. He later emigrated to Israel and changed his name to Gad Ilan.
His sister Liesel Schoenebaum emigrated to South Africa.
His elder brother Alfred Schonebaum emigrated to the USA and lived in San Diego.

Sources:
www.gevaram.org.il
maapilim.org.il
geni.com
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com (father)
Westerweel Group: Non-Conformist Resistance Against Nazi Germany, Hans Schippers, about the fate of his brother Gerd Schönebaum.

Selka, Hermann
  • Hermann Selka
  • Zvi Selka
  • צבי זלקה
  • Zvi (טל) Selka
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 11.9.1919
Frankfurt am Main
German

Hermann Selka (later: Zvi Selka) was born in Frankfurt am Main on September 11, 1919, the son of Fritz Shlomo Selka, a businessman, and Sophie, née Kochmann. He had three siblings: Harry (1923), and twins Dorothea (Dorle) (1927) and Alfred (1927) .

He said:

"I attended an eight-grade Jewish school in the community. After that I worked for a carpenter until August 1937. That month I moved to training in the Netherlands, from there in 1939 I boarded the ship 'Dora'. We left Antwerp and the ride was smooth, with no disruptions and distractions. We arrived on August 11, 1939, near Kibbutz Shefayim."

Hermann Selka left Frankfurt and came to the Netherlands in August 1937. He first registered in Barsingerhorn on August 3, 1937, then in Wieringermeer on January 2 1938.

Hermann married Dina Wolff and changed his name in Israel to Zvi Selka. The couple had three children.

Zvi (Hermann) Selka died in July 2017 in Beit Yitzhak.


His brother Harry emigrated to Palestine in March 1939.
His parents and two youngest siblings, Dorothea and Alfred (Avraham), also emigrated to Palestine shortly thereafter, in October 1939. The family lived in Beit Yitzhak.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
geni.com
www.geni.com
frankfurt.de (Stolpersteine)
Amnon Rimon

Siegel, Kurt
Kurt Shimshon Siegel
  • Kurt Siegel
  • Kurt Shimshon Siegel
  • Shimshon Eschel
  • שמשון אשל (סיגל)
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 6.7.1921*
Altona
German

Kurt Siegel (later Shimshon Eschel) was born July 8, 1921, in Altona, Germany, the son of Karl Kurt Siegel, from Landau In Der Pfalz, and Berta Lucie, née Fallek, from Hamburg. He had one brother, Gerd Siegel (1925).

Kurt's father, Karl Kurt Siegel, died in March 1937; Kurt was 15 then, and his younger brother Gerd was only 12.

Kurt Siegel's name appears on the list of the Jüdische Jugendhilfe dated April 1937, indicating that he attended a Hachshara in Germany that year and he was a member of Hashomer Hatzair, the Marxist-Zionist organization.

His last place of residence before emigrating was in Landau, Bavaria. After fleeing Germany, he came to the Netherlands, where he continued his haschshara in Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

In Israel, he changed his name to Shimshon (or Shimon?) Eschel and lived in Kfar Warburg, a moshav near Ashdod and Gedera.

His name appears in the May 12 1959 issue of Al HaMishmar ("On Guard"), as a candidate representing the Israeli Communist Party and non-partisans for the ninth conference of the General Histadrut. (Al HaMishmar was a daily newspaper published affiliated with Hashomer Hatzair as well as the Hashomer Hatzair Workers Party of Palestine, which became Mapam after 1948). Its motto was "For Zionism, Socialism and Brotherhood amongst Nations". Julius Yehuda Offen, another Dora passenger, was a contributor to the publication).

Shimshon Eschel married Ruth Goldfinger and the couple had two children.

Shimshon Eschel (Kurt Siegel) died in January 1988 in Kfar Warburg.


Shimon's brother, Gerd Siegel, was murdered on March 1944 (19).

His mother, Berta Lucie Siegel (Fallek) emigrated to Eretz Israel and and died in Kfar Warburg 2001 (103-104).

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.nli.org.il
archive.org
1983 list of former chalutzim from Werkdorp Wieringermeer, courtesy of Amnon Rimon.

The passenger list has his date of birth as July 6.

Sigal, Markus (Segal)
  • Marcus Segal
  • Marcus Sigal
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 24.4.1918*
Groningen*
Dutch

Marcus Segal was born on April 29, 1918, in Amsterdam, the son of Abraham Segal and Leentje van Sijs. He had five siblings: Sipora (1913), Isaac (1916), Sara (1920), Betje (1922), and Reina (1925).

His mother died in January 1927 when Marcus was not yet nine years old. In June, he was taken to the Central Israelite Orphanage in Utrecht where he lived for the next 10 years. His father remarried a year later in 1928.

In October 1937 Marcus Segal left the orphanage and joined the Mizrachi (religious Zionist) Kibbutz Dat veEretz in Beverwijk, where he remained until March 1938. He then continued his training in Kibbutz Franeker until February 1939. In the spring of 1939 he returned to Beverwijk, now in a new location in Velsen-Noord. There he awaited his departure to Palestine with a group of 29 comrades. Marcus left the Netherlands on Sunday morning July 16, 1939, with the Dora from the harbor of Amsterdam.


Marcus' entire family was murdered in the Shoah:
His father Abraham Segal, his brother Isaac Segal, his sister Sara Segal, and his stepmother Elisabeth Visser, were all murdered in Auschwitz on November 9, 1942.
His sister Betje Segal was murdered in Auschwitz on November 5, 1942.
His sister, Reina Segal, was murdered in Sobibór on March 26, 1943.
His sister, Tsipora Kropveld (born Segal) was murdered in Sobibór on April 16, 1943.
His three stepbrothers were also murdered: Levie Meents (Sobibór), Benjamin Meents (Auschwitz) and David Meents (Mauthausen).

Sources:
oorlogsslachtoffersijmond.nl archief.amsterdam
collections.yadvashem.org
collections.yadvashem.org

Note: The date of birth and the spelling of his last name on the passenger list are incorrect. His name is Segal in the military register), and date of birth is 29.4.1918.

Silberstein, Hermann
  • Hermann Silberstein
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.1.1921
Berlin
German

Hermann Benjamin Silberstein was born January, 27, 1921, in Berlin, the son of Karl Silberstein, originally from Posen (now Poznan, Poland), and Gertrud, née Herzfeld, from Berlin. He had two sisters, one 20 years older, and the other 11 years older.

Hermann came from an assimilated family, in a comfortable home in the Charlottenburg district of Berlin. He later recalled:

"My father was in a very good situation, before Hitler came. We lived in a big flat with six rooms, in Berlin, Kaiserstrasse (now Bundesallee). I remember I had a big room for myself. [...]"

His father worked in the Berlin stock exchange, from where he was expelled in 1933 as a Jew. Hermann attended the Gymnasium until 1934. His parents then sent him to a Jewish school on Kaiserdamm (the Theodor Herzl School, a Zionist school) where he remained until 1936.

His parents understood early on the need to leave Germany, and his mother was receptive to Zionism. He remembered: "My mother always said 'let's go to Palestine.'" Although they were not able to do so themselves for financial reasons, his parents ensured that their three children got out in time. Hermann recalled "they always said, 'if we can't get out, the children should get out'". One of his sister went to Denmark in 1933. His older sister went to the Netherlands in 1934, then to Palestine in the summer of 1936.

In 1936, at the age of 16, Hermann left Germany and came to the Netherlands, registering in Barsingerhorn on November 2, 1936 11. A member of Hechalutz, he came to Werkdorp Wieringermeer through the Zionist movement, where he remained for three years. During his stay, he worked with cows while continuing to receive a general education and reading about Zionism. One of the youngest members of the Werkdorp, he became friends with several future passengers of the Dora. Among them, he remembered Rafi Kochavi (Raphael Sternberg), who had also joined the Werkdorp the same day, and with whom he would later go to Kibbutz Haboneh, as a profound influence.

About the Dora, Hermann remembered that it took half a year before the ship finally materialized: "We waited and waited... always 'tomorrow, tomorrow'...", but never stopped believing it would happen.

"We always wanted to go to Palestine - that was clear for us. I wanted to go to Palestine, it was a dream to go to Palestine!"

Of the trip, his only recollection was: "They threw our passports in the sea..."

In Israel, Hermann first joined the Haboneh group in Hadera with friends from the Werkdorp. Haboneh had no land of its own and its members worked in various places, such as orange groves, or cutting eucalyptus trees. While his friends moved on to Dorot, Hermann went to Hazorea.

Hermann later left the kibbutz and joined the British Army in 1942, along with two other Dora passengers, Ernst Kaufman and Zvi Weisskopf. He remained there for four years, working as a driver for the British Army in Haifa until 1946. He became a legal citizen after leaving the British Army and got married.

"When I entered the British Army, I was illegal - no problem, they took everybody. It was in 1942. [...] When I left the British Army, I got legalized [...] because I was in the British Army."

Hermann later "fought in every wars".

He died in Pardes Chana.


Hermann's parents finally received the permission to emigrate to Denmark the very day the Germans invaded the country, in April 1940. Unable to leave, they remained in Germany until their deportation to Theresienstadt on October 3, 1942. His father, Karl Silberstein, was muredered in January 1943; his mother, Gertrud Silberstein, in September 1943.

Herman's two sisters emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
Interview with Lilian Peters (1989), courtesy of Ariane Zwiers from Joods Cultureel Kwartier

Simonis, Heinz
  • Heinz Simonis
(Zeddam) ZEDDAM Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam 30.4.1919
Berlin
German
Singer, Ascher
  • Ascher Singer
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 16.12.1920
Ustrzyki
Polish
Singer, Michael
  • Michael Singer
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 4.2.1912
Baden (Austria)
German (Austrian)

Michael Singer was born in Baden near Vienna on February 4, 1912, the son of Arnold Singer, and Josephine Ernestine Singer (born Schap). Both parents were originally from Bratislava, Slovakia and came to Baden in 1911. Michael had four siblings: Lilli (1914), Edith (1919), Leopold (1921), and Franziska (1933).

Michael's father was a religion teacher and civil servant of the religious community of Baden.

On May 17, 1938, two months after the Anschluss, his father filled out an emigration application with the Vienna Jewish Community. In this application, he stated that his son Michael was in Holland and that his profession was "Komis" - possibly meaning a commissioner.

No additional information is available about Michael Singer. According to online genealogoy sites, he died in Baden bei Wien, Austria.


Michael's father had stated in his emigration application that he wanted to go to France or to a colony and hoped to teach the Talmud, or languages and religious studies. Michael's parents were not able to emigrate and Arnold and Josephine Ernestine Singer were murdered in the Majdanek death camp on July 11 1942.
His sister Edith Singer was murdered in 1942. She was 23.
His sister Franziska Singer was murdered in 1944. She was 11 years old.

His sister Lilli Singer emigrated to England where she worked as a domestic servant.

His brother Leopold Singer, a talmudic student, emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration)

Sondheimer, Ewald
Ewald Sondheimer
  • Ewald Sondheimer
  • Shlomo Sondheimer
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Frederikstr. I8 a. 16.8.1919
Neuhof
German

Ewald Sondheimer (later: Shlomo Sondheimer) was born on August 16, 1919, in Neuhof near Fulda, Germany, the son of Nathan Sondheimer, a merchant from Utrichshausen, and Lina Sommer, from Heinebach. He had two older sisters, Elli (1912) and Liesel (1914).

The Sondheimer family moved to Hünfeld in 1929 then to Kassel in May 1933.

Due to the Nazi persecutions, Ewald was forced to leave school around the age of 14. He then started to work as an apprentice in Kassel in April 1934, but this lasted only a little more than a year, again due to anti-Jewish legislation.

Ewald left Germany and came to the Netherlands in 1936 to practice agriculture with a Dutch farmer, with the rest of the family following a year later. He stayed on the farm of the Arnold ten Kate family in the village of Deurningen near Weerselo from October 1936 to April 1938. Another German refugee and future passenger of the Dora, Siegismond (Shmuel) Ebel also worked there at the same time.

For Ewald, only 17 years old when he first arrived, life on the farm was difficult, but he became a lover of livestock and agriculture. While in the Netherlands, Ewald developed a strong conviction in Zionism and became active with the Hachshara movement, acting as a social leader for young people who had come from Germany. A member of the Deventer Association, he briefly moved to the Deventer Association building at Brink 70 in Deventer.

In February 1939, his parents and sister Elli emigrated to Brazil but Ewald - who wanted to go to Palestine - and his sister Liesel - who had married in Amsterdam - decided to stay in the Netherlands. He lived among others in the Jewish orphanage "De Vondelhof" run by Aliyat Hano'ar and led by Simon Berlinger, a future Dora passenger.

His attempts to get an English visa for Palestine having failed, Ewald Sondheimer eventually boarded the Dora for Palestine with other pioneers from his Hachshara.

After coming to Eretz Israel, Ewald joined the "Machar" group (Kvutza) near Kfar Saba with members of his Hachshara and settled in what later became Kibbutz Gvar'Am. There Ewald changed his name to Shlomo and married Hava (Eva) Levy, whom he had met in Hachshara in the Netherlands. Three years later, in 1942, the couple decided to leave the Kibbutz and moved to Nira (later Beit Yitzhak), a new settlement (moshav) in Emek Hefer where they started their new private agricultural farm. Their two children, a son and a daughter, were born there. Shlomo was drafted in the Haganah and fought in the War of Independence, defending the region of Emek Hefer from the invading Iraqi army.

In the 1970s, he engaged more in local politics and soon rose to leadership positions. In his function as "Regional Council deputy", he actively participated in the exchange between Israel and Germany. After he was diagnosed with cancer in 1990, he made a farewell trip with his family through his native Germany.

Over the years, he remained in close contact with other Dora passengers and friends from his Hachshara days: Rudolf (Uzi) Benjamin, Siegismond (Shmuel) Ebel, Zvi Weisskopf, Shimon Berlinger, and Walter Landsberger and Hermann (Zvi) Selka, both from Beit Yitzhak.

He was especially close friends with Shmuel Ebel and Shimon Berlinger. In Amsterdam, the three men had stayed in De Vondelhof, a Jewish orphanage run by Aliyat Hano'ar for children from Austria and Germany, with Simon Berlinger the director of the orphanage.

Shlomo (Ewald) Sondheimer died in November 1996 in Beit Yitzhak.


Ewald's sister Liesel moved to Amsterdam and married a Dutchman Benedictus Wijnmann. Liesel Wijnmann, her husband, and their 7-year old son Wolfgang, were murdered in Auschwitz on August 3, 1943.

Ewald's parents and his sister Elli came to the Netherlands. From there they were then able to emigrate to Brazil in January 1939.
After the death of her husband, Ewald's mother Lina left Brazil and moved to Israel in 1952.
Ewald's sister Elli Mottek moved back from Brazil to Germany in 1957 with her family.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
www.juedspurenhuenfelderland.de
From Neuhof to Emek Hefer, by Amnon Rimon, (pdf)
Communication with Shlomo Sondheimer's son Amnon Rimon (2023)

Sonnenberg, Fritz
  • Fritz Sonnenberg
  • Gerhard Siegfried Fritz Sonnenberg
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 14.8.1921
Koblenz
German

Gerhard Siegfried "Fritz" Sonnenberg was born on August 14, 1921, in Koblenz, the son of Moses Sonnenberg and Irma Sonnenberg (born Blum), both from Germany. He had one brother, Paul (1925).

His father was a horse dealer and the family was solidly middle-class: they employed a nanny, drove a brand new car, and voted for the German State Party, a left-liberal, middle-class party.

Starting in 1933, and with the boycott of Jews on April 1st, his father's business declined progressively. His mother, Irma Sonnenberg, committed suicide in December 1934, when Fritz was 13 years old. (In March 1937, a year and a half after the Nuremberg laws, his maternal grandfather would also commit suicide.)

Following the Nuremberg racial laws of September 15, 1935, the climate at school had become increasingly difficult and, following a riot by students against Fritz Gerhard Siegfried, he had to leave school (Realgymnasium) at the end of the 9th grade in 1936. At the age of 14 he began an apprenticeship as a machinist in Düsseldorf.

After a second attempt at the end of December 1938, Fritz (Gerhard) Siegfried finally managed to emigrate from Germany to the Netherlands. There he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer and boarded the Dora with 75 comrades in mid-July 1939.

No further information available.


His father, Moses Sonnenberg, fled to the Netherlands in February 1938. In 1940/1941, he asked his son Fritz (Gerhard) for help in emigrating, but in vain. He was interned in the Westerbork transit camp, from where he was transported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto with his son Paul on September 4, 1944. A month later, on October 16, 1944, he was sent to Auschwitz where he was murdered on arrival two days later on October 18, 1944.

His brother, Paul Sonnenberg, fled from Koblenz to Amsterdam in April 1939. He came with a transport of the Youth Aliyah and lived in a youth aliyah home. He later lived in Loosdrecht, then was later taken to Amsterdam by the Westerweel group. He hid in a "bunker" but was caught by the Germans in 1942 shortly after his 17th birthday and was sent to the Westerbork transit camp where he met with his father. There he helped a couple of people escape but did not flee himself because he wanted to remain with his father. Paul and his father were deported on September 4, 1944, to the Theresienstadt Ghetto. From there he was transported to Auschwitz on September 29, 1944. He died on January 22, 1945 during a "death march", five days before the liberation of the camp by the Red Army. He was 19 years old.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
web25.otto.kundenserver42.de
www.dokin.nl (brother Paul)

Spatz, Max (Maks)
  • Max Spatz
  • Maks Spatz
  • Menachem Spac
  • מנחם שפאק
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 1.4.1920
Worms
Polish

Max Spatz (later: Menachem Spac) was born in Worms on April 1, 1920, the son of Moses (Moritz) Spatz, a merchant originally from Nowy Sącz (Neu-Sandec, Galicia), and Beila (Berta, Bertha), née Friedmann, from Będzin (Poland). Max had a twin sister Rosel (Rosalie) Spatz. Their mother died in February 1923 when Max was not yet three years old.

He first attended the municipal elementary school in Worms beginning in April 1926. (School year in Germany started after Easter). In 1927, Max and his sister Rosel were separated and sent to different orphanages. From then on, Max was raised in the Diez German-Israelite Children's Home ("Deutsch-Israelitisches Kinderheim Diez"), a neo-orthodox institution for boys in Diez on Lahn. There he attended the public school in Dietz ("Volksschule Diez") starting in April 1927. In April 1930, he was accepted in the Oranienstein secondary school (Reform-Real-Gymnasium Diez). It is assumed that he completed his studies by the end of March 1934 when the school closed. Being Jewish, it is unlikely that Max was then able to enroll in the local secondary school ("Realschule Diez", later "Adolf-Hitler-Schule".), and it is not known whether he was able to follow an apprenticeship.

In the evening of August 20, 1935, the Diez children's home was the raided by the Nazis, and its 42 boys were taken to Frankfurt by bus the next day. There they stayed in the "Israelitische Waisenanstalt Frankfurt", a Jewish orphanage. It is assumed that Spatz was in that group. A month later, on September 25, all the pogrom victims - including Max Spatz - were de-registered from Diez, making their exclusion from the town official.

Max Spatz left Germany sometime after 1935. According to an inquiry about his fate to the United HIAS Service in 1964, Max left Germany and made his way to Belgium via Italy around 1936 or 1937.

Max then came to the Netherlands where he joined the religious Zionist group Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz in Beverwijk near Amsterdam, with whom he would board the Dora in July 1939.

In Palestine, Max Spatz changed his name to Menachem Spac. He enrolled in the British Army (Pioneer Corps - platoon 606, a saper unit) in 1940 and served in Egypt and in Tobruk, Libya. In March 1941 he was sent to Greece with the corps to stop the German invasion of this country.

On April 28, 1941, the British Army surrendered in Kalamata, and Menachem was among the 10,000+ British soldiers taken POW on that day. (Among the POWs that day was Yehoshua Spuch, another Dora passenger.)

The POWs were first taken to Thessaloniki and then to the Lamsdorf POW camp (Stalag VIII-B) in Germany. Menachem escaped with nine other English POWs on April 29, 1943. No further information about his fate is known and he was reported dead in January 1945.


Max's father Mozes (Moritz) Spatz disappeard in the Shoah. According to one account, he left Germany for Belgium in 1936 or 1937. According to other sources, he was deported to Zbąszyń on October 28, 1938 and would have perished around 1942 - possibly in Belzec.

His sister, Rosel (Rosalie) Spatz, was deported to Zbąszyń (Bentschen) during the so-called Polenaktion on October 28, 1938. She disappeared in the Shoah, sometime between 1942 and 1944, depending on the sources.

Sources:
Michael Ströder (December 2023) (Contact: michael.stroeder [at] web.de)
Giving a Face to the Fallen (via R.S. - December 2023)
Yad Vashem (Sister Rosel)
myheritage.com (Sister Rosel)
www.yadvashem.org (Jewish POWs in Greece)

Spitzer, Gerda
  • Gerda Spitzer
  • Gerda Cohn
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk 26.8.1918
Baden
German (Austrian)

Gerda Spitzer (later: Gerda Cohn) was born August 16, 1918, in Vienna, the daughter of Dr. Alfred Spitzer and Stefanie Spitzer (born Hauser), originally from Nikolsburg, Czechoslovakia. She had one sister, Erika (1917).

Lily Skall, a young friend of Gerda wrote in her memoirs: "Gerda Spitzer [...] lived in the Fifteenth District, on the corner of Talgasse and Mariahilferstrasse.". Gerda Spitzer belonged to Brith Zirenu, a Jewish Scouts Association which was later incorporated into the Zionist Youth Association.

Gerda Spitzer came to the "Jewish youth farm" (Joodse jeugdfarm) in Gouda on June 2, 1938, and left four months later on October 3, 1938 for Apeldoorn.

Gerda Spitzer settled in Kibbutz Kfar Hamaccabi with her husband, Gershon Cohn, whom she had met in Vienna.


Gerda Spitzer's mother, Stefanie (Steffi) Spitzer, was deported to the Theresienstadt Ghetto on October 1 1942, then from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz Birkenau on May 18 1944 where she was murdered.

Gerda's sister, Erika Königsberger, emigrated to the USA.

The fate of her father is not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
www.162smilingfaces.com (Lily Skall) (PDF)
www.archiefman.nl (PDF)

Spuch, Oskar
  • Oskar Spuch
  • Yehoshua Spuch
  • Yehoshua Shpuch
  • Yehoshua Schpuch
  • יהושע שפוך
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 2.1.1918
Wieden
Polish

Oskar Spuch (later: Yehoshua Shpuch) was born January 2, 1918, in the Wieden district of Vienna, the son of Mendel (Menachem) Spuch and Perel (Pnina) Treister*, from Shinova (Sieniawa), Poland. He was born to a family of 3 children. One older brother, Alfred, was born in 1911 in Maastricht, Netherlands.

The family, originally from Galicia (now Poland), had lived in Belgium from 1910 to 1914 but moved to Vienna in 1914. [His parents would have been Austrian citizens and their move may have been caused by the onset of WW1.]

Oskar's father fought in World War I and did not return, so he never knew his father. His mother worked as a bank clerk but it was difficult for her to support her three children and at the age of 5 Oskar was sent to a Jewish orphanage in Vienna.

On May 26 1938, two months and a half after the Anschluss, Pepi Treister-Spruch, a widow, filled out an emigration application form with the IKG in Vienna, listing two sons: Oskar and Alfred Treister-Spuch. At the time of the application, Oskar was a "gardener", presumably meaning that he was attending a Hachshara.

Oskar Spuch was able to leave Vienna and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Deventer group.

In Israel, Oskar changed his name to Yehoshua Shpuch. He enrolled in the British Army with the excavation corps and was deployed to Greece to stop the German invasion. On April 28, 1941, the British Army surrendered in Kalamata, and Oskar was among the 10,000+ British soldiers taken POW that day. (Among the other POWs was Max Spatz (Menachem Spac), another Dora passenger.) He was sent to the Lamsdorf POW camp (Stalag VIII-B, later renamed Stalag-344) in Germany, where he worked in captivity in coal mines for four years.

After his release, he returned to Israel and worked in a bank in Afula where he met his future wife, Judith Schneide. He had (at least) one daughter.

Yehoshua Shpuch (Oskar Spuch) died in May 1996 and is buried in Afula.


His mother, Perl Treister, was deported from Vienna to Maly Trostinec near Minsk where she was murdered on September 4 1942. [Other source: His mother, Jozefina Schpuch, was murdered in the Shoah.]

His brother, Alfred Spuch, was deported to Stanisławów (now: Ivano-Frankivsk), where he was murdered in 1942.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
yvng.yadvashem.org (brother)
www.myheritage.com (Perl Treister)
Giving a Face to the Fallen (via R.S. - December 2023)

*The name of his mother is not clear. His birth certificate has "Peril Jule Gottlieb", the Vienna emigration form "Pepi Treister-Spruch", and a Holocaust memorial page "Perl Treister". His daughter listed "Jozefina Pnina Trister".

Steiner, Ladislaw (Laszlo)
  • Ladislaw Steiner
  • Laszlo Steiner
The Deventer Society (Deventer) DEVENTER Papenstraat 45, Deventer 5.11.1911
Hüdin
Hungarian
Steinhof, Ludwig
  • Ludwig Steinhof
  • Levi Steinhoff
  • לוי שטיינהוף
The Deventer Society (Gouda) GOUDA Catharina-Hoeve,R.v. Catsweg 61, Gouda 13.11.1917
Mattesburg*
German

Ludwig Steinhof (later: Levi Steinhoff) was born November 13, 1917 in Mattersdorf, Hungary (now Mattesburg, Austria), the son of Adolf Abraham Aharon Steinhof, a merchant from Mattersdorf, and Sofie (Zisel), née Löbl, from Gloggnitz. He had seven siblings: Paul (Moshe Yehuda) (1904), Phillip (1905), Jolan (Yoland) (1907), Renée (Shoshana) (1909), Hilda (Tzipporah) (1912), Josef Meir (1915-1934), and Adalbert (Shimon) (1921).

Mattersdorf belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary in the Austria-Hungarian Empire until 1920, when it became part of Austria. It was one of the "Sheva Kehilloth" (Seven Holy Communities) in Esterházy lands that were renowned for their piety and the eminent rabbis they produced. The town had a Jewish presence since at least the 14th century, and possibly as early as 800 CE. The synagogue, which was destroyed during the Holocaust, had reportedly been built in 1354. The town was divided into two districts, one Christian and one Jewish, whose self-government lasted until 1902.

Ludwig's mother died in 1934, two months before Ludwig's 17th birthday. His brother Josef Meir died in November that year.

In May 1938, two months after the Anschluss, his father filled out an immigration form with the Vienna Jewish Community (IKG) and listed five of his children. Ludwig and his older brother Phillip were not mentioned, suggesting that they had already left Austria. His three daughters, aged 28, 29, and 31, and two sons, aged 34 and 17, were all single and lived in their father's home. The women were seamstresses and cooks, and the men knitters. They all spoke German and Hungarian, with the sons also knowing a little Hebrew.

A Ludwig I. Steinhoff came to the "Jewish youth farm" (joodse jeugdfarm) in Gouda on May 1, 1939 before coming to Eretz Israel on August 19, 1939. (It's impossible to confirm it is the same person without more information such as a DOB, but it is likely that this was indeed the same person).

Ludgwig Steinhof joined Kvutzat Huliot, which later became Kibbutz Sde Nehemia, on September 15, 1939, one month after his landing. He left the kibbutz in 1940.

Ludgwig Steinhof changed his name to Levi (לוי) Steinhof. He was married and had one child.

Levi Steinhof died in June 1970 and is buried in Kiryat Bialik.


Exceptionally among Dora passengers, all of his family, aside from his mother and brother Josef Meir who had died in 1934, were saved.

His father, his three sisters: Jolan Vogl, Hilda Tzipporah Streicher, and Shoshana Renée Moses, and his brother Moshe Yehuda (Paul) Steinhoff all emigrated to Israel.
His brothers Phillip and Shimon Steinhof also survived.

Sources:
archive.sde-nehemia.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (father's Vienna application)
www.archiefman.nl (PDF)
billiongraves.com

* The passenger list has Mattesberg, which is in Germany. He came from Mattesburg, Austria.

Stern, Günter
  • Günter Stern
  • Daniel Stern
  • דניאל שטרן
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.9.1921*
Breslau
German

Günter Stern (later: Daniel Stern) was born on September 28*, 1921, in Breslau, the son of Emil Stern, a merchant from Halle, and Ella Bertha Stern (born Just) from Krosno Odrzanskie (Prussia, now Poland). He had one brother, Hans Rolf (1920). His father died in 1928 when Günter was seven years old and his mother wed Franz Orgler in a second marriage.

Günter Stern left Breslau and came to the Netherlands in 1937 to prepare for emigration in the Werkdorp. He first registered in Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid) on May 19 1937, then on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer. He boarded the Dora from Amsterdam in July 1939.

Günter Stern at first lived in a kibbutz in Hadera. He married Mirjam Loewy and the couple had one son.

Günter Stern died in August 1993 (or 1996?) and is buried in Beer Sheva.


Günter's mother Ella Bertha Stern emigrated to the Netherlands. She was deported from the Westerbork transit camp to the Theresienstadt Ghetto in January 1944, then to Auschwitz on May 16 1944, then to in July 1944 to Stutthof where she died in October 1944. She was 49.
Günter's brother Hans Rolf Stern was deported to Mauthausen where he was murdered on September 14 1941.
His half-brother Helmut Orgler was deported and disappeared, a victim of the Holocaust.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
billiongraves.com

Sternberg, Rafael
  • Raphael Sternberg
  • Rafael Kochavi
  • Rafi Kochavi
  • רפאל (רפי) כוכבי
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 4.5.1920
Berlin
German

Rafael Sternberg (later: Rafi Kochavi) was born in Berlin on May 4, 1920, the son of Louis Eugen Sternberg and Rosa Sternberg (born Davidsohn). He had two siblings, the twins Joachim and Miriam (1922).

His father, Dr. Louis Eugen Sternberg, was a dentist who had served for four years as a doctor in the German Army and was awarded the Iron Cross as a token of appreciation for his service. His mother, Rosa Sternberg, served as an army nurse in WW1.

According to the Stolperstein in memory of his father, his family home was one of culture. It had many books, the children went to museums, and the family discussed important intellectual matters around the dinner table. They also had the joys of childhood: They often went to the zoo near their home, walked through the Tiergarten Park, and in the winter ice-skated on the frozen Neuer-See Lake. They went berry picking in Grunewald with their mother, and all went for walks in the forests and lakes around Berlin the weekends.

His parents considered themselves to be proud citizens of the German nation, but also instilled their children with Jewish national heritage and Rafael grew up in a Zionist home. Rafael and his siblings attended Theodor Herzl Schule, a Jewish Zionist school, where he learned Hebrew - which he spoke and wrote fluently. He was a member of the Kadima and later Habonim youth movements.

Understanding the growing danger for their family, Rafael's parents decided to send their children to safety, and in 1936, they sent 16-year-old Rafael to the Netherlands where he came for Hachshara training in the Werkdorp Wieringermeer. Rafael first registered in Barsingerhorn on November 2 1936, then on January 2 1938 in Wieringermeer. (Two years later they would send the twins with Youth Alyiah.)

Rafael immigrated to Israel on the Dora and arrived directly at Kibbutz Haboneh (הבונה) in Hadera, which served as an absorption center for Werkdorp members. (Kibbutz Haboneh later became Kibbutz Dorot).

In Israel he changed his name to Raphael (Rafi) Kochavi. Rafael Kochavi lived in Kibbutz Dorot where he was a teacher. He married Chava (Pines?) Hirsch in 1951. He had two daughters and four sons.

Rafael Kochavi died in 1981.


Rafael's parents tried to flee Germany, but in vain. His mother, Rosa Sternberg, commited suicide in Berlin to avoid deportation on November 16 1941. His father, Dr. Louis Eugen Sternberg, died on January 3 1943 in Berlin.

His brother, Joachim Kochavi (Sternberg), and his sister, Miriam Naor (born Kochavi, Sternberg), emigrated to Palestine with Youth Alyiah in 1938 and lived in Kibbutz Dorot.

Sources:
www.dorot.org.il
www.lettertothestars.at
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

Sternfeld, Fritz
  • Fritz Sternfeld
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 15.8.1914
Halle
German

Fritz Wilhelm Sternfeld was born on August 15, 1914, in Halle.

Fritz Sternfeld lived in Halle in the 1930s. He left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he attended Werkdorp Wieringermeer to prepare for this immigration.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Stoppelmann, Max
  • Max Stoppelmann
  • Max Meir Stoppelmann
  • מאיר מקס שטופלמן
  • מקס מאיר שטופלמן
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 19.5.1919
Hamburg
German

Max Stoppelmann (later: Meir Stoppelmann) was born on May 19, 1919, in Hamburg, the son of Gerson Stoppelmann and Auguste, née Loebenstein, both from Hamburg. Max had four siblings: Greta (1907), Hedwig (1910), Alfred (1911), and Ilse (1918). Max's mother died in 1935 when he was 16 years old.

Max's father Gerson ran a butcher's shop. In addition to his business activities, he had been active for years in the local Jewish congregational life. A member of the Association of Independent Jewish Artisans and Businessmen of Greater Hamburg, he was elected as a representatives of the association in 1930 and advocated for the expansion of the welfare system of the German Israelite Congregation and for stronger support of the increasingly impoverished older congregational members.

Max married Liesel (Elisabeth) Lea Heinrich in 1941, and the couple had four children.

Max Meir Stoppelman died in February 1990 at the age of 70 in Bitzaron, Israel.

Max's Stoppelmann's children adopted the last name Shelef, but their father doesn't seem to have done so.


Max's father, Gerson Stoppelman, tried to maintain his butcher shop even after the prohibition of kosher slaughtering and despite the massive obstacles and losses in income. By 1937, Max's father Gerson saw that there was no future in Germany and managed to emigrate to Holland with his daughter Ilse on December 31, 1938. With all of their estate moved to a blocked account by the Nazi authorities, Gerson and Ilse Stoppelman traveled nearly penniless to Holland and were dependent upon the support of Dutch refugee aid in Rotterdam, their first place of exile. Completely dependent on the Rotterdam Refugee Committee, they lived in a refugee camp there until nearly the end of 1939. Gerson Stoppelman later lived in Amsterdam. From there he hoped to emigrate to the USA where his daughters Hedwig and Grete had already emigrated. They expected that their place in the visa waiting list would allow them to leave in the Spring of 1940, but the German invasion of the Netherlands prevented them from fleeing to America.
Gerson Stoppelman was deported to Auschwitz where he was murdered on October 2 1942.
Max's sister Ilse married in Holland. Ilse Deutsch-Stoppelmann was deported to Sobibór in April 1943 where she was murdered.
Max's brother Alfred Stoppelmann was killed in Auschwitz on September 30, 1942.

Two of Max's sisters, Grete Kaiser and Hedwig Heimann, emigrated to the USA via the Netherlands.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de (father)
www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de (sister)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Stopper, Arthur
  • Arthur Stopper
  • Artur Stopper
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 25.12.1920
Bochum
Stateless

Arthur Stopper was born on December 25, 1920, in Bochum, the son of Leib Leo Stopper, from Solotvyn, and Lotte Rothbaum, from Krekhovychi. His parents originally came from the Ivano-Frankivsk region in Galicia (now Ukraine). He had one younger brother Sigmund (1922).

Arthur's family left Bochum and came to Amsterdam in May 1932. What prompted this move before Hitler's rise to power is not known. His parents had a men's clothing shop in Amsterdam.

In September 1936 Arthur Stopper registered in the Het Joods Werkdorp near Barsingerhorn, then in the Wieringermeer-Werkdorp Wieringen in January 2, 1938. In July 1939 he boarded the Dora from Amsterdam.

Arthur changed his name to Uri Stopper, then later to Uri Shapir.

Artur Stopper returned to the Netherlands and was registered in Amsterdam in May 1949. It is not known if he had been stationed there as a British soldier, or if he had been a personal decision. He married Lore Zuckerberg in Amsterdam in September 1949, then returned to Tel Aviv in December that year. He later returned to Amsterdam in April 1967 and lived there at least until 1977.


His parents Leo and Lotte Stopper were deported from the Westerbork transit camp to the Sobibór death camp on July 20, 1943, despite having certificates for Palestine ("Albersheim Verklaring"). They were murdered upon their arrival on July 23, 1943.

His brother, Sigmund (Sieg) Stopper (Later Yeshayahu 'Yesha' Shapir) emigrated to Israel in 1946 aboard the Aliyah Bet ship SS BIRIA.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
archief.amsterdam
www.joodsmonument.nl
www.geni.com

Strassburger, Berthold
Berthold Strassburger
  • Berthold Strassburger
  • Baruch Savir
  • ברוך שטרסבורגר
  • ברוך סביר
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.10.1918
Ulm
German

Berthold Strassburger (later: Baruch Savir) was born in Ulm on October 13, 1918, the eldest son of Rabbi Dr. Ferdinand (Nathan) Strasburger and Alice, née Nördlinger, both formerly from Bad Buchau. He had one brother, Helmut (Hanan) (1923).

Berthold's parents originally came from Bad Buchau, a small town 50 km from Ulm with a large Jewish community accounting for one third of its inhabitants. His parents later came to Ulm where Berhold and his brother were born.

Berthold Strassburger was raised in a "family in which Jewish tradition merged with Western culture". His mother had served as a nurse in the Red Cross during World War I. His father served as Rabbi of the city of Ulm until his early death in 1927. Berthold was 9 years old when his father died. (An unusual occurence among Dora passengers, not only was Berthold's father a Rabbi, but so was his uncle Rabbi Jesaias Straßburger).

Berthold Strassburger (nicknamed Babo) belonged to the Werkleute youth movement and went to the Netherlands where he joined the Hachshara in Werkdorp Wieringermeer.

In Israel he changed his name to Baruch Savir (ברוך סביר). He first joined Kibbutz Hazorea, then was one of the founder of Kibbutz Elgavish in Raanana. He later joined Kibbutz Kfar Menachem in 1943, where he worked as a sheperd, then later was the chief accountant in the 1950s. He was married to Lilo and the couple had three children.

Baruch Savir (Berthold Strassburger) died in 1982 in Kfar Menachem at the age of 64.


Baruch's mother Alice Strassburger had received a visa to immigrate to Israel, but she remained in Germany to help her elderly mother. She became deputy manager of the Jewish nursing home in Herrlingen in 1941, and in 1942, she took over the management of the newly built Jewish retirement home in Tigerfeld. On August 22, 1942, she was deported to Theresienstadt together with the other residents, including her mother Rosa Nördlinger. On January 29, 1943, Alice Strassburger was transported to Auschwitz where she was murdered.

Baruch's younger brother Helmut (Hanan) Strassburger made Aliyah with Aliyat Hano'ar (Youth Aliya) in 1938. He also lived in Kfar Menachem, where he died prematurely in an accident in 1951.

Sources:
strassburgers.blogspot.com
strassburgers.blogspot.com
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
stolpersteine-fuer-ulm.de
www.geni.com

Photo credit: strassburgers.blogspot.com
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Strauss, Hans
Hans Strauss (Chaim Strauss)
  • Hans Strauss
  • Chaim Strauss
  • חיים שטראוס
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 8.11.1914
Westerburg*
German

Hans Strauss (later: Chaim Strauss) was born on November 8, 1914, in Westerburg, the son of Salomon Strauss, a cattle trader originally from Willmenrod, and Hanna Strauss (born Michael), from Muenchholzhausen. Hans had three siblings: Julius, Kurt (Shmuel) (1923), and Brunhilde (Hilda) (1928). [Other sources have two additional siblings: Walter and Hanna].

Hans Strauss left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined the religious Kibbutz Dat VeEretz in Beverwijk.

Hans changed his name to Chaim Strauss. He married Hilda Bracha Weingold ca 1950 in Tel Aviv and the couple had (at least) one child.

Chaim (Hans) Strauss died in March 2001 in Bnei Brak. [Other source has Ramat Gan].


His parents, Salomon and Hanna Strauss, his brother, Kurt Strauss (17), and his sister, Brunhilde (Hilda) Strauss (13), were deported from Frankfurt to the Minsk Ghetto in November 1941 where they were murdered.

His brother, Julius Yehiel Strauss, emigrated to the USA [or Palestine ?].

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (other source with two more brothers)
yvng.yadvashem.org (father)
yvng.yadvashem.org (mother)
yvng.yadvashem.org (sister)
yvng.yadvashem.org (brother)

The Amsterdam list incorrectly has "Westenburg".

Strauss, Josef
  • Josef Strauss
  • Yoseph Yaen ("Yof")
  • (יוף) יוסף יען שטראוס
The Deventer Society (Krajenburg bij Hengelo) KRAJENBURG bij HENGELO Papenstraat 45, Deventer 5.4.1916
Bamberg
German

Josef Strauss (later: Yoseph Yaen) was born on April 5, 1916, in Bamberg, the son of Julius Strauß and Rosa, née Katz. He had one brother, Hans (1909).

He was raised in a Zionist family that also maintained religious customs. His parents were active in charity institutions, "Chevra Kadisha", "Bnei Brit", and his father founded the local Zionist Association in 1921. Joseph received both a traditional and Zionist education, receiving lessons in the Bible and Hebrew from the community rabbi, and it was already clear to him at the age of bar mitzvah that he wanted to immigrate to Israel.

At the age of 14, he joined the Jewish Scouts movement (Jüdischer Pfadfinderbund Deutschland: JPD) for three years, then belonged to the Habonim movement for four years.

In 1936, he joined the on-the-job training at "Beit Chalutz" in Munich, studied carpentry and was active in "Habonim" as a physical education instructor.

He was arrested on Kristallnacht (November 9-10 1938) and incarcerated in Dachau where he remained for 6 weeks. In December 1938 he received the order to leave Germany within 48 hours. He was released, went to say goodbye to his parents, went to the city of Bielefeld where he got a passport, and came to the Netherlands to continue his training.

In Holland he met with a group of pioneers who had come from Elgut. They worked in agriculture and every two weeks they met at the "Beit HaKashrut" to study Hebrew and socialize. In early June 1939, he joined a group organized by Giora Yoseftal with the help of the Hechalutz, and they immigrated to Israel illegally on the "Dora".

After landing in the vicinity of Shefayim, they were divided into groups and walked to Moshav Rishpon [about 3 kms away] , and waited until the English stopped looking for them. From there he went to Nahariya to meet his parents, who had already immigrated to Israel.

After two months in Nahariya where he worked in agriculture and was recruited for night shifts on behalf of the "Hagana", he joined his friends in preparation for their independence - the group "nucleus" (גרעין). About a month later, the group moved to Ra'anana. Its members worked in the orchards, were sent to set up army camps for the British and some were sent to a labor company in Sodom. He was in Sodom for 6 weeks and this is how he described the period:

"It was one of the hardest times in my life. It was summer, they made us lie down in huts, the work was in shifts and those who worked at night had to rest during the day - suffered terribly. After 6 weeks in which we earned a good amount, we went home."

After their return there was no work, so he established with friends independent industries: a dairy, a bakery, an industrial carpentry where they made boxes for food and for ammunition for the British Army, and he took it upon himself to establish a vegetable garden for selling in the market in Ra'anana and Tel Aviv.

He and Rita Wollenberg, another Dora passenger, were married in Nahariya at his parents' home. The Rabbi who officiated for their wedding had taught him the Torah and Hebrew in his youth in Germany. They traveled to the wedding by tram since they did not receive travel allowance.

He was one of the founders of Kibbutz Galed in the north of the country in 1945. Amongst the founders were the couple Giora and Senetta Yoseftal, both of whom were later members of the Knesset, with Giora serving in several ministerial portfolios.

Yosef died in Kibbutz Galed in June 2003 at the age of 87.


His parents emigrated to Palestine. His father listed his occupation in his naturalization application as "Tax Collector".
His brother Hans Strauss also emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.galed.org.il
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

Taubes, Mirjam
  • Mirjam Taubes
  • Miriam Taubes
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 13.11.1919
Baden
German

Mirjam Taubes was born on November 30, 1919, in Baden, Austria, a spa town near Vienna, the daughter of Dr. David Taubes, from Babin, Rumania, and Breindel Reich. She had one younger sister, Noemi (1922).

Mirjam's father had lived in Chernivtsi until 1912, then in Lemberg (Lvov), and finally settled in Vienna in 1914. A lawyer until 1934, he later worked as a newspaper employee. He spoke Hebrew, Yiddish, German, Polish, Ukrainian, Latin and Greek.

Mirjam's mother died in May 1938 in Vienna, two months after the Anschluss. By then, her father declared in his immigration application with the IKG that he without a position and without any assets.

In this application dated May 22, 1938, he stated that his daughter Miriam, a nanny, planned to go to an agricultural school in Holland in about 2 weeks, then would go to Eretz Israel. As for her younger sister Noemi, she was registered with Youth Aliyah.

In a second application four months later, on September 1938, her father stated that his daughter Miriam, 19, was now in Holland, and that her sister Noemi, 16, was in Palestine.

Miriam Taubes left Vienna probably in early June 1938 and came to the Netherlands where she joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer. From there she boarded the Dora a little over a year later.

She married someone named Ernest (last name unknown).

No further information is available.


Miriam's father, David Taubes, left Vienna in December 1938 and came to the Netherlands where his brother, Dr. Israel Taubes, resided. From there he went to Belgium, then crossed the French border in February 1940 and arrived in Marseille, from where he boarded a ship for Haifa, arriving in Palestine on Feb 20 1940.

Her sister, Noemi Taubes, (later Noemi Gershuny), emigrated to Palestine in September 1938 with Youth Aliyah at the age of 16.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.archives.gov.il
www.myheritage.com (father's Vienna immigration forms)
www.pogromnovember1938.co.uk (father's testimony)

Tausz, Jene (Jennö)
  • Jene (Jennö? Jannö?) Tausz
The Deventer Society (Assumburg) Assumburg: Heemskerk Assumburg Youth Hostel, Heemskerk 30.7.1918
Pápa
Hungarian

Jene (Jennö? Jannö?) Tausz was born on July 30, 1918, in Päpa, Hungary, a small town 75 miles (120 kms) from Budapest, with a Jewish population of 3,000 in 1920.

He came from Budapest on 16 June 1938 to the Deventer Association building at the Brink 70 in Deventer and left for Deurningen a week later. He may have stayed with the Arnold ten Kate family at Deurningen no. 17.

No further information is available.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl

Teichmann, Benno
  • Benno Teichmann
  • בנו טייכמן
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 19.10.1921
Breslau
German

Benno Teichmann was born on October 19, 1921, in Breslau (Wrocław), the son of Carl Teichman Gottlieb (?) and Chaia Anne Zolotoyabko. He had five siblings: Käthe (1919), Esther (1920), Wilma, Alfred, and Shulamit.

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Timendorfer, Heinrich
  • Heinrich Timendorfer
  • Shmuel Timnah
  • שמואל טימנדורפר
  • שמואל תמנה
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam Uithoornstr. 44 7.4.1917
Pless
German

Heinrich Timendorfer (later: Shmuel Timnah) was born on April 7, 1917, in Pless, Schlesien (now Pszczyna, Poland), the son of Arthur Timendorfer, a merchant originally from Kattowitz, Upper Silesia, (now Katowice, Poland), and Johanna (Hanna), née Guttmann, from Tarnowice. He had one brother, Günter Timendorfer (1919).

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van Amerongen, Emil
Emanuel van Amerongen (Menachem Amram)
  • Emanuel van Amerongen
  • Menachem Amram
  • מנחם עמרם
The Deventer Society (Buurssen, em. Haaksbergen) Buurssen (em. Haaksbergen) 13.6.1918
Haarlem
Dutch

Emanuel ("Emil") van Amerongen (later: Menachem Amram) was born on June 13, 1918, in Haarlem, the son of Abraham van Amerongen, the owner of a bookshop, originally from Haarlem, and Saartje (Sara), née Peper, from Amsterdam. He had two siblings, Marie (1913), and Juda (1915).

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Verdoner, Alida
  • Alida Verdoner
  • Eliza Luft
  • אלידה לופט
  • עליזה לופט
The Deventer Society (Amsterdam) Amsterdam 22.4.1918
Amsterdam
Dutch

Alida Verdoner (later: Eliza Luft) was born on April 22, 1918, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Moses Verdoner, originally from London, and Naatje Zurel, born in Amsterdam. She had nine siblings: Benedictus (1900), Joachim (1902), Jozef Jacob (1904), Marianne (1906), Kaatje (1907), Isaac (1910), Samuel (1911), Nathan (1914) and Abraham (1916). Her mother died in 1932 when Alida was 14 years old.

Before her emigration, she was a domestic servant.

Alida belonged to the Deventer Association, where she presumably met her future husband, Gunter (Eliezer) Luft, another Dora passenger. The couple had two children.

Alida Luft (Verdoner) died in October 1982 in Haifa.


Her father, Moses Verdoner, was murdered in Bergen-Belsen on January 15 1945.
Eight of her nine siblings were murdered in the Shoah:
Six of her brothers, Benedictus, Joachim, Jozef Jacob, Nathan, Samuel, and Abraham Verdoner, were murdered in Auschwitz on October 12 1944.
Her two sisters were also victims of the Holocaust: her sister Marianne Verdoner was murdered Auschwitz on February 12 1943, and her sister Kaatje Verdoner was murdered in Sobibor on May 21 1943.

Her brother, Isaac Verdoner, survived the war. He died in 1971 in Amsterdam.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

Wajntrob, Dwojra (Waintrob, Dwoire, Deborah)
  • Dwojra Wajntrob
  • Dwoire Waintrob
  • Deborah Waintrob
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord 6.10.1917
Warschau
Polish

Possibly Dwojra Wajntrot, born on July 6, 1917, in Warsaw, from a post-war employment record dated 1934 in Fulda.

Sources:
collections.arolsen-archives.org

Warschawzik, Ernst
  • Ernst Warschawzik
  • Ernst Warschawzik
  • David (Dodi) Warschavzik
  • Ernst David Eron
  • דוד ארנסט (דודי) עירון ורשבציק
The Deventer Society (Hengelo) HENGELO Deldenerstr. 57 4.5.1919
Copenhagen
Danzig

Ernst Warschawzik (later David Eron, "Dudi"), was born in Copenhagen on May 4, 1919, the son of Owssei Chaim Warschawzik, originally from Kovno, Russia (now: Kaunas, Lithuania), and Roza, née Schapira, from Danzig. He had two sisters: Mira (1902), and Ruth (1911).

His father was a wholesale dealer. His first daughter was born in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) in 1902; He was registerd in Copenhagen between 1915 and 1919.

Warschawzik belonged to the youth group Habonim.

About the Dora, he said:

"The ship sailed from Amsterdam and also docked in Antwerp. Half of the illegal immigrants were pioneers from the pioneering training program (Hachshara) in the Netherlands and Germany, and the rest were refugees, almost all from 'Greater Germany'. The ship sailed without stopping all the way to Turkey, to the port of Pinika, where we met the ship 'Tiger Hill' with a yellow flag of medical quarantine, after being deported from Eretz Israel. In Pinika our ship waited for a wireless message from Eretz Israel. A week later we arrived in Israel without being caught."

He first resided in Givat Haim. He belonged to Giora Yoseftal's group in Kibbutz Gal'ed. He enlisted in the British Army in 1942 and served until 1946. He married Erica Erela Heiman and the couple had three children.

David Eron (Ernst Warschawzik) died in 1999 at the age of 80 in Ramat-Efal, Israel.


His parents were deported to Rabka, Nowy Targ.
His father, Owssei Chaim Warschawzik, was murdered in 1939.
His mother, Roza Warschawczik, was murdered on July 17 1942.

His sister Mira Agulnik emigrated to Palestine and lived in Meshek Yagur.
His sister Ruth DeJay emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.myheritage.com
yvng.yadvashem.org
www.myheritage.com (father)

Weinberg, Karla
  • Karla Weinberg
  • Karla Goldschmidt
  • קרלה ויינברג
  • קרלה גולדשמידט
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 29.6.1909
Hamburg
German

Karla Weinberg (later: Karla Goldschmidt) was born on June 29, 1909, in Hamburg, the daughter of Adolf Weinberg, a goldsmith, and Eva (Chava) Weinberg (née Lazarus). Her father died in 1918 when Karla was 9 years old.

Karla Weinberg left Berlin and came to the Netherlands in 1936. She first registered in Barsingerhorn (Stichting Joosche Arbeid) on October 1 1936. She was then registered in Wieringermeer on January 2 1938. She presumably met her future husband and fellow Dora passenger Arno Goldschmidt during her training in the Werkdorp.

Karla married Arno Goldschmidt and the couple lived in Ness Ziona.

Karla Goldschmidt (née Weinberg) died in 2007 in Nes Ziona.


Karla's mother, Eva (Chava) Weinberg was deported from Hamburg to the Theresienstadt Ghetto (Terezin) on July 16 1942. Two months later, on September 21 1942, she was deported to Treblinka where she was murdered on arrival.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Dutch Population Register)
billiongraves.com
www.holocaust.cz (Mother)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Mother)

Weinberg, Klaus
Klaus Weinberg (Dov Weinberg)

1946

  • Klaus Weinberg
  • Dov Weinberg
  • קלאוס ויינברג
  • דב ויינברג
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 27.5.1916
Wupperthal
German

Klaus Weinberg (later: Dov Weinberg) was born on May 27, 1916, in Wuppertal (Barmen-Elberfeld).

Klaus left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer. He boarded the Dora in July 1939 together with 75 other members of the work village.

In 1946 he applied for naturalization. By then he had changed his name to Dov Weinberg. He was single, an "agriculturist" and lived in Kibbutz Ein Gev, a "Wall and Tower" kibbutz establised in 1937 on the eastern bank of the Kinneret. (Another Dora passenger in Ein Gev was Fritz Binstok). His application noted that he had entered the country illegally on August 13 [sic] 1939. He presumably had volunteered in the British Army, although this is not specified in his application, save for a mention of his being a member of "H.M.A.". (Former "illegal" immigrants who had enrolled in the British Army were able to regularize their situation and apply for citizenship.)

No further details are available about Dov (Klaus) Weinberg.


Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.archives.gov.il

Weinberg, Ruth
  • Ruth Weinberg
  • Ruth Erika Weinberg
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 2.3.1922
Dortmund
German

Ruth Erika Weinberg was born on March 2, 1922, in Dortmund.

She attended the Sennfeld Hachshara in Bavaria, a training camp that operated between 1936 and 1939 on land owned by Isaak and Adolf Neuberger. She arrived there on June 1, 1938 and left three months later on September 22, 1938, when she returned to Dortmund.

She later left Germany and came to the Netherlands where she joined the trainWerkdorp Wieringermeer.

She was 17 years old when she boarded the Dora.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
digipres.cjh.org (Hachshara list)
youtu.be (film of the Sennfeld Hachshara)

Weisskopf, Herwarth (Herward)
Herward (Zvi) Weisskopf

1946

  • Herward Weisskopf
  • Zvi Weisskopf
  • Zwi Weisskopf
  • צבי וייסקופף
  • צבי הרווארד (בובי) וייסקופף
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.3.1917
Ratibor
German

Herward Weisskopf (later Zwi Weisskopf) was born March 7, 1917, in Ratibor (now Racibórz, Poland), the son of Isidor (Yitzhak, Izi) and Tzila Weisskopf (née Schuettenberg). He had two siblings, Michael, and Fritz (later: Shalom Hermon).

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Windmuller, Isaak
Isaak Windmuller
  • Isaak Windmüller
  • Yitzhak Windmuller
  • יצחק ווינדמילר
The Deventer Society 29.10.1915
Emden
Stateless

Isaak Windmüller (later: Yitzhak Windmuller) was born October 29, 1915, in Emden, Germany, the son of Moritz Windmüller, a butcher and cattle dealer, and Jette Windmüller (née Seligmann), He had four siblings: Salomon (1910), Max (1920), Ruth (1923) and Emil (1924).

After the German authorities had withdrawn their father's business license, the family fled to the Netherlands in 1933. While in Groningen, Isaak and his brother Max joined a group that organized the emigration of young people to Palestine, and Isaak became the leader of this group, while Max completed his agricultural training on a farm near Assen in preparation for emigration to Palestine. Their father Moritz Windmüller died in May 1937 in Groningen.

When Isaak embarked on the Dora, his brother Max accompanied him. Max, who was already on board, was persuaded by Ru Cohen, the organizer of the training for Palestine pioneers, to return ashore; he was to continue to help build the Hachshara, which brought young Jews from Germany and Austria to Palestine on Dutch farms. Max let himself be talked into staying in the Netherlands to help guide the Palestine pioneers.

Isaak left Holland on the Dora and arrived in Mandatory Palestine in August 1939. During the war he served in the British Army. After 1945, Isaak Windmüller found a new home in Israel.

Yitzhak Windmuller later lived in Ra'anana and was an English teacher. He had at least one son.

Isaak Windmüller died on January 1st, 1999 in Israel.


Yithak's mother, Jette Windmüller, was murdered December 15, 1942 in Auschwitz.

His brother, Salomon Windmüller, was murdered in Auschwitz on March 31, 1943 along with his wife Ruth Kornblum and their son Maurice.

Yithak's brother Max was incarcerated in the Westerbork transit camp in early 1942, from where he escaped. [Other sources have August 1943; He would have escaped two days later in a laundry van]. Later that year he joined the Westerweel resistance group of Joop Westerweel, which helped save almost 400 Jews. Max Windmüller was actively involved in the escape route from Holland across the Pyrenees to Spain that the Westerweel group organized for Palestine pioneers. It is estimated that he helped smuggle and save about 100 young Jews, including his own brother Emil. He was betrayed and arrested by the Gestapo in Paris in July 1944. Deported to Buchenwald in August that year, he was shot by a guard during the death march to Dachau on April 21, 1945, one day before the column of prisoners were to be liberated by the US army, and two weeks before the end of the war.

His sister, Ruth emigrated to Palestine in 1937 and lived in Kibbutz Yakum.

His brother Emil was able to escape Europe and flee to Palestine thanks to the work of his brother Max and the Westerweel Group. He lived in Kibbutz Yakum.

Sources:
www.emden.de
wikipedia.org (brother Max)
spurenimvest.de
www.facebook.com

Wittner, Franz
  • Franz Wittner
  • Franz Otto Wittner
  • Frank Wittner
  • Frank O Wittner
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 7.9.1916
Berlin
German

Franz Otto Wittner (later: Frank Wittner) was born September 7, 1916, in Berlin. He had (at least) one brother, Heinz (ca 1914).

Franz Wittner left Berlin and came to the Netherlands in 1937 where he joined Werkdorp Wieringermeer. He was registered in Barsingerhorn on April 29 1937 then in Wieringermeer on January 2 1938. From there he boarded the Dora in July 1939.

Franz Wittner left Israel and emigrated to the USA in 1950 with his brother Heinz (later: Henry). He lived in New York and changed his name to Frank Wittner. He was married and had two sons.

Frank Wittner died in October 2009 in New York.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Wollenberg, Rita
  • Rita Wollenberg
  • Rita Strauss
  • Rita Yaen
  • ריטה יען
The Deventer Society (Brummen) Brummen p.a. Beker 23.7.1920
Elberfeld
German

Rita Wollenberg (later: Rita Yaen) was born July 23, 1920, in Elberfeld, the daughter of Arthur Wollenberg and Chana Hanna Capell. She had one younger brother, Felix (1922).

Rita married Josef Strauss. She later changed her name to Rita Yaen (ריטה יען).

She died in Israel in August 2010, at the age of 90.

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Wolff, Fritz
  • Fritz Wolff
  • Yehuda Wolff (Peppi)
  • יהודה וולף (פפי)
The Deventer Society (Deurningen) DEURNINGEN H. Leufeld, Deutningen H.6o 1.10.1914
Bingerbrück
German

Fritz Wolff (later: Yehuda Wolff) was born October 1, 1914, in Bingerbrück, the son of Moritz Wolf and Elisabeth Else Seligman. He had two sisters: Margot (1913) and Ruth (1918).

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Wolff, Willy, Günter
  • Willi-Günter Wolff
  • Günter Willy Wolff
  • Gideon Wolff
  • גדעון וולף
(Delden) Delden: Wiene G.79 G.Wijnbergen,G.79, Wiene, Ambt-Delden 15.2.1918*
Strigau
German

Willi Günter Wolff (later: Gideon Wolff) was born February 5, 1918, in Strigau, the son of Michael and Emmy Wolff.

He was a member of Habonim.

In Israel, he first lived in Raanana. He enlisted in the Palmach in 1942 and served until 1945. He was then drafted in the 92nd Battalion in 1948.

After his release from the army in 1949, he lived in Kibbutz Gal'ed and Kibbutz HaHotrim. He later lived in Kiryat Motzkin. In Israel he adopted the name Gideon Wolf. He was married to Ora Rosenzweig and had (at least) one child.

An article about Kibbutz Gal'ed mentions a Gideon Wolf who oversaw as building coordinator the establishment of the new Kibbutz dining hall in 1978. He had a daughter, Dorit Hadar.

Gideon Wolf died in May 2012 and is burried in HaHotrim.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.palmach.org.il
www.myheritage.com
michaelarch.wordpress.com
www.myheritage.com

* The date of birth on the Amsterdam passenger list is incorrect.

Wolkowicz, Szyje, (Wollkowicz, Szyje)
  • Szyje Wolkowicz
  • Szyje Wollkowicz
Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat veEretz, Beverwijk
Vereeniging "Dat Waarez" (Bachad)
Amsterdam Jekerstr. 5 4.3.1919
Zelow
Stateless
Worms, Hetty (Heintje)
  • Heintje Worms
  • Heintje Levi
  • Hetty Levi
  • הטי לוי
The Deventer Society (Den Haag) DEN HAAG 15.12.1916
Amsterdam
Dutch

Heintje Worms (later: Hetty Levi) was born on December 15, 1916, in Amsterdam, the daughter of Abraham Worms and Sophia Kesner. The couple had nine children.

Heintje's mother died in June 1921 when she was just 5 years old. In November 1922, Heintje was placed in the Central Israelite Orphanage in Utrecht. Her father then died in March 1926 when she was 9 years old.

Heintje received her education in this orphanage, learned to teach gymnastics and received a certification to teach in a high school. She left the orphanage and came to Rotterdam in 1936. In October 1938 she joined the "Jewish Youth Farm" (joodse jeugdfarm) in Gouda, a training boarding school for Palestinian pioneers where pupils learned to work the land, with courses in horticulture, livestock and dairy work, and prepared for emigration to Palestine.

In June 1939 she left Gouda and went to Amsterdam to the "Pioneer" house (Beit Chalutz). There she met Kurt Levi, her future husband, and together they boarded the "Dora" in July.

Upon their arrival, Hetty and Kurt joined Kibbutz Yagur. Hetty married Kurt and the couple had three children.

Hetty Levi (née Worms) died in September 1994 in Kibbutz Yagur.


Heintje's brother Joseph (Joop) was murdered in Auschwitz on September 30, 1942, at the age of 22.
Her brother Salomon Worms was murdered on April 26, 1941, in Buchenwald.
Her sister Sara Amanda Pinto-Worms was murdered in Sobibór on June 4 1943.
Her sister Betje Levie-Worms was murdered in Sobibór on June 11, 1943.

Her brother Leendert Worms emigrated to Palestine.

Her brother Jacob Worms survived the war and lived in Amsterdam.

Sources:
archief.amsterdam
www.joodsmonument.nl
jorge.home.xs4all.nl
pneiyagur.co.il
www.myheritage.com
www.archiefman.nl

Note: The date of her departure for Palestine is incorrectly recorded in her family card as December 31, 1940

Wreschinski, Walter
  • Walter Wreschinski
The Deventer Society (Warnsveld) WARNSVELD Rouvenhorst
Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam
26.10.1920
Berlin*
German

Walter Wreschinski was born on October 26, 1920, in Kranz, Posen, Prussia (now Kręcko, in Poznan, Poland), the son of Ernst Jacob Wrzeszinski, a pharmacist from Wreschen, Posen, (now Września, Poland), and Käthe, née Lewy, from Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland). Walter had one sister, Ruth Jutta Cäcilie (1924).

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Zobel, Alfred
  • Alfred Zobel
  • Asher Zobel
  • אשר צובל
Werkdorp Wieringermeer Werkdorp Wieringermeer 4.2.1911
Berlin
German

Alfred Zobel (later: Asher Tzobel) was born in Berlin on February 4, 1911, the son of Nathan Zobel and Bianca, née Zobel. The youngest of four children, Alfred had three sisters: Lucy (1898), Edith (1899), and Leonie (1905).

His father was in the wood trade, and from a young age Alfred was close to the trees and carpentry. After graduating from high school, he began working at a large furniture trading house in Berlin where he acquired a great deal of knowledge in this field. His father died in 1931 when Alfred turned 20.

After the rise of the Nazis, Alfred Zobel left Germany and came to the Netherlands where he joined the Werkdorp. There he studied carpentry for several years.

He is briefly mentioned in the memoir of Bernd Radzewski, another Dora passenger, as an acquaintance from the Werkdorp:

"There was the carpenter Alfred Zobel, known for his Berlin dialect: 'The woman who marries me is stupid - and I won't marry a stupid woman!'"

He lived in Kibbutz Givat Brenner and he worked in carpentry. He later changed his name to Ascher Zobel. Ascher Zobel didn't start a family.

Asher (Alfred) Zobel died in January 1981.


The fate of his mother, Bianca Zobel, is not known.

His sister, Leonie Zobel was deported to Minsk where she was murdered in 1941 (36).
His sister, Edith Zobel, was deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered in 1943 (44).

His elder sister, Lucy Levy (born Zobel), a member of the Zionist youth movement, emigrated to Israel in 1938.

Sources:
tol.life
family-heritage-art.co.il
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com

List 2: List of Passengers who boarded the Dora in Antwerp, 19 July 1939

Source: The Foreign Police in Belgium ARA; Foreign Police files, A177.761 (via Janiv Stamberger)

The list contains 171 names: 108 men and 63 women.

The names are listed in the same order as that from the original passenger list. The last eight names, starting with Mordohe Deresiewicz, are not in alphabetical order, suggesting these passengers were last-minute additions to the list.

The Antwerp list only contains names and dates of birth. All additional information (place of birth and nationality) is derived from other sources and is indicated by square brackets ("[]").

Name D.O.B from list (dd.mm.yy)
[Place of birth]
[Nationality]
Bio
Arndt, Erna
  • Erna Koenigsberger
  • Erna Arndt
14.11.1906
[Liegnitz]

Erna Arndt (née Koenigsberger) was born on November 14, 1906, in Liegnitz, Silesia, (Legnica, Poland after WW2), the daughter of Paul Koenigsberger, a medical doctor, and Lydia Koenigsberger. She had one older brother, Franz (1901).

Erna married Georg Arndt in 1929. The couple had one daughter.

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Arndt, Georg
  • Georg Arndt
  • גיאורג ארנדט
30.5.1896
[Regenwalde]

Georg Arndt was born in May 1896 in Regenwalde, Pomerania, Prussia, (now Resko, Poland), the son of Georg Arndt, a medical doctor, and Rosa Arndt, née Lichtenstein. Georg had two sisters, Helene and Henriette (1892) and one brother, Leopold Felix. The family was assimilated and Georg and his brother (but not his sister Henriette) were baptized. Georg's mother died on the year of his birth, in 1896. His father wed in a second marriage Luise Rudolphsohn. His father died in 1932.

Georg Arndt was married to Erna Koenigsberger, another Dora passenger. The couple had one daughter.

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Aron, Hella
  • Hella Aron
  • Hella Przemyslaw
  • Hella Halpern
  • הלה הלפרן
8.12.1920

Hella Aron Przemyslaw (later: Hella Halpern) was born December 8, 1920, in Dortmund, the daughter of Chaim Przemyslav, a merchant originally from Szydłowiec, Russia (now Poland), and Rachel Lea, née Aharon, from Ulanow, Austrian Galicia (now Ulanów, Poland). She had (at least) two sisters: Sabine (1928), and Jenny (1930).

It is presumed that Hella's parents fled Galicia during, or right at the end of WW1, and came to Dortmund where Hella was born in 1920.

Hella's last place of residence in Germany was Dortmund. It's assumed that she was either away in a Hachshara or else had already left Dortmund and come to Belgium before the end of October 1938, as her entire family was deported to Zbaszyn on October 28.

Hella Przemyslaw boarded the Dora with her future husband, Leo (Arieh) Halpern.

Hella and Arieh Halpern lived in Haifa.

Hella Halpern (Hella Aron Przemyslaw) died in September 2016 at the age of 95 in Haifa.


Hella's parents and sisters were deported from Dortmund to Bentschen (Zbaszyn), Poland, on October 28, 1938, where they remained until the summer of 1939.
Her parents, Chaim and Rachel Lea Przemyslav, and her sisters, Sabine Przemyslav (13) and Jenny Przemyslav (11) were murdered in 1941.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)
billiongraves.com

She was listed as "Hella Aron" on the Antwerpen passengers list, and as "Hella Przemyslaw (born Aron)" in the Jewish Holocaust Memorials and Jewish Residents of Germany 1939-1945. It's not clear why her mother's maiden name was used in both cases.

Atlasz, Ilse
  • Ilse Atlasz
14.7.1904

Ilse Atlasz was born July 14, 1904, in Berlin.

At the time of the German Minority Census, on May 17 1939, she lived in Berlin, Wilmersdorf with Rita Atlasz (1906), presumably a sister. Her destination for emigration was listed as the USA.

Nothing more is known about her.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Austern, lsrael
  • Israel Austern
  • ישראל אוסטרן
18.4.1908

Israel Austern was born April 18, 1908.

No information other seems to be available about him or his family.

However, another passenger of the Dora, Markus Mordechai Dersievitz, was a business partner with an Israel Auster, as recorded in the November 25, 1943 issue of the official journal of the Palestinian Authority. The business traded in perfumes and cosmetic goods under the name "Soap Esther". The address for both Dersievitz and Austern (or maybe for the business) was 18 B King George Street, Tel Aviv. It is assumed that this Auster was the same as this passenger.

Sources:
www.nevo.co.il (pdf) (Registration for partnership)

Bauer, Hilde
  • Hilde Bauer
  • Hilde Krauthammer
18.1.1919
[Gießen]

Hilde Bauer (later: Hilde Krauthammer) was born on January 18, 1919, in Gießen, the daughter of Moses Moritz Bauer and Ida Bauer (born Joseph). The youngest of three children, she had two siblings: Margot (1913), and Helmut (1916).

Hilde moved to Frankfurt/Main in 1934. She married Walter Krauthammer. Together they boarded the Dora.

Hilde and Walter Krauthammer had two children.

Hilde Krauthammer (Bauer) died in May 2006 in Nahariya.


Her parents, Moses Moritz Bauer and Ida Bauer were murdered in Auschwitz in 1944.

Her sister, Margot Gonen, emigrated to Palestine and died in Jerusalem.
Her brother, Helmut Bauer, emigrated to Palestine and died in Haifa.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.ancestry.co.uk
www.myheritage.com

Beer, Berthold
  • Berthold Beer
8.9.1907

Berthold Beer was born September 8, 1907, in Leipzig.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939 he lived in Leipzig. He lived there with Martin Beer (28), Paula Beer (23) and Charlotte Beer (16), presumably three siblings. His destination for immigration was listed as Palestine, while the destimation for the three others was Great Britain.

Berthold Beer left Leipzig and came to Antwerp between mid-May and mid-July 1939. From there he boarded the Dora.

A person named Berthold Beer, born circa 1907, appears on the manifest of a ship that arrived in Ellis Island from Haifa in 1950. If this is the same person, it means that Berthold Beer left Israel and emigrated to the USA. At the time of his arrival he was married and the couple had a young daughter. All three were listed as "stateless".

No further details are available.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com (Ellis Island Manifest)

Berger, Felix
  • Felix Berger
  • Felix Berger-Löfkovics
  • פליקס ברגר
29.3.1917

Felix Berger was born on March 29, 1917, in Vienna, the son of Arnold Moses Berger-Löfkovics (Arnold Gems F Berger), originally from Lemberg (Lviv), and Gertruda Feiwelsohn (Gertrude Gems Berger), from Vienna. He had a younger sister, Gisella (1919).

On May 12, 1938, two months afer the Anschluss, his father Arnold filled out an immigration application with the Jewish Community of Vienna (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde), and listed his son Felix and his daughter Gisela as relatives still in Vienna. At the time his father manufactured silk lingerie, his mother was a seamstress and his sister was an embroiderer and seamstress. His father had been in the industry since 1922 and had his own workshops, but stated he had been very lightly employed since January 1938. Felix's occupation was listed as "Wirker", i.e. someone who works with textiles, or possibly weaver.

Felix Berger made his way from Vienna to Antwerp sometime between May 1938 and July 1939, maybe with the help of the Kultusgemeinde. From there he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Felix Berger was married and had one child, and several grandchildren.

Felix Berger died in September 1992 and is buried in Petah Tiqwa.


Felix Berger's parents, Arnold and Gertruda Berger managed to emigrate to Palestine, arriving in Haifa in February 1939.

His sister, Gisela Lowi, also emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com

Bier, Anni
  • Anna Bier
  • Anna Karliner
31.10.1914

Anna Bier (later: Anna Karliner) was born in Duisburg on October 31, 1914, the daughter of Paul Paisech Bier, originally from Łańcut, and Rachel Regina Kleinmann, from Sokolow. Originally from Galicia, the family came to Duisburg around 1910. Her father died in November 1920 when she was 6 years old. Her mother remarried and Anna had a half-sister, Minna Miriam Kleinmann.

On May 17, 1939, Anna Bier was registered in Skaby, a hamlet near Spreenhagen, [Beeskow-Storkow, Spreenhagen], close to Berlin. [Assuming she was attending a Hachshara established there in 1939, or the Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreenhagen].

From there, Anna made her way to Belgium, presumably illegally like many other chalutzim. Two months later, she boarded the Dora in Antwerp.

(Because chalutzim were selected based on their readiness for a future communal life in Palestine, she may have attended another Hachshara prior to Skaby, but no further details are available.)

She later married Fritz Karliner, presumably in Palestine. Karliner had come to Palestine in October 1938 on a tourist visa. Overstaying his visa, he remained in the country illegally, despite the British police's unsuccessful efforts to locate him and deport him. Karliner's parents came to Palestine in November 1940 aboard the Patria, his father being one of the victims of the sinking of the ship. In January 1943 he joined the British Army as a driver and was dispatched in North Africa. It can be assumed that Anna Bier and Fritz Karliner were married sometimes after his demobilization at the end of WW2. The couple later emigrated to the USA and had one child.

Anna Karliner (Bier) died in Nassau, New York in August 2003 at the age of 88.


Her mother, Rachel Regina Bier (née Kleinmann) was deported in April 1942 to Izbica where she was murdered, presumably during the liquidation of the ghetto in November 1942.

Her half-sister, Minna Miriam Kleinmann, survived the war and lived in the Bronx.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de
www.archives.gov.il
www.archives.gov.il

Boehm, Gert
  • Gert Boehm
  • Gert Böhm
3.10.1920

Gert Boehm was born October 3, 1920, in Allenstein, East Prussia (now Olsztyn, Poland).

No further information is available.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Brand, Grete
  • Grete Linkowski
  • Grete Brand
  • Tovah Brand
  • טובה גרטה ברנד
8.4.1911

Grete Brand (née Linkowski, later: Tovah Brand), was born on April 8, 1911, in Berlin, the daughter of Salomon Linkowski and Chana Rivka, née Rossner. She had three siblings, including a siter, Ruth.

Grete's parents were married in Vienna in 1906, on Leopoldsgasse, where the Polnische Schul ("Polish Synagogue") that served the Galician Jews in Vienna was located, suggesting that at least one, if not both, parent came from the Austro-Hungarian empire.

Grete was married to Manfred Brand. The couple were listed in the German Minority Census of May 1939. At the time they lived in Berlin, Prenzlauer Berg, and their emigration destination was listed as Palestine.

They left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939 and boarded the Dora together.

In Israel Grete changed her name to Tovah Brand. She had (at least) one child and several grandchildren.

Tovah (Grete) Brand died in August 2000 in Holon, aged 89.


Grete's parents emigrated to Palestine in September 1936.
Her three siblings presumably also emigrated.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (parents)
www.myheritage.com (parents)
billiongraves.com

Brand, Manfred
  • Manfred Brand
  • Mordechai Brand
  • מרדכי מנפרד ברנד
30.5.1909

Manfred Brand (later: Mordechai Brand) was born May 30, 1909, in Berlin, the son of Ezekiel (Yecheskiel) Brand and ?.

Manfred was married to Grete Linkowski. The couple were listed in the German Minority Census of May 1939. At the time they lived in Berlin, Prenzlauer Berg, and their emigration destination was listed as Palestine.

They left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, where they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

In Israel Manfred changed his name to Mordechai Brand. He had (at least) one child and several grandchildren.

Mordechai (Manfred) Brand died in May 1981 in Holon, at the age of 72.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
billiongraves.com

Bronstein, Gregor
  • Gregor Bronstein
12.2.1921
Buchaster, Berta
Berta Buchaster
  • Berta Buchaster
  • Berta Bromberger
  • ברטה ברומברגר
27.10.1913

Berta Buchaster (later: Berta Bromberger) was born October 27, 1913, in Leipzig, the daughter of Chaim Leib Buchaster and Feige Rachel (Ruchl, Ruchel) Hasenlauf. Her parents were originally from Bochnia in Galicia (Austria-Hungary). The couple had thirteen children, two of which died as infants and a third, Leon David Buchaster, at the age of nine in 1924. Berta's siblings were: Hermann Osias (1904), Toni (1906), Jacob (1907), Marie (1911), Nathan (1912), Eliyahu (1916), Isaak (1920), Ester Elsa (1921) and Simi Selma (1923).

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Buchaster, Marja
  • Marja Buchaster
  • Marie Buchaster
  • Miriam Stienmesser
  • מרים שטיינמסר
9.4.1911

Marja Buchaster (later Miriam Stienmesser) was born April 9, 1911, in Leipzig, the daughter of Chaim Leib Buchaster and Feige Rachel Ruchl Hasenlauf. Her parents were originally from Bochnia in Galicia (Austria-Hungary). The couple had thirteen children, two of which died as infants and a third, Leon David Buchaster, at the age of nine in 1924. Marie's siblings were: Hermann Osias (1904), Toni (1906), Jacob (1907), Nathan (1912), Berta (1913), Eliyahu (1916), Isaak (1920), Ester Elsa (1921) and Simi Selma (1923).

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Buchaster, Nathan
  • Nathan Buchaster
  • נתן בוכסטר
13.9.1912

Nathan Buchaster was born on September 13, 1912, in Leipzig, the son of Chaim Leib Buchaster and Feige Rachel Ruchl Hasenlauf. His parents were originally from Bochnia in Galicia (Austria-Hungary). The couple had thirteen children, two of which died as infants and a third, Leon David Buchaster, at the age of nine in 1924. Nathan's siblings were: Hermann Osias (1904), Toni (1906), Jacob (1907), Marie (Marja) (1911), Berta (1913), Eliyahu (1916), Isaak (1920), Ester Elsa (1921) and Simi Selma (1923).

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Burak, Paul
  • Paul Burak
  • Paul Pinchas Burak

  • פאול בורק
30.7.1900
[Leipzig]
[German]

Paul Burak (later: Pinchas Burak) was born on July 30, 1900, in Leipzig, the son of Moshe Borak, from Kolomyya (Ukraine) and Klara Bratel, from Eisleben (Germany). He had two brothers, Arthur Avraham (1902) and Wilhelm "Willy" (Ze'ev) (1905), and a sister, Marie (1907). The family had a shoe shop in Eisleben and was quite wealthy.

His son wrote:

"When the Nazis came to power in Germany, my father left for the Netherlands where he joined a group that organized for immigration to Israel because no country would accept them. There he prepared for immigration to Israel."

"My father boarded the Dora after a problem was solved with the Dutch authorities*. They reached the shores of Shefayim and from there a group of friends smuggled them away from the surrounding communities before the British arrived."

Because Paul Burak's name was on the list of passengers that boarded the Dora from Antwerp, it's possible that, having had an issue with the Dutch authorities, he crossed the border to Belgium and boarded the Dora from Antwerp instead. Paul's sister, Marie Hacker also sailed on the Dora from Antwerp.

Paul Burak married Karmela (Kajla) "Karola" Szarfharc in 1940. The couple had one son.

Paul Burak died in March 1993 at the age of 92 in Giv'atayim.


His parents Moses Burak and Klara Burak managed to emigrate to Palestine before the outbreak of the war and lived with their son in Kibbutz Sarid.

His sister Mary Hacker also came to Palestine aboard the Dora.

His brother brother Ze'ev Wilhelm Burak emigrated to Palestine and lived in Kibbutz Sarid.

His brother Arthur Avraham Burak lived in the Netherlands and died in Brussels in 1980.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il (Testimony from his son Yitzhak Barak)
geni.com
www.myheritage.com

Celnik, Abram
  • Abram Celnik
  • Abram Tzelnik
  • אברהם צלניק
14.5.1894

Abram Celnik was born on May 14, 1894, in Zgierz near Łódź (Poland), the son of Mordechai Celnik.

He was married to Ziporja Celnik and the couple had two sons, Symon Leon (1922) and Isaak David (1923), both born in Łódź.

The family left Poland and came to Duisburg, presumably soon after the birth of their second son. Abram and his wife Ziporja later emigrated to Belgium. Their two sons emigrated to Palestine, most probably with Alyiat Hanoar: Symon in August 1938 at the age of 16, Isaak in October 1938, aged 15.

Abram Celnik was 45 years old when he boarded the Dora, the third oldest passenger on the ship, his wife being the oldest.

Ziporja and Abram Celnik's story is notable for two reasons: not only were they oldest and third-oldest passengers on the Dora, they were one of the only two families known to date whose children emigrated to Palestine before them.

Abrahm Celnik died in November 1961 and is buried in Rishon Letsiyon.


Abram Celnik's two sons emigrated to Palestine in 1938, presumably with Youth Aliyah: Simon (16) in August, and Isaak David (15) in October.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.familysearch.org
billiongraves.com

familysearch.org has 1897 for his date of birth. 1894 seems the correct year.

Celnik, Ziporja
  • Cypajra Jakobowicz
  • Ziporja Celnik
  • Cypajra Celnik
  • Cypojra Celnik
18.3.1892

Ziporja Celnik (née Jakobowicz*) was born March 18, 1892, in Zgierz (Poland).

She was married to Abram Celnik and the couple had two sons, Symon Leon (1922) and Isaak David (1923), both born in Łódź.

The family left Poland and came to Duisburg, presumably soon after the birth of their second son. Ziporja and her husband Abram later emigrated to Belgium. Their two sons emigrated to Palestine, most probably under the auspices of Alyiat Hanoar: Symon in August 1938 at the age of 16, Isaak in October 1938, aged 15.

Ziporja Celnik was 47 when she boarded the Dora, and was the oldest passenger.

Ziporja and Abram Celnik's story is notable for two reasons: not only were they oldest and third-oldest passengers on the Dora, they were one of the only two families known to date whose children emigrated to Palestine before them.

No further information available.


Ziporja's two sons emigrated to Palestine in 1938, presumably with Youth Aliyah: Simon (16) in August, and Isaak David (15) in October.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Cisinski, Heinz
  • Heinz Cisinski
  • Henry Cisinski
30.3.1915

Heinz Cisinski (later: Henry Cisinski) was born on March 30, 1915.

He later left Israel and emigrated to the USA where he changed his name to Henry Cisinski. In the 1950 census, he was listed as a butler, and his wife Nancy, originally from Holland, was a maid, both for a private house.

Henry (Heinz) Cisinski died in New York in December 1967, at the age of 52.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.familysearch.org

Cohen, Artur
  • Artur Cohen
16.11.1901

Artur Cohen was born November 16, 1901, in Zossen, about 20 miles (30km) south of Berlin.

According to the 1939 German Minority Census, he lived in Berlin with his brother Helmut Cohen, his sister-in-law Meta and their 2-year old daughter Eva. Artur's emigration destination was listed as Palestine. [Assuming this means that he still lived in Berlin at the time of the census (May 17), but already knew that his place on the Dora was secured.]

Artur left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July. It is presumed that he crossed the Belgian border illegally and hid in Antwerp until the departure day.

Artur Cohen lived in Tel-Aviv in the 1940s. No further details are available.


Artur's brother Helmut Cohen, his wife and daughter, moved into the Jewish Hospital on Iranishestrasse in Berlin where Dr. Helmut Cohen was employed as a physician. They remained there for the duration of the war and survived. In May 1944, Dr. Helmut Cohen wrote to a friend in Switzerland inquiring whether his brother Arthur in Tel-Aviv had obtained certificate applications for immigration for him and his family.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.infocenters.co.il (Helmut Cohen)

Danziger, Bruno
  • Bruno Danziger
1.12.1906

Bruno Danziger was born on December 1, 1906, in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Germany (now Gliwice, Poland).

At the time of the May 1939 German Minority Census, he lived in Berlin, Schöneberg. His emigration destination was listed as Palestine.

Bruno Danziger left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939. He presumably crossed the Belgian border illegally and hid in Antwerp until his departure on the Dora.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Dorn, Netanel
  • Netanel Dorn
  • Nathaniel Doron
  • נתנאל דורון
30.8.1916*

Netanel (Nathaniel) Dorn was born August 30, 1916, in Warsaw, the son of Jakob Dorn, a merchant originally from Warsaw, and Dina, née Grünhaus. He had two siblings: Moshe (Morris) (1912), and Pola (Pnina) (1914).

The family left Warsaw sometime after 1916 and emigrated to Brussels.

Netanel joined the same Hachshara as Nathan Miron and Tsameret Miron. He later boarded the Dora from Antwerp with them.

Netanel lived in Kibbutz Yifat. He married Hava Furmansky and the couple had three children. He changed his name to Doron.

Netanel Doron (Dorn) died in October 1992 in Kibbutz Yifat.


Netanel's father, Yaacov Dorn, was incarcerated in the Malines-Mechelen camp (Caserne Dossin). He was deported with Transport XVII from Caserne Dossin (Malines-Mechelen) to Auschwitz Birkenau on October 31, 1942 where he was murdered, presumably on arrival on November 3.

His mother, Dina Dorn, survived the war [or: emigrated].
His sister, Pola, emigrated to Palestine.
His brother, Moshe (Moriz) Doron also survived.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
/www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.yifat.org.il (obit)
www.yifat.org.il (obit of Tzameret Miron)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
billiongraves.com

Some sources, including his obituary, have August 21, 1917. His tombstone has September 30, 1916.

Eichwald, Theodor
  • Theodor Eichwald
  • Theo Eichwald
14.6.1902
[Breslau]

Theodor Eichwald was born on June 14, 1902, in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland), the son of Salomon Eichwald and Fanny Armer. He had two elder brothers, Ernst (1895) and Fritz (1897).

In the address list of the Breslau Jewish community (ca 1930), Theo's occupation was listed as travelling salesman ("Reisender"). His father's was "Handelsm.", his brother Ernst was "assembly inspector" ("Montage-Inspektor") and Fritz "Elektrische Monteur". His mother's name doesn't appear on the address list, suggesting she was not alive by then.

On June 15, 1938, Theo was arrested in Breslau during the Reich-wide "Aktion Arbeitsscheu Reich" ("Work-shy Reich"), during which about 9 000 men were arrested by police from June 13-18. During previous "Work-shy Reich" actions in April and May, the "work shy" were those who were criminals, had refused to work, or fit other descriptions deemed "socially undesirable" - "asocial individuals" who might endanger society with "asocial behavior". Was considered "asocial" any person who showed continual misconduct or repeated violations of the law, who did not fit into the community and submit to the "self-evident order" of the Nazi state. These included vagrants, beggars, prostitutes, gypsies and alcoholics, even people with untreated venereal diseases.wikipedia.org

In the June Aktion, Jews were disproportionately detained, with about 2,300 to 2,500 men who had received previous convictions for varied reasons. Criminal history was often not based on normal delinquency alone, but based largely on tracking back several offenses far from the past, including minor infringements such as traffic violations.wikipedia.org

Following this arrest, Theo was incarcerated in the Buchenwald concentration camp. The exact reason for his arrest is not known, the only information in his Buchenwald prisoner card being the umbrella term "ASR" ("Arbeitsscheue-Reich"). At the time of his incarceration, his profession was listed as painter, and he lived with his brother. He was released seven months later on January 10, 1939.

At some point, between 1938 and 1939, Theo and his brother Fritz applied with the Hilfsverein der Juden in Deutschland (Relief Organization of German Jews) for assistance in emigrating to Harbin and Shanghai, China. Theo listed his occupations as fitter and plumber. His brother would manage to emigrate to Shanghai, but not Theo.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, Theodor Eichwald, aged 36, lived in Breslau. He lived there with his brother Fritz, Fritz' wife Johanna, and their son Walter.

Theo left Breslau and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939 from where he boarded the Dora.

No further details are available on Theo's life.


Theodor's brother Ernst Eichwald emigrated to Palestine in December 1933 and lived in Kiryat Bialik, Haifa. His father Salomon Eichwald also died in Israel in Kiryat Bialik.

His brother Fritz Eichwald managed to emigrate to Shanghai in 1939. In 1948 he emigrated to the USA with his wife and son.

Sources:
gen.scatteredmind.co.uk
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
spurenimvest.de
collections.arolsen-archives.org
Harbin-Shanghai list, thanks to Franz-Josef Wittstamm.

Eisner, Salli
  • Salli Eisner
4.6.1916
Feldmann, Chana
  • Chana Feldmann
  • Hanna Feldmann
2.5.1909

Hanna Feldmann is mentioned in Günter Stillmann's memoir "Berlin - Palästina und zurück" (p.78) as one of only three Communists on the Dora besides him.

He mentions that, in 1944, "Hanna Feldmann also wanted to go back to Dresden to her relatives, friends and comrades." In October 1946, her name was on a list of forty-eight "anti-fascist Germans" requesting entry permits back into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, "because they did not want to stay in Palestine".

She presumably returned to East Germany around 1947.

Sources:
"Berlin - Palästina und zurück Erinnerungen", by Günter Stillmann (Berlin Dietz, 1989.)

Fink, Isidor (Isy)
  • Isidor Fink
  • Izzy Fink
  • Yitzhak Fink
  • יצחק (איזי) פינק
3.12.1919
[Cologne]
[German]

Isidor Fink (later: Yitzhak Fink, Izzy) was born on December 3, 1919, in Cologne, the son of Aharon Fink and Sarah Neumann. He had two sisters, Bracha (1922), and [מירהל'ה] .

He attended an elementary school and due to his skills skipped a number of classes. His studies in high school were interrupted by the rise of the Nazis to power, and he completed his studies in a Jewish school.

Izzy was a member of Hashomer Hatzair. At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, he lived in Beeskow-Storkow, Spreenhagen. [Assuming this means the Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreenhagen, about 30 kms south of Berlin]. In May 1939 he was smuggled to Belgium where he prepared for immigration to Israel.

In Israel, Izzy lived for a while in the village of Nachman, near Raanana, and from there joined Kibbutz Ein Hashofet. In 1943, he joined Kibbutz Kfar Menachem.

A year earlier, in 1942, Izzy enlisted in a transport unit with the Jewish Brigade. During World War II, Izzy served in Egypt, Libya, Malta, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. He later took part in the Six Day War as part of a transport unit.

He married Dinah Edith Gviritz in the early 1950s and had three sons.

Izzy Fink died in 2018 at the age of 99.


His mother, Sarah Fink was murdered in Auschwitz in 1942.

His father, Aharon Fink died in Israel in 1985. His sister Bracha Brichman died in Kibbutz Sdot Yam.

The fate of his second sister מירהל'ה is not known.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.kfar-menachem.org.il
www.myheritage.com

Finn, Hilde
Hilde Judith Finn
  • Hilde Judith Finn
  • Hilde Judith Irom
  • Hilde Judith Nemet
  • הילדה פין
  • יהודית הילדה אירום
  • יהודית הילדה נמט
3.10.1917*
[Berlin]
[Stateless; previously: German]

Hilde Judith Finn (later: Hilde Nemet) was born October 13, 1917*, in Berlin, the daughter of Hermann and Leah Finn.

Hilde Finn attended a 10-day leadership course ("führerkursus") in the Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreehagen in April 1936. From September 1936 to Janury 1937, by then a "stateless" resident of Berlin, she attended the Hachshara center of Ahrensdorf (Hachschara-Landwerk Ahrensdorf). The "reason for departure (from Ahrensdorf)" is marked as "hard to classify".

She resided at one time [possibly in 1939] in Schniebinchen, the location of a Hachshara affiliated with the Habonim youth movement.

Hilde Finn left Germany in 1939 - presumably from the Schniebinchen Hachshara - and came to Antwerp, from where she boarded the Dora for Palestine in July.

In 1940, Hilde married Herbert Zvi Irom and the couple had a daughter born in Petah Tikwah in 1943. She now went by the name Hilde Judith Irom.

In the couple's naturalization application filed in September 1946, Hilde's name was crossed out because she had come to Palestine as an illegal immigrant and was thus not able to apply for citizenship. It seems however that the authorities collected additional fees related to her situation, maybe as part of a regularization procedure. At the time, Hilde and her husband lived on Dizengoff street in Tel Aviv.

On April 28, 1948, two weeks before the end of the British Mandate and the start of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Hilde Judith Irom applied for a visa to visit her parents in the USA. Her nationality was still recorded as "stateless". She was a housewife and lived on Dizengoff street in Tel Aviv.

Hilde wed Abraham Nemet in a second marriage and had a second daughter.

Hilda Nemet (Irom, Finn) died in November 2004 in Ramat Hasharon, at the age 87.


Hilde Finn's parents emigrated to the USA before the war.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.ushmm.org
www.ushmm.org
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com (residence in Schniebinchen)
www.archives.gov.il (Naturalisation application)
www.archives.gov.il (exit visa application)
www.myheritage.com
spurenimvest.de

*The passenger list incorrectly has Hilde Finn's date of birth as 3.10.1917.

Frank, Robert
  • Robert Frank
15.3.1902
[Vienna]

Robert Frank was born on March 15, 1902, in Vienna, the son of Julius (Jules, Gyula) Frank, a leather merchant originally from from Majteny (?) in Hungary, and Rosa Krakauer, from Vienna. He had one sister, Erna (1908).

On May 12 1938, just two months after the annexation of Austria by Germany (the "Anschluss"), Robert Frank filled out an emigration appllication with the Welfare Headquarters of the Israelite Kultusgemeinde (Jewish Community) in Vienna.

At the time he was single. He listed his occupations as commercial clerk and leather cutter, with 3 years of apprenticeship, 10 years experience as an assistant, and 5 years as a representative. He spoke French and English. He declared having no assets and no income, and had very little to contribute to the cost of his emigration. As for his desired destinations, he was ready to emigrate "wherever possible", but "preferably Palestine", and didn't list any relatives or friends abroad. His plan after emigration was to "accept any job". The only relatives he listed were his parents, implying that by that time his sister Erna had already left Vienna. To the question "Which of the above-mentioned members should emigrate now and which later?", he responded: "All at the same time".

Robert Frank's name appears in the records of the "Assets Transfer Office" ("Vermögensverkehrstelle") of the Ministry of Commerce and Transportation. A decree concerning the reporting of Jewish assets of April 26, 1938, required all Jewish citizens to report their total domestic and foreign assets, where such assets exceeded 5,000 Reichsmarks. The "Assets Transfer Office" was created three weeks later to oversee the expropriation of such Jewish assets into "Aryan" hands.

Robert Frank was incarcerated in the Dachau concentration camp on June 3 1938 (under the so-called "Protective Custody") from where he was released more than three months later on September 22.

Robert Frank left Germany and came to Antwerp at some point between his September 1938 release and mid-July 1939. From there he would have boarded the Dora for Palestine.

No further details are available.


Robert's sister, Erna Katz came to Belgium with her husband. From there, they received visas for Palestine in March 1940 and were able to emigrate with their two children, arriving in Tel Aviv in April 1940.

The fate of Robert Frank's parents Julius and Rosa Frank is not known.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
memorial-archives.international
www.myheritage.com (Dachau incarceration)
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration Application)

Robert Frank is one of only two people on the Antwerp with a pencil mark next to their name, although it is not clear what this absence means as the other passenger with such a mark, Emil Rothschild is known to have gone to Palestine.

Fuchs, Frieda
  • Frieda Rosenfeld
  • Frieda Fuchs
  • Frida Fuchs
3.12.1907

Frieda Fuchs (née Rosenfeld) was born on December 3, 1907, in Breslau*, Germany, the daughter of Anton Rosenfeld and Klara Rosenfeld (née Militscher). She had one sister, Margot (1906), and at least two brothers: Hans Joachim (ca. 1913) and Rudolf (ca. 1916). Her father was originally from Ostrava (now the Czech Republic) and was a shoemaker.

Frida Rosenfeld married Paul Fuchs in 1933 in Breslau, also a shoemaker.

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Fuchs, Paul
  • Paul Fuchs
29.3.1908

Paul Fuchs was born on March 29, 1908, in Breslau, Germany, of a Jewish father and a Christian mother, Emma (née Fischer). He had at least three brothers and one sister: Fritz (1896), Siegfried (1906), Herbert (1908), and Sophie (1909).

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Fuerst, Gisela
  • Gisela Fuerst
30.12.1909
Fuerst, Osias
  • Osias Fuerst
13.10.1898
Gallewski, Josef
  • Josef Gallewski
  • יוזף גלבסקי
21.5.1917

Josef Gallewski was born May 21, 1917, in Posen (Poznan), the son of Max (Moses) Gallewski, a physician, and Ernestine Schäfer. He had four siblings: Hermann (1912), Saul (1913), Minna (1915) and Recha (1920). His father died in 1927 when Josef was not yet 10 years old.

Josef Gallewski lived in Nürnberg. At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, he was registered in Oberbarnim, Rüdnitz. Gut Rüdnitz was a hachshara near Berlin.

Josef Gallewski left Rüdnitz and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora to Palestine.

Josef Gallewski married Margot Cappelen. He died in February 1986 in Haifa.


Josef's mother, Ernestine Gallewski died in 1942 in Berlin.

His brother Saul (Salo) Gallewski was deported to Warsaw in 1941 and disappeared in the Shoah.

His brother Hermann Gallewski emigrated to Palestine.
His sister, Recha Jacobs, emigrated to Australia.
His other sister Minna Gale Howard also survived the war.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

Gaenser, Ella
  • Ella Gaenser
  • Ella Gänser
  • Ella Yaffa Traube
  • Jaffa Ella Traube
19.2.1921

Ella Gaenzer (later: Ella Yaffa Traube) was born on February 19, 1921 in Hamburg, the daughter of Chaim Karl Gaenser, originally from Galicia (later Poland), and Rivka Ganser (born Ratenbach - Rappaport), also from Galicia (now Ukraine). She had come to Hamburg at the end of 1904 where she worked as a maid and cook, while Karl Ganser was a salesman. Rifka Gaenser acquired Polish citizenship when she married Karl Gänser in Hamburg in 1919. She had a younger brother, Max (Mendel), born in 1925.

Ella left Germany and came to Belgium from where she would board the Dora in July 1938.

Ella Gaenzer married Avraham Traube in 1945 in Palestine. The couple later left Israel and emigrated to the USA in 1957. They had two children. [This is unconfirmed as there are no children listed on any online sources.)

Ella Yaffa Traube (née Gaenzer) died in May 2006 in Chicago.


Her mother Rifka Gänser was deported over the Polish border to Zbaszyn on 28 October 1938 during the so-called Polenaktion. She disappeared in the Shoah in 1943.
There is conflicting information about the fate of her father, Chaim Karl Ganser. According to an entry on his religious tax card, Karl Gänser left his apartment in Hamburg in August 1938 and immigrated to Istanbul. According to other sources, he is said to have died in 1943, a victim of the Holocaust. It's not clear what actually happened, especially since it is not known whether Turkey deported foreign Jews during the war. (See inconclusive Wikipedia article on Turkey's attitude towards Jews during the war.
Her brother Mendel Max Ganser was deported to the Riga Ghetto on December 6, 1941, where he was murdered in the Jungfernhof camp. He was 16.

Sources:
www.findagrave.com
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com
www.stolpersteine-hamburg.de
www.mappingthelives.org

Gerson, Julius
  • Julius Gerson
10.1.1903

Julius Gerson was born January 10, 1903, in Fulda.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, Julius Gerson lived in Berlin, Charlottenburg. His emigration destination was listed as Palestine. He left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minoriry Census)

Online data about the Gerson family seems inconsistent, making it impossible to confirm the names and fates of his parents or siblings.

Goldberg, Ruth
  • Ruth Goldberg
7.7.??

(Year unreadable)

Goldenhar, Abraham
Abraham Goldenhaar
  • Abraham Goldenhar
  • Abraham Shoam
  • אברהם גולדנהר
  • אברהם שוהם
2.9.1916*

Abraham Goldenhar (later: Abraham Shoam) was born on September 12, 1916*, in Warsaw, the son of Mendel (Menahem) Goldenhar and Faiige Mindel (Tzipora) Lipschitz. He had three siblings: Sarah (1906 or 1907), Rachel (Ruchla) (1918 or 1919) and David (1928).

The Goldenhar family left Warsaw and came to Antwerp sometime between 1918 and 1928. David, the youngest child, was born in Antwerp.

Abraham Goldenhar joined Hashomer Hatzair ("The Young Guard"), the left-leaning Zionist youth group in Antwerp. He married Henny Einhorn, another Hashomer Hatzair member. Together, they boarded the Dora.

Abraham and Henny joined Kibbutz Ein Horesh, a Kibbutz originally founded by Hashomer Hatzair members from Poland in 1929, and later augmented by Hashomer Hatzair members from Belgium.

Abraham Goldenhar later changed his name to Abraham Shoam. Abraham and Henny had three children.

Abraham Shoam (Goldenhar) died in September 2010 in Kibbutz Ein HaHoresh. He was 94.


His father, Menahem Mendel Goldenhar, his mother, Faige Mindel (Tzipora) Goldenhar, and his young brother David Goldenhar, were murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.

His sisters emigrated to Palestine: Sara (שרה שיבא) died in Kiriat Shaul, Rachel (רחל גשרי) died in Kibbutz Ginegar.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
geni.com (Shoam)
www.myheritage.com (Antwerp Police Register)
Photo: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger.

*According to the passenger list, Abraham Goldenhar was born September 2. The Antwerp police file for the family has September 16. Other sources, including his obituary, have September 12. Likewise, the years of birth for his sisters as recorded in the Antwerp police register differ from dates available in other sources.

Goldenhar, Hanni
Isaak Windmuller
  • Henny Einhorn
  • Hanni Goldenhar
  • Henny Shoam
  • הני איינהורן
  • הני גולדנה
  • הני שוהם
11.8.1919
[Rotterdam]

Henny Goldenhar née Einhorn (later: Henny Shoam) was born August 11, 1919, in Rotterdam, the daughter of Ben-Zion and Rosa Einhorn. Her parents were originally from Hungary. She had three brothers: Zvi Hirsch Meir Einhorn, Hanoch Einhorn (later: Arnon), and Zalman Einhorn.

She belonged to Hashomer Hatzair and married Abraham Goldenhar, another member of the youth organization. Together they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Henny and Abraham joined Kibbutz Ein Horesh, a Kibbutz originally founded by Hashomer Hatzair members from Poland in 1929, and later augmented by Hashomer Hatzair graduates from Belgium.

The couple had three children. She later changed her name to Henny Shoam (הני שוהם). Henny Goldenhar died in October 2009 in Kibbutz Ein HaHoresh, at the age of 90.


Her parents, Ben-Zion and Rosa Einhorn were murdered in Auschwitz in 1943.

The fate of her brothers Zvi Hirsch Meir Einhorn and Zalman Einhorn is not known.

Her brother Hanoch Einhorn (Arnon) survived and later changed his name to Hanoch Arnon.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
geni.com (Shoam)
Photo: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger.

Goldstein, Arthur
  • Arthur Goldstein
  • Artur Goldstein
5.1.1920

Artur Goldstein was born January 5, 1920 in Duisburg, the son of Max Moses Goldstein, a merchant originally from Krefeld (Prussia), and Fanny Feige Goldstein (née Schurberg). He had two sisters, Bernhardine (1917), and Edith (1922).

Arthur came to Holland illegally in December 1938, then went to Antwerp, from where he boarded the Dora in July 1939.

In October 1939, now in Palestine, Artur received the last letter from his parents from Germany. His father projected a forced cheerfulness, probably to convey an opposite message between the lines while avoiding censorship. Regarding censorship, he instructed his son to "write in such a way that your letter can be sent here."

"Thank God we are doing very well and are healthy and cheerful. We have furnished our apartment very comfortably and it is also comfortably warm. [...] Mother and I have become very fat, I'm about 105 kg again, which is too much, but thank God I still have a lot of work and am now making a lot of emigrant lists. So don't worry and be fine and happy. [...]"

Has your luggage arrived there yet, or have you forgotten a lot of things in Antwerp? Hopefully not.

This would be the very last letter from home. His parents would later be deported to the East where they vanished in the Shoah.

Artur Goldstein was living in Haifa in 1966.


Arthur's parents, Max and Fanny Goldstein, were deported to the Łódź Ghetto (Litzmannstadt) in 1941 and disappeared in the Shoah.

His sister, Bernhardine Goldstein, emigrated to Holland in 1939 with her sister Edith. She was deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered on September 30, 1942 (or: August 27, 1942). She was 25.

Arthur's sister, Edith Goldstein, came to the Netherlands in 1939 and married Victor Emanuel van Geens on July 13, 1942. Both were in the first transport from the Westerbork transit camp to Auschwitz two days later. She was 20.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.joodsmonument.nl (sister Bernhardine)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister Bernhardine)
www.joodsmonument.nl (sister Edith)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister Edith)
documents.yadvashem.org (1939 letter)

Further info (not accessed):
"Geschichte der Duisburger Juden", Roden/Vogedas, Walter Braun Verlag, 1986.

Goldstein, Joseph
  • Joseph Goldstein
  • Yosele Dan
  • יוסף גולדשטיין
  • יוסלה דן
26.12.1915

Joseph Goldstein was born December 26, 1915 in Pyhanken (now Běhánky, Czechoslovakia), the son of Pinhas (Pinkas) Goldstein and Chana Ruchla Goldstein (née Gablinger). He had four siblings: Chaja Dwore (1913), Rebeka Lea (1920), Sara Rzyndla (1922), and Jakob Mosejez (1925).

The family came from Galicia (now Poland): three of his siblings were born in Przesmysl, one in nearby Ustrzyki. Jacob however was born in Běhánky, 800 kms to the west. It is likely that the family originally lived in Ustrzyki, a small town of about 4 000 inhabitants, 40% of them Jewish, then fled to Czechoslovakia in 1915 during the war, then returned to their native region after the end of the war, but moved to the nearby Przemyśl, a larger town of about 50 000 inhabitants.

The family was poor and emigrated to Belgium, settling in Antwerp sometime between 1925 and 1930.

Joseph Goldstein joined Hashomer Hatzair before coming to Palestine.

He first lived in Kibbutz Dan, then moved to Kibbutz Sarid in 1943. He later adopted the name Yoseleh (or Yosel ?) Dan. He didn't start a family.

Yosel Dan (Joseph Goldstein) died in November 1993 in Kibbutz Sarid.

Sources:
billiongraves.com
www.myheritage.com (Antwerp aliens files)
sarid.org.il

Goldstein, Kadisch
  • Kadisch Goldstein
27.8.1910

Kadisch Goldstein was born August 27, 1910, in Saint Petersburg (Petrograd, Leningrad), Russia.

His last place of residence in Germany was Fischach, Land Bayern.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Gotthilf, Herbert
  • Herbert Gotthilf
  • הרברט גוטהילף
22.8.1910
[Bärwalde]
[German]

Herbert Gotthilf was born August 22, 1910, in Bärwalde, the son of Siegmund Gotthilf and Elsbeth (Else) Rosen. He had three siblings: Günther (1914), Ruth (1919) and Elinor Margarete Gretel (1921).

Herbert Gotthilf belonged to Maccabi Hatzair. In May 1938 he joined the Havelberg Hachshara, 110 kms (70 miles) west of Berlin. His sister Ruth (Johanna) Gotthilf was also in the Havelberg Hachshara.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, he lived in Berlin, Wilmersdorf with his parents, Siegmund (54) and Elsbeth Gotthilf (49), and his sister Margarete (17). Herbert was 28 and single.

Herbert Gotthilf left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

He married Alice Esther Cohn in 1940 in Haifa, and the couple had one son.

Herbert Gotthilf died in 1989.


His parents Siegmund and Elsbeth Gotthilf tried to emigrate to Palestine illegally at the end of 1940 aboard the S.S. Atlantic. After its arrival in Haifa, they were deported by the British to the Mauritius internment camp in 1941 where they remained until 1943 at least, as evidenced by two 1943 letters from S. Gotthilf to his sons Herbert in Kfar Ata near Haifa, and to Gunter in Haifa (These letters were offered for sale on eBay). His mother Elsbeth Gotthilf died in Kibbuz Gvat in 1946, his father Siegmund Gotthilf died in Kibbutz Hazorea in 1955.

His sister, Ruth (Johanna) Grebler (née Gotthilf) also attended the Havelberg Hachshara farm. She left Germany in 1939 and came to Palestine on the SS Hilde (Hilda), an illegal immigrant ship that was intercepted by the British and arrived in Haifa in January 1940 via Bratislava. She was then detained in Atlit. She died in 1968.
His brother Günther Gotthilf emigrated to Palestine and lived in Haifa.
His sister Nurit (Elinor Margarete Gretel) Elor (née Gotthilf) emigrated to England, then came to Palestine in 1945.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
www.myheritage.com
www.ushmm.org
www.ushmm.org (Sister Ruth)
"Jewish Detainees in Mauritius September 1941"

Grun, Mendel
  • Mendel Grun
16.6.1915
Gutmann, Eva
  • Eva Gutmann
16.8.1920
[Berlin]

Eva Gutmann was born August 16, 1920, in Berlin, the daughter of Siegfried Gutmann, merchant, and Käthe née Rosenstern. The family lived on Speyererstraße in Berlin-Schöneberg. Eva's mother died in July 1936, when Eva was 15 years old.

Eva started elementary school in 1927 in Berlin-Schöneberg. She then began attending middle school in October 1933, but left five months later at the end of March 1934. Because she hadn't turned 14 yet, she may have transferred to another school.

Nothing more is known about her path to the Dora.


Eva's father, Siegfried Gutmann, emigrated to Palestine in March 1939. He wed his second wife Hedwig Bibro a month later and lived in Haifa.

Sources:
collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

This is one of the only (if not the only) example of a parent of a Dora passenger having emigrated to Palestine before their own child.

Gutmann, Naumi
  • Naumi Gutmann
10.5.1920
Haase, Gisela
  • Gisela Fränkel
  • Gisela Haase
29.4.1903

Gisela Haase (née Fränkel) was born April 29, 1903, in Vienna, the daughter of Alwin Fränkel and Röschen Flatow. Her siblings were Herbert (1901), Walter (1905), Lina (1906), and possibly Hermine (1899).

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 1939, Gisela lived in Breslau with her husband Kurt Haase, along with Martha Haase, 68, and Helene Wrazidlo, 43 (born Haase).

Gisela and her husband Kurt left Breslau and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May 1939 and mid-July 1939, from where they would board the Dora that would take them to Palestine.


Her parents, Alwin and Rosa Fränkel lived in Breslau at the time of the May 1939 German Minority Census. Her mother was deported to Theresienstadt and was murdered on December 15 1944. With them lived Hermine Fränkel, aged 39, presumably a daughter. She was deported to the Lublin area and was a victim of the Shoah.

The fate of her father, Alwin Fränkel is not known, neither are the fates of her siblings Hertber, Walter and Lina Fränkel.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com

Haase, Kurt
  • Kurt Haase
23.1.1905

Kurt Haase was born January 23, 1905, in Santomischel, Posen, Germany (now Zaniemysl, Schroda district), the son of Bernhard Haase and Dorothea Boroschek. He had four siblings: Alfred (1903), Siegfried (Sigi) (1906), Herbert (1909), and Sofie (1914). The family lived in Breslau around 1930.

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 17, 1939, he lived in Breslau (Wrocław) with his wife, Gisela Haase (36), along with Martha Haase (68) and Helene Wrazidlo (née Haase) (43). (It's not clear what his exact connection was with Martha Haase and Helene Wrazidlo.)

Kurt and his wife Gisela left Breslau and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May 1939 and mid-July 1939, from where they boarded the Dora for Palestine.


Kurt's mother Dorothea Haase was murdered as part of the Nazi euthanasia program in Sonnenstein some time between June 1940 and September 1941.

Kurt's father Bernhard Haase was deported to Theresienstadt, then to the Treblinka death camp on September 23 1942 where he was murdered on arrival.

His sister, Sophie Katz, was also deported to Theresienstadt, then vanished in the Shoah.

Kurt's brother Siegfried Haase, a "cult officer" (Kultusbeamter) and a cantor fled to Shanghai in December 1938 with his wife Martha and their newly-born daughter Ruth. They were among the first refugees from the "Third Reich" to use the free entry option to Shanghai.

Another brother, Herbert Haase, also emigrated to Shanghai in 1939.

The fate of Kurt's other siblings Alfred Haase and Sophie Haase is not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Dorothea Haase)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Bernhard Haase)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Sophie Katz)
www.lexm.uni-hamburg.de (Sophie Fetthauer: Siegfried Haase)

Halpern, Leo
  • Leo Halpern
  • Arieh Halpern
  • אריה הלפרן
31.12.1920
[Berlin]

Leo Halpern (later: Arieh Halpern) was born on December 31, 1920, in in Berlin, the son of Selig Halpern, a merchant, and Cilly (Tzvia), née Weissberg. Both parents were originally from Stanislavov, Austria-Hungary (later Stanisławów, Poland, now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine).

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 1939, Leo Halpern was registered in Falkenberg Klein Schnellendorf, in Upper Silesia (now Poland). He left Falkenberg and came to Antwerp sometime between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora.

Leo Halpern later changed his name to Arieh Halpern. He married Hella Aron Przemyslaw, another Dora passenger. The couple lived in Haifa.

Arieh (Leo) Halpern died in Haifa in December 1995, at the age of 74.


Leo's parents, Selig and Cilly Halpern, were deported from Berlin to Poland. They disappeared in the Shoah in 1941.

Sources:
collections.arolsen-archives.org
www.myheritage.com (Minority Census)
wga-datenbank.de (search term: Leo Halpern)
billiongraves.com

Hanauer, Lothar
  • Lothar Hanauer
  • Yehuda Naor
  • לות'ר יהודה נאור (הנאוור)
30.3.1907

Lothar Hanauer (later: Yehuda Naor) was born on March 30, 1907, in Wiesenfeld, Thuringia, Germany, the son of Moses Hanauer, a cattle rancher, and Pauline Hanauer (Steinheimer). The Hanauer family came from a long line of cattle traders who had lived in Wiesenfeld since at least 1780. Lothar had two brothers: Benno and Max, and three sisters: Irma, Ida and Erna.

Lothar Hanauer was incarcerated in Buchenwald following Kristallnacht on November 11, 1938, and was released on November 30, 1938. He was incarcerated again in Buchenwald on December 28, 1938, from where he was released shortly after on January 3, 1939. At the time of his incarceration, his profession was businessman("Kaufmann").

After fleeing Germany he reached Antwerp from where he boarded the Dora.

Lothar Hanauer later changed his name to Yehuda Naor. He was married twice and had (at least) one child.

Yehuda Naor (Lothar Hanauer) died in January 1985, aged 77.


Lothar's parents were deported to Theresienstadt; his mother Pauline Hanauer died there on January 25, 1943 (68), his father Moses Hanauer on February 10, 1943 (67).

Lothar's sister Ida was deported to Izbica, Poland in 1942 and disappeared in the Shoah.
His sister Irma Siegel was deported to the Łódź Ghetto, where she was murdered in 1942. (Irma Siegel's daughter, Karola Ruth Siegel, was sent by her mother to an orphanage in Switzerland at age 10 in 1938 and survived the war. She later emigrated to Palestine where she joined the Hagannah, then later to the USA where she became a sex therapist, talk show host, author, professor, better known as "Dr. Ruth".)

Lothar's brother Benno emigrated to England in June 1939. His brother Max emigrated in July 1939 to San Francisco. His sister, Erna (later Erna Fingerhut), fled to England.

Sources:
www.geni.com
www.geni.com
Jahrbuch Sammelband 2011-12 (Beiträge zu Geschichte und Gegenwart, Verlag Gerhard Kralik, 2011)

Hecht, Herbert
  • Herbert Hecht
  • Chaim Hadar
  • חיים הדר (הכט)
5.9.1912

Herbert Hecht (Chaim Hadar) was born September 5, 1912, in Beuthen, Germany (now Bytom, Poland), the son of Jacob Hecht, a merchant, and Emma Leschziner. He had five siblings: Kaethe (1910), Ilse (1914), Hildegard (1916), Irma (1919) and Ruth (or Rudi?) (1922).

Herbert Hecht married Ruth Frey in 1937.

In Israel Herbert Hecht adopted the name Chaim Hadar. Chaim and his wife lived in Pardes Hanna and had two children.

Chaim Hadar (Herbert Hecht) died in Pardes Hanna in October 1999, at the age of 87.

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Hecht, Ruth
  • Ruth Frey
  • Ruth Hecht
  • Ruth Hadar
  • רות הדר (הכט) (born פריי)
29.6.1912*

Ruth Hecht, née Frey, (later: Ruth Hadar) was born on June 29, 1912, in Langendorf, Tost-Gleiwitz, Schlesien, (or Gleiwitz, Germany (now Gliwice, Poland)?), the daughter of Wilhelm Frey and Clara Kallmann. She had two siblings, Hertha (1907-1937), and Hans Joachim Frey (1909 - 1951). Her father Wilhelm Frey died in 1930 when Ruth was 18 years old.

Ruth Frey married Herbert Hecht in October 1937. He was a part-time physical education teacher at the "Waldschule Kaliski" (PriWaKi) in Berlin and also taught with practical courses to prepare for emigration to Palestine.

The couple later left Berlin and came to Antwerp, from where they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

The couple first lived in Kiriat Bialik near Haifa, then came to Pardes Hanna. The couple had two children. She adopted the name Ruth Hadar.

Ruth Hadar died in 1995 in Pardes Hanna.


Her mother, Clara Frey was deported to the Lodz Ghetto, then to the Chelmno death camp where she was murdered in 1942 [or November 1944].

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
yvng.yadvashem.org

The passenger list has June 26, while online sources variously list June 28 or 29.

Heimann, Sally
  • Sally Heimann
  • Saul Heimann
25.12.1907

Saul Sally Heimann was born December 25, 1907, in Schwanfeld, Bavaria, the son of David Heimann and Regina Bachmann. He had seven siblings: Marta (1898), Selma (1899), Clara (1900), Max (1901), Bella (1903), Gretchen (1906) and Frieda (1914). His father died in 1931.

At the beginning of the 19th century, more than one third of the population of Schwanfeld was Jewish. By 1910, around the time of Sally Heimann's birth, Schwanfeld had a population of 931, with 114 Jews, 12% of the total. The village had a private school for 10 Jewish children, as well as a mikveh.

By the 1930s, Sally Heimann lived in Erfurt, which was presumably his last place of residence in Germany, before coming to Antwerp, from where he boarded the Dora in July 1939.

In Israel, he married Miriam Menia Mariampolski and the couple had four children.

Saul Sally Heimann died in 1971 in Tel Mond.


Saul's sister, Selma Gerst, was deported with her husband Gustav and daughter Senta to Lublin in 1942 where they were murdered.

His sister, Marta Rozenberg, survived the war and emigrated to Palestine (in 1945?).

Saul's mother, Regina Heimann, four sisters, Bella Loeb, Clara Berk, Frieda Hammerschlag, Gretchen Kraemer, and his brother, Max Heimann, emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.maapilim.org.il (Sister Marta)
yvng.yadvashem.org

Heller, Dora
  • Dora Heller
23.6.1920

Dora Heller was born June 23, 1920, in Chemnitz, Germany.

At the time of the May 1939 German Minoriy Census, she lived in Chemnitz, and her emigration destination was listed as Palestine.

She left Chemnitz and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, and from there boarded the Dora.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Herzberg, Samuel
  • Samuel Herzberg
  • שמואל הרצברג
26.2.1912
[Poland]

Samuel Herzberg was born on February 26, 1912, in Poland, the son of Yaakov Gershon and Frida Hertzberg. When he was two months old, his parents moved to Vienna where he attended school, gymnasium and applied to study medicine at university. His mother passed away, and his father who owned a shop was very ill.

After his father's death, he closed the family store and left Austria. He traveled through Germany to Belgium, and was in the Mercksplatz camp, from where he immigrated to Mandate Palestine.

About the Dora, he recalled:

"Got high fever while sailing. [After landing in Israel,] [I] went to [my] uncle, Yosef Cedar (Sidor?), who was one of the founders of Ramat Hasharon, but there was no work and the situation was difficult, so [I] enlisted in the Jewish Brigade."

His first place of residence in Israel was Hadera.

Samuel married Hanna (Hanse) Pinas who had been in hiding during the war with her family in the Netherlands. She came with the Aliyah Bet ship the "Yagur", which was intercepted by the British, and she was deported to Cyprus. The couple had two children.

Samuel Herzberg died in February 2001 in Ness Ziona.

Sources:
maapilim
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com

Heumann, Erna
  • Erna Heumann
  • הוימן
21.4.1913

Erna Heumann was born April 21, 1913, in Eschweiler, Germany, the daughter of Philipp Heumann, a butcher from Eschweiler, and Bertha Heumann (née Daniel). She had two siblings, Leo (Leopold)(1903), and Alexander (1907). Her father died in January 1921 when Erna was 7 years old. Her mother died seven years later in 1928* when Erna was 15. (* other sources have 1938)

Erna Heumann lived in Aachen in the 1930s, close to Eschweiler. Aachen, a border town between Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, seems to have been used as a crossing point for a number of future passengers of the Dora. One can assume that she went directly from Aachen to Belgium, then made her way to Antwerp some time between 1938 and 1939.


Leo Heumann, her half-brother, died in 1938 in the Netherlands. His son was murdered in Chelmno in 1942. He was 4 years old.

Her brother, Alex Heumann, emigrated to the USA in 1938.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Jewish residents of Germany)

Honik, Szarlotte
  • Szarlotte Honik
9.5.1917
Hoffmann, Erich
  • Erich Hoffmann
4.4.1916
[Wolbeck]
[German]

Erich Hoffmann was born April 4, 1916, in Wolbeck, the son of Solomon Hoffmann, a livestock and fertilizer dealer, and Martha Arensberg. He had three brothers: Arnold (1913), Ludwig (1918), and Fritz Rudi Fred (1923).

His father, Solomon, was the chairman and cantor of the Jewish community in Wolbeck, a suburb in Münster. His mother, Martha, ran a shop for manufactured goods.

On October 19, 1937, Erich Hoffmann left Germany and came to the Netherlands, staying in the agricultural Hachshara of the Deventer Vereniging in Brummen near Vorden. He met with members of the group once a week in the house of the association (Beth Halutz) in Deventer.

In March 1938, members of the NSDAP devastated the synagogue in Wolbeck and, among other things, destroyed the furniture from the house of Salomon Hofmann. Hoffmann was seen picking up the Torah scrolls from the gutter.

On April 21, 1938, Erich Hoffmann was deregistered from Vorden and he returned to Germany. Apparently, his parents had asked him to come back after the devastation in Wolbeck and in preparation of their planned move to Münster. On February 21, 1939, Erich deregistered from Wolbeck, with his destination marked as "France", but appeared to still be in Wolbeck in May 1939.

In July he boarded the Dora from Antwerp.

Erich Hoffmann fought as a soldier in the British Army. He married Nellie della Rocca and they emigrated to the USA in 1947. The couple had two children.

Erich Hoffmann died in San Jose in 1998, at the age of 81.


Erich's parents attempts to emigrate to South Africa with their son Arnold failed due to the intensification of South African immigration policy from 1937. Their attempt to emigrate to Palestine failed not only because of the immigration policy, but also because of the start of the Second World War. Their plans to flee to the USA were also fruitless. The Hoffmann couple did not receive a visa for the USA despite the submission of all necessary papers, and despite their son Ludwig's petitioning President Roosevelt. They were deported to the Riga ghetto on December 13, 1941. Salomon Hoffmann died in the Riga-Salaspils camp in 1942. Martha Hoffmann (Arensberg) was killed in Riga, most likely following the liquidation of the Riga ghetto in November 1943.

Erich's elder brother, Arnold Hoffmann, emigrated to Johannesburg in 1936 and fought in the South African army against Nazi Germany. His younger brother, Ludwig (later: Harold) Hoffmann, emigrated to the USA in 1938. His brother Fritz was sent to London on a Kindertransport in 1939, and emigrated to New York after the war.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
spurenimvest.de
www.gedenkbuch-detmold.de
www.ushmm.org

Hoffmann, Theodor
  • Theodor Hoffmann
28.3.1902
Horowitz, Jakob
  • Jakob Horowitz
  • יעקב הורוביץ
19.1.1902
[Vienna] [Austrian]

Jakob Horowitz was born January 19, 1902, in Vienna, the son of Fischel (Fiszel, Philippe) Horowitz and Rebeka (Riwe, Regine) Nebenzahl. He had a brother Sigmund (1896) and a sister Malvine (Malwine) (1900). His father died in 1915, when Jakob was 13 years old. His brother Sigmund died a year later in 1916, at the age of 20. [Due to the dates of the death, it is possible that either one, or both, died fighting in the war.]

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Inowlodzka, Ruchla
  • Ruchla Inowlodzka
1914
Jacobowicz, Hirsch
  • Hirsch Jacobowicz
22.12.1912
Jordan, Alfred
Alfred Jordan

1943

  • Alfred Jordan
  • Alfred Abraham Jordan
25.10.1920
[Berlin]

Alfred Jordan was born October 25, 1920, in Berlin, the eldest son of Max Jordan, a journalist, and Johanna (Hanna) Haase. He had two younger brothers, each born five years apart: Horst (1925) and Heinz (1930).

His father, a lawyer by training, was an editor for the Frankfurter Zeitung, a highly respected liberal publication whose contributors included Walter Benjamin, Lion Feuchtwanger, Erich Kästner, Thomas Mann, Joseph Roth, Stefan Zweig, Theodor W. Adorno and Alfred Döblin.

He grew up in an upper middle class Jewish family that was assimilated. He had a bar-mitzvah in the synagogue on Oranienburger Straße, the family celebrated the Pessah Seder with the extended family, and lit candles for Hannukah, but "in the next room was the Christmas tree."

Alfred Jordan went to elementary school in Berlin, then to a private Catholic school (Gymnasium) until 1934. At the age of 14 he was told that, as a Jew he couldn't come there anymore. Around the same time, his father lost his job. Forced to leave school, and unable to attend a Jewish school as they were completely filled up by then, Alfred Jordan started to work for a chocolate manufacturing company which was owned by Jewish people in Berlin.

Alfred Jordan lived in the 1930s in Berlin. From there he made his way to Antwerp, where he boarded the Dora.

"We made stops in Spain, Portugal, Greece, and Turkey, and then went around to pass Palestine. The ship was on its way to Egypt. Whenever we entered a port, we had to go, you couldn't go on top of the ship, because we couldn't be seen, we were illegal, and we saw a ship approach on sea, we right away were told 'hey, down', we had to go down, and sometime for a length of time. Anyway for six weeks we had absolutely nothing to do, and we came around Palestine by night, when were told at that time, be prepared, again, take your backpack, we're going to go to try to get you on land in Palestine."

He later left Israel and emigrated to the USA.

Alfred Jordan died in June 15 1998 in Pacific Palisades, California.


His entire family died in the Łódź Ghetto (Litzmannstadt).
His mother, Johanna Jordan, died on October 24, 1941 (43).
His father, Max Jordan, died in Aug 1942 (50).
His brother, Horst Jordan, died in 1942, at the age of 17.
His brother, Heinz Jordan, also died in 1942. He was 12 years old.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.ushmm.org

Further Info:
Jordan recorded a testimony for the USC Shoah Foundation (English, duration: 2hrs): Visual History Archive.

Kattkitzki, Erich
  • Erich Kattkitzki
  • Erich Katkitzki
  • Elieser Kad
  • אליזר כד
  • אליעזר אריק כד
19.1.1906

Erich Kattkitzki (later: Elieser Kad) was born January 19, 1906, in Frankfurt, the son of Isidor Kattkitzki, an agent, and Anna Ela Sachs.

Erich Kattkitzki (here spelled Katkitzki) seems to have lived in Bremen in the mid-1930s, where he was the leader of Bar Kochba, its treasurer and secretary. He then went to Chemnitz.

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 17, 1939, he lived in Berlin (Prenzlauer Berg) with his parents Isidor and Anna Kattkitzki.

In Israel, Erich Kattkitzki changed his name to Eliezer Kad. He lived in Jerusalem and doesn't seem to have started a family.

Eliezer Kad (Erich Kattkitzki) died in January 1985 in Jerusalem.


His parents, Anna and Isidor Kattkitzki, were deported from Berlin to Riga on November 27, 1941. They were murdered in Riga-Rumbula three days later on November 30, 1941.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
yvng.yadvashem.org
yvng.yadvashem.org
Juden im Sport während des Nationalsozialismus Ein historisches Handbuch für Niedersachsen und Bremen, By Lorenz Peiffer, Henry Wahlig, 2012 (p128)
billiongraves.com

Katz, Elisabeth
  • Elisabeth Katz
16.10.1906

Elisabeth Katz was born on October 19, 1906, in Vásárosnamény (today: Hungary)

She was married to Louis Leonardo Katz, another passenger of the Dora.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration Application)
Joke Stans

Katz, Louis
  • Louis Katz
  • Louis Leonardo Katz
22.7.1904
[Bojan, Romania]

Louis Leonardo Katz was born July 22, 1904, in Bojan, Bukowina, Romania (Austria, Romania from 1918 to 1940). He spent the first ten years of his life in Bojan (Boyan), a Hassidic center. Between 1914 and 1918, his family lived in Gernowitz and Bucharest, then again in Gernowitz from 1918 to 1922. Louis Katz then came to Vienna in 1922.

On May 11 1938, less than two months after the Anschluss, Louis Katz filled out an emigration application with the Jewish Community of Vienna (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde). At the time he was 33 years old and married to Elisabeth Katz. Originally a Romanian citizen, his citizenship was now in question, and he was expecting a decision in the next few days and stated: "If the decision is negative, I will be stateless."

As professions, he listed "Organizer and seller of office machines [for ?] printing, duplicating and mailing machines (?), card index specialist, filing, advertising and address (?) sales. He had received vocational training, had a high school diploma, and had attended 5 semesters at a technical university. His professional experience included ten years as a seller and manager for a Vienna company, then representative of the Addressograph - Multigraph - Corporation from Cleveland U.S.A. In addition to his business experience, he spoke German, French and Romanian, and was beginning with English.

His financial situation was, like most other applicants, not good as he had been terminated on July 15, 1938, and quoted his former salary of S. 200 per month. He was however one of the rare applicants who could contribute approximately R.M. 500 towards his resetlement.

Regarding the future, he wished to be able to emigrate to the USA, where he had a brother-in-law in Brooklyn, and where he hoped to find use as a seller at the Adressograph - Multigraph - Corporation in Cleveland USA, becaue "I sold their products in Vienna".

The only relative he listed was his wife Elizabeth Katz, suggesting that his parents either didn't live in Vienna, or may have been dead.

Louis and Elizabet Katz left Vienna and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May 1938 and mid-Julay 1939, from where they boarded the Dora together for Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration Application)
Joke Stans

Katz, Toni
Toni Katz (Abraham)
  • Toni Katz
30.9.1919
[Sokal, Poland]
[Stateless, formerly Polish]

Toni Katz was born on September 30, 1919, in Sokal (Poland, now Ukraine), the daughter of Leo Katz and Frida Tabak. The family came to Gera in Thuringia, Germany, when she was 3 years old.

After leaving school at the age of 14 due to the Nazi anti-Jewish policies, she became an apprentice in a department store in Gera, later to be dismissed after it became "Aryanized" in 1935. She then joined Bar Kochba, a Zionist youth group.

In the Summer of 1938, she went for Hachshara in "Kibbutz Jägerslust" in Flensburg, in the north of Germany. Her training was cut short after only a few months by the events of Kristallnacht. Arrested during the night of the "November Pogrom", she was released the next day and forced to go back to Gera. Coming home, she discovered that he parents had been deported ten days earlier during the "Polenaktion".

She had planned to cross the border with Poland to be reunited with her parents in Krakow, but the day before her departure, she received an invitation to go on an illegal ship for Palestine. She called her parents in Krakow asking for their advice, and after they told her to go so that she at least would be safe, she accepted the offer.

She then hid with friends of the family for several months until she received the signal that the ship was finally ready. She made her way across Germany, then crossed the Belgian border illegally, then spent a month hiding in Antwerp, again waiting for the arrival of the Dora.

She described her trip in detail: leaving Germany with a backpack with a blanket and a pair of shoes, the sleeping arrangements, being anchored in Turkey for several days, eating watermelons, the crew rebellion.

In Israel, she first lived in a kibbutz in Raanana, then went to Maoz Haim, a kibbutz in the Beit She'an valley. She later left the kibbutz and came to Tel Aviv where she worked in a flower shop. In the early 50s she left for Paris to marry Uriel Abraham.


Her parents Leo and Frida Katz were deported to Poland during the so-called Polenaktion on October 28, 1938. They were forced into the Krakow ghetto in 1941. Their last sign of life was a Red Cross card they sent from Tuchow in May 1942. They then disappeared in the Shoah, probably murdered in Belzec in the fall of 1942 following the liquidation of the Tuchow ghetto.

Toni's younger brother Yitzhak Katz emigrated to Palestine in 1937 with Youth Aliyah.

Kaufmann, Frieda
Frieda Kaufmann

1946

  • Frieda Heller
  • Frieda Kaufmann
  • Frieda De La Penha
  • פרידה הלר
4.1.1906

Frieda Kaufmann, née Heller, (later: Frieda De La Penha), was born on January 4, 1906 in Kałusz, Galicia, Austria (later Poland, now Kalush, Ukraine).

Frieda Heller married Israel Kaufmann, also from Kalusz. They both came to Germany, presumably after Kalusz became part of Poland following the end of the WW1. The couple had two sons: Leopold Nathan, born in 1929 in Dresden, and Gerhard, born in 1934 in Hannover.

In late November or early December 1938, Frieda's husband and their two children came to Palestine, arriving in Haifa on traveler visas.

It is not known why Frieda Kaufmann did not go with the rest of the family. On July 14, 1939, her husband submitted a visa application for her in Haifa, by which time she was in Antwerp, and on July 26, the British authorities approved the request for her entry in Palestine as an immigrant. They noted that she had to apply in person at the British Consulate in Antwerp.

By the time this request had been approved, Frieda Kaufmann was already sailing on the Dora as an illegal immigrant.

In 1946, her husband's application for naturalization was accepted, however, hers was rejected as an illegal immigrant.

In 1956 she was still living in Haifa, where she married Abraham De La Penha. The couple later left Israel and came to the Netherlands.

Frieda De La Penha (born Heller) died in The Hague in September 1962.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (Naturalization Application)
www.myheritage.com

Kleinschmidt, Herbert
  • Herbert Kleinschmidt
30.12.1921

This may be Herbert Kleinschmidt born December 20 (and not 30), 1921 in Soest, the son of Isidore Kleinschmidt and Olga Felix.

Sources:
spurenimvest.de

Koopman, Hans
  • Hans Koopman
  • Hans Golani
  • הנס קופמן
  • הנס גולני
4.1.1915

Hans Koopman (later: Hans Golani) was born January 4, 1915, in Amsterdam, the son of Simon Koopman and Meta Eichenberg. He had one brother, David Richard (1916).

His family left Amsterdam and emigrated to Antwerp sometime between 1916 and 1930.

Hans married Fanny (Feiga) Gutwirth in February 1939. Together they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

The couple lived in Kibbutz Dan and had three children. Hans Koopman changed his name to Hans Golani.

Hans Golani (Koopman) died in Kibbutz Dan in May 1987, at the age of 72.


Hans' brother David Richard Koopman was murdered in Auschwitz-Birkenau on December 1 1942.

Hans' mother Meta Koopman died (murdered?) in Upper Silesia around 1940.

His father, Simon Koopman, survived the war and died in Antwerpen in the early 1950s.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Hebrew)
www.myheritage.com

Koopman, Feiga
  • Feiga Gutwirth
  • Feiga Koopman
  • Fanny Koopman
  • Fanny Golani
  • פאני גוטוירט
  • פאני קופמן
  • פאני גולני
7.6.1916*

Fanny Koopman, née Feiga Gutwirth, (later: Fanny Golani) was born June 17, 1916, in Prague, Czechoslovakia, the daughter of Yehuda Leib Gutwirth, originally from Jascenica, Poland, and Chaya Rachel Katz, originally from Dobromil, Poland. She had seven siblings: Tauba (1904), Sara (1906), Chaim Israel "Srule" (1908), Lea (1910), Miriam (1912), Raphael "Fulu" (1919), and Estera Gitla (1924).

All of Fanny's siblings were born in Dobromil, the town where her mother was born. Since she alone was born in Prague in 1916, it can be assumed that her parents fled Galicia during WW1 and found temporary refuge in Czechoslovakia.

Fanny married Hans Koopman in February 1939. Together they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

The couple lived in Kibbutz Dan and had three children. Fanny Koopman adopted the name Fanny Golani.

Fanny Golani (Koopman) died in Kibbutz Dan in 2006, at the age of 89.


Her parents, Yehuda Leib Gutwirth and Chaya Rachel Gutwirth were murdered in the Shoah in October 1942.

Her brothers, Chaim Israel "Srule" Gutwirth, Raphael "fulu" Gutwirth, and her sister, Estera Gitla, were murdered in the Shoah in September or October 1942.

Her sister, Tauba Gutwirth survived the war and died in Antwerp in 1983.

Her sisters Sara Grodberg, Lea Roter, and Miriam Zemachovitch emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com

*The date of birth (June 7) in the passenger list seems incorrect. Also her first name was listed as Feiga, most likely her birth name. All other records have the secular Fanny instead.

Kominski, Rita
  • Rita Kominski
26.4.1915
Kratz, Fritz
  • Fritz Kratz
20.1.1909

Fritz Kratz was born on January 20, 1909.

He was incarcerated in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Orianenburg, from where he was released on December 24, 1938.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org

Krauthammer, Walter
  • Walter Krauthammer
  • Ze'ev Krauthammer
  • ולטר קראוטהמר
  • זאב קראוטהמר
28.1.1912
[Velbert]
[Stateless]

Walter Krauthammer (later: Ze'ev Krauthammer) was born on January 28, 1912, in Velbert, near Düsseldorf, the son of Abraham Adolf Krauthammer, a merchant, and Cipa Malka (Cilli) Dier, both originally from Eastern Galicia. He had three brothers, Max, Leo and Heinz. A year after his birth, the family moved to nearby Bottrop. His brother Leo died in 1919, at the age of four.

Walter's father, Adolf Abraham Krauthammer, had come to Germany in 1902. He fought in WW1 in the Austro-Hungarian army and was naturalized in 1923. A merchant, first with an egg trade and later with a furniture store, his business went bankrupt during the Great Depression of 1932 and later could only be continued on a modest scale by his wife.

As a young man, Walter worked in a clothing store, until the implementation of the Nazi racial laws. In 1936, he became "stateless" following the revocation of the family's German citizenship by the National Socialist regime.

On April 15, 1936, Walter went to the Gut Winkel Hachshara in Spreenhagen, where he took part in an agricultural course to prepare for immigration to Palestine. In May 1939, he joined (or was?) in the Schniebinchen Hachshara of the Habonim youth movement. From there he made his way to Antwerp more than 500 miles away and boarded the Dora in mid-July.

Walter changed his name to Ze'ev. He married Hilde Bauer, another Dora passenger and the couple had two children.

Ze'ev (Walter) Krauthammer died in January 1980 in Hazafon.


On the day of the Jewish boycott of April 1, 1933, Walter's father was forced by the Nazis to walk through the streets with a sign that read "I am a Jewish pig", then was locked up in jail with his son Max. Following the pogrom night of 9/10 November 1938, he was taken into "protective custody" and imprisoned in the police jail. After his relase, in poor health, Adolf Krauthammer lived on Jewish welfare. He died on January 13, 1941.

Walter's mother, Cilli, suffered under the Nazi regime not only from racial persecution as a Jew and a Pole, but also became the victim of the National Socialist euthanasia program. After falling ill with chronic encephalitis in 1937, she was considered "unworthy of life" and was taken to a sanatorium on September 21, 1940, where she was most likely murdered by gas on the same day.

Walter's youngest brother, Heinz Krauthammer, was deported on January 27, 1942 at the age of 17 to the Riga Ghetto. He was transferred in August 1943 to the Kaiserwald concentration camp in Riga. Ahead of the advancing Russian Army, he was evacuated in August 1944 to the Stutthof concentration camp near Danzig, then a few days later to Buchenwald. On September 16, 1944, he was taken to the "Bochumer Verein" forced labor camp. On March 21, 1945, he was transported back to the Buchenwald main camp. In all probability Heinz Krauthammer died before the liberation of Buchenwald by American troops on April 11, 1945, at the age of 21, possibly in a death march to Flossenbürg or Dachau.

Walter's oldest brother, Max Krauthammer, fled Germany without a passport at the end of June 1933. He reached France illegally via Holland and Belgium. After a Zionist-inspired agricultural retraining course, he arrived in Palestine in September 1934.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.ushmm.org
www.ancestry.co.uk.
Stolpersteine (text by Heike Biskup)
www.riga-komitee.eu (PDF)
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
www.myheritage.com

Kugelmass, Max
  • Max Kugelmass
  • Karl Max Kugelmass
  • מקס קוגלמס
30.9.1910
[Leipzig]

Max Kugelmass was born September 30, 1910, in Leipzig, the son of Hulda (Hudia Chaja Chaje) Kugelmass (born Rosner), originally from Toraky, Romania (now Ukraine). His father may have been Yitzhak Hilsenrath Kugelmass. He had three siblings: Joseph (1900), Toni (Rachel) (1903), and David (1905).

At the time of the German Minority Census from May 17, 1939, he was 28 and lived in Leipzig with his mother, a widow. Both of them had their emigration destination listed as Belgium.

Max left Leipzig and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora.

Max was enrolled in the R.A.F from 1940 to 1946. He was married to Devorah (Dora) and lived in a moshav, Kfar Sirkin, since 1947. The couple had a daughter.

Max Kugelmass died between 1979 and 1984.


His mother, Hulda Hilsenrath nee Rozner, emigrated to Belgium. She was murdered in Aveyron, France, according to her son's page of testimony.
His brother, Joseph Hilsenrath Rosner, was murdered in the Shoah.
His sister, Toni (Rakhel) Breslerman, emigrated to France. She was murdered in the Shoah.
His brother, David Hilsenrath, was deported to Sachsenhausen and was murdered in the Shoah.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.geni.com (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother)

There is a some confusion around the family's name. Max appears as "Kugelmass" on the passenger list and used that name to sign his Yad Vashem testimony pages. However, he used "Hilsenrath" for his mother and siblings, suggesting that he might have been a half-brother from a different father. However, there is another, presumably related, family in Leipzig by the same double name "Hilsenrath-Kugelmass". It is possible then that his mother had been married only once, to Yitzhak Hilsenrath-Kugelmass.

Kuschnerow, Rosel
  • Rosel Kuschnerow
16.11.1920
Lampen, Hermann
  • Hermann Lampen
  • Zvi Shalhavi
  • צבי שלהבי
19.5.1919
[Dresden]

Hermann Lampen (later: Zvi Shalhavi) was born in Dresden on May 19, 1919, the son of David Aba (Abraham) Lampen, originally from Romania, and Betty (Batia), née Schneck (Minority Census has: "Lekach"), a nurse, originally from Budapest, Hungary. He had two sisters, Zill Cecili (1917) and Esther (1920).

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, he lived in Dresden with his parents, David Lampen (62) and Betti Lampen (45). Victor Klemperer briefly mentions Hermann Lampen's departure in his diary:

"With difficulty he managed to escape from Germany; in June 1939 he went to Palestine."

Hermann Lampen married Judit Else Hannes. He later changed his name to Zvi Hermann Shalhavi and lived in Beit Yitzhak-Sha'ar Hefer, a moshav in HaSharon. The couple had three children.

Zvi Shalhavi (Hermann Lampen) died in Beit Yitzhak-Sha'ar Hefer in June 1997, at the age of 78.


Hermann's parents, David and Betty Lampen had to move into the "Judenhaus" on Zeughausstraße in Dresden. In the same building lived Victor Klemperer and his wife Eva. Klemperer would later publish his war diaries, which included a couple of brief mentions about Mrs. Lampen. On July 10 1942, he wrote: "Yesterday, in addition to the transport of old people for Theresienstadt, a new evacuation of those capable of working was announced: seventeen people in their forties and fifties, including Lampen, the nurse, who came to look after Frau Pick, and whose father was recently sent to Theresienstadt, will be transported to Poland on Monday night."

Zvi Herman's mother, Betty Batia Lampen, was murdered in Auschwitz in 1942.
His father, David Aba Lampen, was murdered in Auschwitz in May 1944.

His two sisters, Zill Cecili Salomon and Esther Cohn, emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.geni.com
Victor Klemperer's Diary: Leidensgefährten 1933-1945 (Companions in suffering 1933-1945)

Landy, Alfred
  • Alfred Landy
15.8.1920

Alfred Landy was born August 15, 1920, in Berlin, the son of Chaje Gittel Gusti (Guste) Landy (née Goldenthal), originally from Brody (Poland), and Joachim Haim Nachman Landy (unconfirmed). He had (at least) one sister, Ruth (1922).

Alfred Landy's name appears in two separate entries of the German Minority Census from May 1939. According to the first one, he was living with his mother Guste Landy (49), and his sister Ruth Landy (16) in Berlin, Friedrichshain. According to a second entry, he was living in Beeskow-Storkow, Spreenhagen, where the Gut Winkel Hachshara was located, about 30 kms south of Berlin.

Alfred Landy left Gut Winkel (or Berlin) and came to Antwerp between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora.


Alfred's mother, Guste (Gusti) Landy, was deported to Riga on October 19 1942. She was murdered on arrival three days later on October 22 1942.

Alfred's young sister, Ruth Landy, emigrated to Palestine on June 19 1939 at the age of 17, presumably with Aliyat Hano'ar (Youth Aliya). She later married Max Mitt and lived in Rishon LeZion.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
gen.rlzm.co.il

Langsam, Elsa
  • Elsa Langsam
11.8.1912

Elsa Langsam was born August 11, 1912, in Cologne.

At the time of the May 1939 German Minority Census, she lived Hamburg, Blankenese.

She left Hamburg and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939. From there she later boarded the Dora.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Lazar, David
  • David Lazar
  • David Leon Lazar
25.10.1915

David Leon Lazar was born on October 25, 1915, in Banila, Romania, the son of Abraham and Mantie (Minah?) Lazar. His father, a merchant, was originally from Kolomea (Kolomyia) (Galicia, then Poland, now Ukraine) and his mother, a homemaker, was from Banila. He had one sister, Fanny (1912). The family moved to Vienna in 1916.

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Lehmann, Walter
  • Walter Lehmann
18.11.1896
Levy, Marie
  • Marie Levy
  • Marion Levy
  • Marie Abraham
31.5.1920

Marie Levy (later: Marie Abraham) was born May 31, 1920, in Berlin, the daughter of Samuel Levy and Rosa Adeimann (Adcimann ?), both originally from Constantinople (Istanbul).

At the time of the Germany Minority Census in mid-May 1939, she lived in Berlin with her parents, Samuel Levy (50) and Rosa Levy (48). Marie was 18 years old.

Marie left Berlin and came to Antwerp at some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where she boarded the Dora for Palestine.

She married Hans Heinz Abraham in December 1939 in Kfar Sava and the couple had a daughter in 1942. The couple separated in 1943. In June 1947, her ex-husband filed a naturalization application in which he declared:

"I was married to Marie Abraham, née Levy [...] . She came illegally to Palestine. A child was born to us [...] . I divorced the wife on the 30.5.43. She left Palestine approx. 1945 to Greece. I have no knowledge of the whereabouts at present. [...] Wife had German passport before arriving in Palestine illegally but was taken of her on the ship by the ship leader."

Her husband died in May 1948 in the battle of Latrun.

No further information is available about Marie Levy.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.archives.gov.il

Lewin, Marie
  • Marie Lewin
  • Miriam Lewin
  • מרים וולף
  • מרים לוין
21.6.1913

Marie Lewin née Marie Wolff (later: Miriam Lewin), was born on June 21, 1913, in Bad Warmbrunn, the daughter of Max Wolff, a bank manager, and Katharina Kaethe Wolff (born Moses). Marie had one brother, Klaus (1919).

Marie Lewin was a mathematics and English teacher at the Jüdische Gymnasium in Breslau.

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 17, 1939, she lived in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) with her husband Richard Lewin (35). She was 25.

Marie and her husband Richard left Breslau and came to Antwerp sometime betwen mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where they boarded the Dora.

In Israel she adopted the name Miriam Lewin. There she continued to teach mathematics.

Miriam (Marie) Lewin died in April 1964 in Jerusalem.


Her father Max Wolff died on November 27 1938 in the Buchenwald concentration camp. The official cause was uremia, according to the camp physician and SS Untersturmführer, Dr. Erwin Ding. (Ding conducted extensive medical experiments on some 1,000 inmates, many of whom lost their lives.)

Her mother, Katharina Kaethe Wolff was deported on March 4 1943 to Auschwitz where she was murdered.

Her brother Zvi Klaus Wolff emigrated to England. He later emigrated to Israel and lived in Kibbutz Hazorea.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Obituary)
yvng.yadvashem.org
billiongraves.com

Lewin, Richard
  • Richard Lewin
  • Reuven Lewin
  • ראובן לוין
28.1.1904

Richard Lewin (later: Reuven Lewin) was born January 28, 1904, in Pogorzela, a very small town in the province of Posen (now Poland), the son of Adolf Aron Lewin and Cecylia (Cäcilie, Zilla, Cilia, Cilly) Sandberg. He had two siblings, Erich (1902), and Irma Lewin (1908).

Richard received a Jewish education in Breslau and then in the Jewish teacher seminar in Cologne. He later was employed as a teacher at the Breslauer Jüdische School, where he presumably met his future wife Marie Wolff, a mathematics and English teacher. He belonged to the Ezra youth group where he was a leader.

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 17, 1939, Richard Lewin lived in Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) with his wife Marie Lewin.

Richard and his wife Marie left Breslau and came to Antwerp sometime betwen mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where they boarded the Dora.

In Jerusalem he worked as a teacher at the "Beth Hayeleth", and later became the director of the school.

Reuven (Richard) Lewin died in Jerusalem in 1962.


Richard's father, Adolf Aron Lewin died on May 28 1941 in Breslau. His name is not listed on Yad Vashem.

The fate of his mother, Cecylia Lewin is not known.

His brother, Erich Lewin, was incarcerated in Buchenwald in December 1938. Erich Eliezer Tzvi Lewin later emigrated to Palestine and lived in Tel Aviv.
His sister, Irma Sheindel Freund, also emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Obituary)

Littauer, Else
  • Else Littauer
23.7.1908

Else Littauer was born on July 23, 1908.

Else Littauer boarded the Dora with her husband Jakob Littauer. The couple left their Jutta Littauer daughter behind in Germany because young children couldn't travel on "illegal" ships. The Littauers identified as "Hebrew-Christians".

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Littauer, Jakob
  • Jakob Littauer
15.7.1904

Jakob Littauer was born on July 15, 1904.

Jakob Littauer boarded the Dora with his wife Else Littauer. The couple left their daughter Jutta Littauer behind in Germany because young children couldn't travel on "illegal" ships. The Littauers identified as "Hebrew-Christians".

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Loewenstein, Herbert
Herbert Loewenstein (Zvi Avnon)
  • Herbert Loewenstein
  • Herbert Löwenstein
  • Zvi "Levy" Avnon
  • Zvi (Levi) Avnon
  • צבי (לוי) אבנון
21.4.1921

Herbert Loewenstein (later: Zvi Avnon) was born on April 21 1921 in Cologne, the son of Hugo Loewenstein and Elsa Lion. His father, who did not define himself as a Jew, had inherited a business and during the inflation the business went bankrupt. His father could not recover and died when Herbert was only 7 years old. In 1928 Herbert and his sister Irene moved to the the city's Jewish orphanage "Abraham-Frank-Haus" where they received a modern Jewish and Zionist education.

Starting at the age of ten, the children of the orphanage went on trips and activities organized by members of the pioneering Zionist youth groups. It was his first introduction to pioneering and Zionism. In 1933, Herbert and his sister received a modern Jewish and Zionist education in a boarding school.

At the age of 14 he moved to the Beit Halutz residence where he met some of his future friends and learned the plumbing trade. In the evening he studied Judaism and Hebrew and completed his general education. He was an outstanding sprinter in the youth team in the 4x100 meter relay race, and his team won the Maccabi championship time and time again.

Despite his good professional preparation, Herbert and his friends were not able to get a certificate from the British Mandate government to immigrate to Palestine. Instead, thanks to the Haganah emissaries, he was able to board the Dora with his friends. On the 30th anniversary of the Dora, he recalled the stopover on the Turkish coast:

"Close to the shores of Eretz Israel, while waiting for permission to land, it became clear that there was not enough drinking water. Therefore, the ship sailed to the coast of Turkey, where it received drinking water, which arrived in an open boat, with the sailors standing in water up to their buttocks while rowing to the ship. The water tasted accordingly."

After his arrival, Herbert and his group joined Kibbutz Givat-Haim. Rather than go as a work party to Ra'anana, he decided to leave and helped found Kibbutz Galed.

In Israel Herbert changed his name to Zvi Avnon. He married Hanna (Hannelore) Kahn, a Holocaust survivor, and the couple had two daughters, Hadva and Ziva.

Zvi Avnon (Berbert Loewenstein) died in May 1992, aged 71.


His mother, Elsa Löwenstein, was murdered on February 14 1941 in the Hadamar killing centre as part of the Nazi euthanasia program.

His sister, Irit (Irene) Ronen, (presumably) emigrated to Israel.

Sources:
www.galed.org.il
www.myheritage.com (mother)
Ora Benami (2024)
Zvi Avnon's reminiscence about the Dora cited from the Gilad newsletter, August 22, 1969, courtesy of Ora Benami. (2024).

Loewenstein, Kurt
  • Kurt Loewenstein
  • Curt Löwenstein
8.5.1902

Kurt Loewenstein was born May 8, 1902, in Chemnitz, the son of Max Moses Loewenstein and Lise Elisa Michaelis. He had two siblings, Erna (1899) and Lotte (1908).

Kurt Loewenstein was incarcerated in Buchenwald (prisoner 23210), presumably following the November Pogrom.

At the time of the German Minority Census of May 1939, he lived in Chemnitz with his parents, Elisa Löwenstein (69) and Moses Löwenstein (68). He was 36 years old and single. His emigration destination was listed as Palestine.

Kurt Loewenstein left Chemnitz and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.


Kurt Loewenstein's father, Max Moses Loewenstein, was incarcerated in Buchenwald. He died in July 1939 in Chemnitz.
His mother, Lise Elisa Löwenstein, was deported to Theresienstadt where she died in December 1942.
His sister, Erna Rost and her husband died in 1942 in the Shoah.
His sister, Lotte Löwenstein, was murdered in Auschwitz on December 21 1942.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
collections.arolsen-archives.org
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)

Mahler, Sigismund
  • Sigismund Mahler
  • Sigi Mahler
  • Shimon Mahler
  • שמעון מלר
18.6.1915

Sigismund Mahler (Sigi, later Shimon Mahler) was born on June 18, 1915, in Duisburg*, Germany, the son of Zeev and Hana Mahler. [*other sources have: Den Haag, Netherlands].

Sigi Mahler joined the Dror youth movement in Antwerp in 1933. Starting in early 1939, he took an active part in organizing the departure of members of the Hechalutz movement from Antwerp aboard the Dora.

Shimon Mahler took two photos aboard the Dora included on this page.

After arriving in Palestine, he took part in the founding of Kibbutz Beit Oren. In October 1942, he enlisted in the British Army, later joining the Jewish Brigade.

In 1946, he came to the Netherlands as a representative of the United Kibbutz Movement (HaKibbutz haMeuchad, and represented the organization abroad until 1967.

He was married to Hetty Cohen and the couple lived in Beit Oren.

Shimon Mahler died in January 1997 in Kibbutz Beit Oren at the age of 81.

Sources:
Ghetto Fighters House Archive
billiongraves.com
www.jwmww2.org

Malz, Emil
  • Emil Malz
2.10.1915
[Przeworsk]
[Polish]

Emil Malz was born October 2, 1915, in Przeworsk in Austrian Galicia (after 1918, Poland).

Emil Malz belonged to Maccabi Hatzair and began his Hachshara on January 4, 1938, presumably in Gut Winkel Hachshsara, in Post Spreehagen. His residence then was Saarbrücken.

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, Emil Malz' residence was listed as Beeskow-Storkow, Spreenhagen near Berlin, meaning he was training in the Gut Winkel Hachshara.

Emil Malz left Spreenhagen and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Mamlok, Rosa
  • Rosa Mamlok
23.4.1905

Rosa Mamlok was born April 23, 1905 in Zerkow, Prussia (later: Poland).

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, she lived in Breslau (Wrocław).

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Margules, Erna
  • Erna Margules
18.3.1915
Marx, Klara
  • Klara Marx
19.10.1919
Mendel, Willi
Willi Mendel

1946

  • Willi Mendel
  • Zeev Mendel
  • וילי זאב מנדל
13.6.1920
[Wronke]
[German]

Willi Mendel (later: Zeev Mendel) was born June 13, 1920, in Wronke (Prussia until 1919; today: Wronki, Poland), the son of Simon Mendel, a merchant originally from Stralkowo, and Johanna (Chana) Cohen. Willi had one brother, Mordechai Gunter (1915), and two older half-brothers: Herbert (1907) and Kurt (1909).

Willi Mendel lived in Berlin in the 30s.

In January 1937, Willi Mendel joined the Havelberg Hachshara where he remained for 10 months until October 1937. He then went to the Urfeld Hachshara near Bonn. He later left Germany and came to Antwerp from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

He married Rachel Rosa (Rozel) Yager.

Willi Mendel joined the British Army (Palestine Regiment) in June 1941 at Sarafand, and served for over five years, until his demobilization in August 1946.

That same month, he filled out a citizenship application to regularize his situation with the British authorities. By then he had adopted the name Zeev Mendel.

He declared that he had entered Palestine in July 1939 via Haifa (sic) with the Dora; ("Not intercepted" was duly noted).

He was married to Rahel, née Yager, and had a young child. He lived in Raanana and was part of the "Hagarin" squad. (The work brigade called "HaGarin Ra'anana" [Ra'anana Core Group] was founded in Ra'anana in 1939 by a group of members of the HaBonim Movement. The core group members, headed by Giora and Senetta Yoseftal, aspired to establish a kibbutz for German-born immigrants, and in 1945 they founded Kibbutz Gal'ed - today called Even Yitzhak.)

Zeev (Willi) Mendel died in January 2007 in Nahariya.


Willi's parents, Simon and Hana Mendel were deported from Berlin on March 1 1943 to Auschwitz where they were murdered.

His half-brother, Herbert Mendel, was murdered in the Holocaust.

His brother Mordechai Mendel emigrated to Palestine.

His half-brother, Kurt Mendel, seems to have emigrated to Sweden.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org www.myheritage.com
www.archives.gov.il

Milich, Meusche
  • Meusche Milich
  • (Moshe Milich ?)
  • (Max Milich ?)
3.4.1914
[Rava*]

Assuming that Meusche Milich (Moshe) is Max Milich, born April 3, 1914, in Rewa, Poland.

He attended a Hachshara training facility in Germany (location and dates unknown).

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, Max Milich resided in Schniebinchen (now Świbinki, Poland), indicating he was attending the Schniebinchen Hachshara affiliated with Habonim.

Milich left Schniebinchen and came to Antwerp sometime between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

There is a grave for a Moshe Milich (משה מיליך) born in 1914 in the Kfar Sava cemetery. He was the son of Abraham Milich, was married, had children, grandchildren, and one brother. He died in 1986. A second inscription is in memory of his family members who died in the Shoah.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.ushmm.org
billiongraves.com

Mirowski, Nathan
  • Nathan Mirowski
  • Nathan Miron
  • נתן מירון (מירובסקי)
3.4.1916

Nathan Mirowski (later: Nathan Miron) was born April 3, 1916, the son of Zeidel (or Yehuda?) Mirovsky and Zissel Sophie, née Bluestein. His place of birth, or the place of origin of his parents is not known. There is also no information on any potential siblings.

In the 1930s he lived in Brussels and joined the Gordonia movement. There he met his future wife, Tsameret Nashelsky. After two years, Nathan and Tsameet went to hachshara together and waited for the opportunity to immigrate to Eretz Israel. They were married in Brussels in the spring of 1939, and boarded the Dora together a few months later from Antwerp.

Natan and Tzameret first joined the Sharon group. At the end of World War II, Natan was sent to Europe on a mission for the Mossad le Aliya Bet to help gather and rehabilitate children and youngsters, and prepare them for immigration to Israel. He returned home after nearly two years.

In 1954, Natan and Tzameret moved to Kibbutz Yifat where they lived with their three children.

Nathan Miron (Mirowski) died in February 1991.

Sources:
www.yifat.org.il
billiongraves.com

Mirowski, Zypra
  • Zypra Nashelsky (Nasielski?)
  • Tsameret Nashelsky (Nasielski?)
  • Zypra Mirowski
  • Tsameret Mirowski
  • Tsameret Miron
  • צֶשָׁה נשלסקי
  • צמרת מירון (נשלסקי)
30.5.1916

Zypra Mirowski (née Nashelski, or Nasielski; later: Tsameret Miron) was born May 30, 1916, in Włocławek (Poland), the second daughter of Haim Nashelski and Rona (Renah? Rene?) née Wolf. She had one sister, Hadassah, and two younger brothers, Arieh and Dov.

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Mitelberg, Eliezer
  • Eliezer Mitelberg
19.1.1916
Neufeld, Richard
  • Richard Neufeld
16.5.1912
[Vienna]

Richard Neufeld was born May 16, 1912, in Vienna, the son of Benzion Neufeld, originally from Tluste (now Tovste, Ukraine) and Sara Weinstock, originally from Wertelka. He had five siblings: Rossel (Roza) (ca. 1898), Lisi (ca. 1902), Max (1906), Martha (1908) and Benyamin ().

Richard's parents first lived in Czortkow, Poland, (now Chortiv, Ukraine), where at least two of his older siblings were born, Rossel and Lisi. The family then came to Vienna in 1903. His father, Benzion Neufeld, died in 1935.

Richard's mother filled out an emigration application with the IKG (Vienna Jewish Community) on October 20, 1938. By then a widow, she included the names of three of her children: Rosa Roth, Lisi Dratler, and Richard. She noted that they were all unemployed and destitute. (By then, her daughter Martha already lived in Haifa.)

Richard Neufeld left Vienna and reached Antwerp sometime between November 1938 and July 1939. There are no files that indicate that he received help from the IKG to reach Belgium, but it's possible that they were involved in some way to send him there.

No further information.


Richard's mother, Sara Neufeld, was able to emigrate to Palestine with the help of the Vienna welfare office in in November 1938.
His sister, Martha Schwabl, emigrated to Palestine before the Anschluss.
His brother, Max Neufeld was able to flee to Shanghai in April 1939 with his wife.

The fate of his brother, Benyamin, as well as that of his sisters, Lisi Dratler and Rossel Roth, is not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna emigration)
www.geni.com (mother)

Neurath, Artur
  • Artur Neurath
17.4.1905
Nussbaum, Thekla
  • Thekla Nussbaum
  • Thekla Nußbaum
  • נוסבאום
26.12.1907*
26.12.1903

Thekla Nussbaum was born on December 26, 1903* in Mansbach, Germany, the daughter of Schafte Nussbaum, from the nearby village of Hohenroda, and Hanna Johanna (Hannchen) Nussbaum (born Heiser), from Breitenbach am Herzberg. She had seven siblings: Jakob (1893), Isidor (1895), Joseph (1897-1918), Gerda (1898), Franziska (1901), Bella (1907), and Karl (later Mordechai Egosi) (1910).

Mansbach, a village near Hünfeld in the Hesse region of 800 inhabitants at the time of Thekla's birth, had a flourishing Jewish community, representing 15% of the total population. The Nussbaum family had its roots in the region since at least the early 18th century. Her mother, Hannchen Nußbaum, co-headed the local Israelite Women's Association.

Thekla's brother Josef died fighting for Germany in March 1918. Her father died in 1927 and so did her mother in 1933.

At the time of the Minority Census in mid-May 1939, Thekla Nussbaum was registered in Tiergarten, in the center of Berlin.

Thekla Nussbaum left Berlin and came to Antwerp sometime between mid-May and early July 1939, from where she boarded the Dora.

Thekla married Erich [unknown las name].

No further details available.


Thekla's sister Bella was married to Alfred Graetz. The couple had made plans to emigrate to Palestine as early as August 1933 but never managed to leave Germany. Bella Graetz died in November 1939, two weeks after giving birth to her daughter, and was buried in the Jewish Cemetery Weißensee, Berlin. Her husband and her three-year-old daughter, Gittel Graetz, were deported to Auschwitz on February 3, 1943 where they were murdered.

Her brother, Jacob Nussbaum, was deported to Gurs in France and survived the war. He later emigrated to the USA.
Her brother Isidor emigrated to Brazil in 1939.

Her brother, Karl Nussbaum (later: Mordechai Egosi), emigrated to Palestine in April 1937 and lived in Kibbutz Ayelet Hashachar.

The fate of her sister, Franziska Zoller, is not known, but she is presumed to have lived in Strasbourg with her husband Lucien Zoller and may have survived the war, as there are no pages of testimony for her in Yad Vashem.
The fate of her sister Gerda Nussbaum is not known.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (1939 Minority Census)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother?)
www.alemannia-judaica.de (Mansbach)
www.stolpersteine-berlin.de

The Antwerp passenger incorrectly lists her being born in 1907. It is not clear if this was a mistake, or if she herself provided a different date.

Offen, Juljusz
  • Juljusz Offen
  • Julius Offen
  • Yehuda Offen
  • יהודה אופן
4.4.1922
[Hamburg]
[Polish]

Julius Offen (later: Yehuda Offen) was born April 4, 1922, in Hamburg (Altona), the son of Naftali Offen, from Zarszyn-Bochnia in Galicia (now Poland), and Taube, née Appelberg, from Bolszowce (now Bilshivtsi, Ukraine). He had one sister, Hanna (1924).

His parents came to Kiel in 1921 and Julius grew up in a Zionist home. His father sold men's and work clothing, initially in a basement apartment on Muhliusstrasse. In 1928 the family was able to move into an apartment on Adelheidstrasse and move the business to a shop in Schülperbaum. According to the Kiel community rabbi, Julius' father was "...a serious Jew, free in his thoughts and actions, who attended the synagogue on Shabbat, but also went about his business.". His son Julius would later explain in an interview:

"Most of the customers came on Shabbat. (...) If a Jew didn't open his shop Shabbat, he didn't just lose a day, he lost almost the whole week."

Julius Offen first studied in a gymnasium in Kiel, then, in reaction to the growing antisemitism of teachers in the school he had attended since 1932, his parents arranged for Julius to move to live with relatives in Hamburg in 1936. There he attended the Talmud Torah secondary school.

In October 1938, during the so-called Polenaktion, Julius Offen was deported from Hamburg to Zbąszyń on the Polish border.

Later that year, his parents who had emigrated to Antwerp after the November Pogrom, managed to organize the escape of their son Julius from Poland via Krakow and Prague to Antwerp. Thanks to his parents' planning, he was then able to board the Dora in July 1939 at the age of 17.

"Father promised me that he would send me to Palestine... and then I would also accommodate the family there."

In Eretz Israel, he first spent two years in Kibbutz Naan, where he joined the "Working and Learning Youth" training ("הנוער העובד והלומד") until 1941. He then enlisted in the British Army and served during World War II. He later participated in the War of Independence.

Julius changed his name to Yehuda Offen. He married Tova Gitla Arbisser in 1946 and the couple had a daughter.

After a stint in the IDF, he tried his luck in agriculture, clerical work, and diamond polishing, before finally becoming a journalist. From 1960 until 1980, he was a journalist and senior editor at "Al HaMishmar", the journal of Hashomer Hatzair. (At the top of the first page of every issue was the banner "For Zionism, Socialism and Brotherhood amongst Nations".)

A poet, songwriter, editor, journalist, translator and composer, Yehuda Offen published about ten volumes of poetry and about five collections of stories. He wrote songs, among them for the singer Aris San. He also translated books of the German author Erich Kastner (of "Emil and the Detectives" fame). In 1960 (2007) he won the Akum Award for Literature. In 1975 he completed a bachelor's degree from the University of London, and in 1977 a master's degree in comparative literature from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Yehuda (Julius) Offen died in April 1997 in Tel Aviv.


Two weeks after the pogrom of November 9, 1938, Julius' father, Naftali Offen, sold his business and emigrated to Antwerp with his wife and daughter. From there they helped organize the escape of Julius from Poland to Antwerp. His parents and sister then fled from Belgium and continued to France. They were arrested there at the end of August 1942 and taken to the Drancy transit camp at the beginning of September. Julius' parents, Naftali Offen (46), Taube Offen (46), and his sister, Hana Offen (17), were deported to Auschwitz on September 11, 1942 where they were murdered.

Sources:
www.ushmm.org
www.myheritage.com
he.wikipedia.org
www.kiel.de (Stolpersteine, Gunter Demnig, 2008, pdf)
heksherimlexicon.bgu.ac.il

Ohlhausen, Fritz
  • Fritz Ohlhausen
  • Fritz Ben Moshe Olhausen
  • פריץ בן משה אולהאוזן
2.9.1919

Fritz Ohlhausen was born September 2, 1919, in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), the son of Adolph Abraham Ohlhausen, a merchant originally from Neustadt, and Bertha Ohlhausen (née Fritz). He had one sister, Lisel (Zippora) (1921).

He lived in Berlin in the 1930s.

Nothing else is known about him.


His father Adolf Abraham Ohlausen died in 1940, murdered according to his daughter's testimony.

The fate of his mother Bertha Ohlausen is not known.

His sister, Zippora Frank (née Lisel Ohlhausen) emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.geni.com (Hebrew)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)

Peiper, Hans
  • Hans Peiper
8.7.1913*
[Stettin]

Hans Peiper was born July 8, 1913, in Stettin, Germany (now Szczecin, Poland), the son of Mordche (Markus Mordechai Mordekai) Peiper, a merchant, and Rosa Liebgol, both from Krakow. He had one brother, Ludwig (1909), and two sisters, Hani (1912) and Thea (1917).

Hans Peiper was incarcerated in Sachsenhausen on 15 Dec 1938.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, he lived in Stettin with his parents Mordche Peiper (63) and Rosa Peiper (53). Hans was 25 at the time and single.

Hans Peiper left Stettin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Hans Peiper did not start a family.

Hans Peiper died in Kusel, Germany, in March 1975, age 61. He is buried in Bad Kreuznach, suggesting that he was not simply traveling to Germany at the time of his death, but had moved back to Germany.


Hans Peiper's parents were deported from Stettin to the Piaski ghetto on February 13, 1940, along with over 800 Jews from Stettin in what was the first deportation of German Jews to Poland and marked the beginning of the "Final Solution" in Germany, almost one year before the Wannsee Conference.
His father, Mordche Peiper, died on March 5 1940 in either Piaski or Lublin.
His mother, Rosa Peiper, probably died in March 1942 when Jews from Stettin were removed from the ghetto to make room for new arrivals, disappearing in Trawniki or in Belzec.

His three siblings all emigrated to Palestine.
His brother, Ludwig (Lutz) Peiper, emigrated to Palestine in 1934 and died in Ramat Hasharon.
His younger sister, Thea Meyer, emigrated to Palestine in February 1936.
His sister, Hani (Heni, Hanna) Rindsberger, also emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.ushmm.org www.ics.uci.edu
blog.ehri-project.eu (Deportation from Stettin)
www.statistik-des-holocaust.de (Deportation from Stettin)

Perlmutter, Gizela
  • Gisela Lack
  • Gisela Perlmutter
  • Gizela Perlmutter
  • טובה-גיזלה פרלמוטר
8.1.1897

Gisela Perlmutter (née Lack) was born on January 8, 1897, in Krakow, Austria (now Poland), the daughter of Samuel Lack, a merchant from Krakow, and Anna Lack (born Winkler). She had two brothers, Adolf (1895), and Maurycy Henryk (1900). Her mother Anna died in 1917.

Gisela married Uscher Perlmutter, originally from Chernivtsi (now Ukraine), and the couple lived in Vienna since 1914. They had one son, Erich, born in 1927.

On May 3, 1938, less than two months after the Anschluss, Gisela's husband filled out an emigration application with the Welfare Headquarters of the Jewish Community in Vienna. A former insurance company employee, his monthly earnings were (or most likely had been) RM 212 - approximately $1630 in 2023 US currency. Unlike most people filling out these forms, he declared having "substantial" savings available for his emigration.

To the question "Where do you want to emigrate?", his answer was "anywhere". He listed two relatives abroad: a brother in Tel Aviv, and a cousin in Antwerp. Four relatives were listed in his application: his wife Gisela, described as a tradeswoman, their son Erich, his widowed mother, and Gisela's widowed father.

Gisela and her husband's names also appear in the "Reichsfluchtsteuer" ("Reich Flight Tax") - the expropriation of Jews fleeing Austria. (By June 1938, this tax was set to 90% of assets.)

In November 1938, Gisela's son Erich emigrated to Palestine at the age of 11. It is not known whether he was sent there under the auspice of Youth Aliyah, or thanks to an uncle in Tel Aviv. Gisela went to Antwerp sometime between May 1938 and July 1939. It is likely that she went there because she had relatives in Antwerp, and may have gone with her father. Her husband Uscher went to Shanghai.

Gisela boarded the Dora for Palestine in July 1939.

Gisela's son Erich fell in 1948 during the War of Independence, and, in 1952, Gisela-Tova left Israel and emigrated to the USA. Her destination was New York, presumably where one of her brothers lived.


Gisela's father, Samuel Lack, emigrated to Antwerp. He was later deported and murdered in 1943.

Gisela's son, Erich Aaron Perlmutter, emigrated to Palestine in November 1938. Enlisted in the Haganah, he fell in battle in 1948. He was 21 years old.

Her two brothers, Maurycy Henryk Lack, and Adolf Lack, emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Emigration Application)
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (Ellis Island)
www.myheritage.com (son's emigration to Palestine)
billiongraves.com (Erich Perlmutter)
www.myheritage.com (husband's visa application)
yadvashem.org (father)
www.geni.com (brother Adolf)

Protter, Hermann (Benno)
Benno Protter

1946

  • Hermann (Benno) Proter
3.1.1914
[Koln]

Hermann (Benno) Proter was born on January 3, 1914, in Cologne, the son of Lejzor Lippa (Eliezer, Leopold) Proter and Rosa (née Hochhaus). His father Lejzor was born in the then Austrian province of Galicia, and came to Cologne with his parents in 1900. Hermann had three siblings: Jakob (1911), Joseph (1918), and Selma (1921). The Proter family belonged to an Eastern Jewish Orthodox community. After the end of the First World War, Leopold Proter founded a factory for protective work clothing.

In the mid-1930s, Hermann's parents made sure that their children Jakob, Joseph and Selma left Germany. Benno Hermann and his father however did not leave and were deported on October 28, 1938, as part of the so-called Poland action to Zbaszyn. From there they managed to reach Gdansk (Danzig). They later boarded a ship to Holland, then reached Antwerp by train in January 1939. His father Leopold immigrated legally to Belgium, as evidenced by an immigration file dated 13 January 1939.

Hermann Benno boarded the Dora with his sister Selma Protter.

He married Hilde Liebeskind in 1944, and the couple had two children. They later emigrated to the USA.

Hermann Benno Proter died in 1979 (aged 65) in Texas.


Hermann's father, Eliezer Proter, remained in Antwerp. He died in July 1944 in a hospital in Antwerp.

Hermann's mother Rosa fled to Belgium. She was deported to Auschwitz in September 1942, where she was presumably murdered circa Sep 3 1942.

Hermann's siblings all survived the war:
His sister Selma came to Palestine with him on the Dora.
His eldest brother Jakob Proter emigrated to Palestine in 1936.
His younger brother Joseph (later Joseph "Yubshen" Porat) managed to emigrate to Switzerland in 1937 and from there came to Palestine in 1942.

Sources:
myheritage.com
Stolpersteine in Cologne
Shlomit Proter (2020)

Protter, Selma
Selma Protter

1946, courtesy Shlomit Proter

  • Selma Proter
  • Shulamit Cohen
  • שולמית כהן
6.4.1921
[Koln]

Selma Proter (later: Shulamit Cohen) was born on June 4, 1921, in Cologne, the daughter of Lejzor Lippa (Leyzer, Leopold) Proter and Rosa (née Hochhaus). Selma had three brothers: Jakob (1911), Hermann (1914), and Joseph (1918).

Selma left Germany in the mid-1930s. She boarded the Dora with her brother Hermann Benno.

She changed her name to Shulamit Kohen


Selma's mother Rosa was deported to Auschwitz in September 1942 where she was murdered. Her father Lejzor died on July 29, 1944, in a Belgian hospital.

Her brothers all survived the war. Jakob Proter emigrated to Palestine in 1936. Joseph (later Joseph "Yubshen" Porat) managed to emigrate to Switzerland in 1937 and from there came to Palestine in 1942. Hermann Benno was a passenger on the Dora.

Sources:
Stolpersteine in Cologne
yadvashem.org
Shlomit Proter (2020)

Rachwalsky, Gerhard
  • Gerhard Rachwalsky
25.2.1912

Gerhard Rachwalsky is mentioned in Alfred Jordan's testimony:

"[Gerhard Rachwalsky] was with us all the time in Germany together [in the Urfeld Hachshara], he had a nickname - "Potchke".

"He was a relatively young, had a doctorate in chemistry, he was one of our leaders, quite a nice guy."

According to Alfred Jordan, Gerhard Rachwalsky continued to lead the group in Antwerp.

Rauner, Hugo
  • Hugo Rauner
  • הוגו ראונר
10.2.1915
[Hargesheim]

Hugo Rauner was born on February 10, 1915, in Hargesheim, the son of Arthur Rauner, from Rheinböllen, and Augusta née Posner, from Kippenheim. He had three siblings: Walter (Michael) (1912), Erika (1921). and Wolfgang (Wolf, later Ze'ev) (1927).

The Rauner family was one of only three Jewish families in Hargesheim, a village with less than 900 inhabitants at the turn of the century. Hugo's father had taken over his father's grocery store. A sports enthusiast, he was a founding member of the town's gymnastics and sports club and was elected its first chairman.

After Kristallnacht, the family moved to Bad Kreuznach, and his parents, realizing the danger facing the family, started working to save their children. They sent their youngest son Wolfgang, who was 10 years old, to his aunt in France, from where he would later reach Israel. Their three other children would all emigrate to Palestin via different ways.

Hugo Rauner left Germany in 1938 after the November Pogrom and came to Belgium. A year and a half later, he boarded the Dora from Antwerp.

Hugo married Ruth Strauss, and the couple had a daughter. The family lived in Netanya where Hugo worked in the ornamental farm (חוות הנוי), a demonstration and training center for ornamental plant horticulture.

Hugo Rauner died in 1997 in Netaniya, Israel.


Hugo's parents, Arthur and Augusta Rauner, were transported in 1942 to Theresienstadt then deported to Auschwitz where they were murdered.

Hugo's three siblings, Walter (Michael) Rauner, Wolfgang (Zeev) Rauner, and Erika Stern emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
xnet.ynet.co.il
www.haaretz.com (Testimony of Osnat Lester, Hugo's daughter)
www.alemannia-judaica.de
www.ushmm.org

Rechtschaffen, Jakob
  • Jakob Rechtschaffen
  • Yaakov Rechtschaffen
  • יעקב רכטשפן
13.4.1922

Jakob Rechtschaffen (later: Yaakov Rechtschaffen) was born April 13, 1922, in Stanislawow (or Stanisławów Voivodeship), Poland (now Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine). He was the son of Hermann Hirsch Tzvi Rechtschaffen, a merchant originally from Sliwki, Galicia, a village in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, and Rachela, née Spiegel, originally from Landestreu, another village in the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. He had a younger sister, Dora (Dvora), born in 1926 in Homberg, in the Duisburg district.

The family left Stanislawow and came to Homberg sometime after 1922, then to Duisburg, after the birth of his sister 1926.

Jakob Rechtschaffen left Duisburg and came to Antwerp, from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

In Eretz Israel Yaakov Rechtschaffen married Miriam (last name unknown). The couple lived in Holon and had (at least) one son.

Yaacov Rechtschaffen died in November 2007 in Holon.


Yaacov's parents, Hermann Hirsch (Tzvi) Rechtschaffen and Rachel Rechtschaffen, and his sister, Dora (Dvora) Rechtschaffen, were deported to Zbąszyń (Bentschen) in Poland on October 28, 1938. They were later deported to Kalusz and then to the Stanislawow Ghetto. They were murdered, either in Stanislawow or in Belzec.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com
www.myheritage.com
yadvashem.org (father)
yadvashem.org (mother)
yadvashem.org (sister)

Reifer, Toni
  • Toni Reifer
  • Toni Bear
  • טוני ריפר
12.6.1916
[Leipzig]

Toni Reifer (later: Toni Bear) was born June 12, 1916, in Leipzig, the daughter of Shulam (Schalom) Reifer, from Storozynetz (Bukovina, now Ukraine), and Bertha Goldenzweig, from Lwow. She had two brothers, Josef (1911), and David (1913).

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, she lived in Leipzig with her mother Bella Reifer (61) and her brother Josef Reifer (27). Toni was 22 and planning to emigrate to Palestine.

Toni Reifer left Leipzig and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where she boarded the Dora for Palestine.

She married (unknown) Bear and later emigrated to the USA.

Toni Bear (Toni Reifer) died in November 1995 in Forest Hills.


Toni's mother Bertha (Bella) Reifer and her brother Josef Reifer were deported to Riga in January or February 1942, where they were murdered.
Toni's father, Shulam Reifer, was also a victim of the Shoah.

Toni's brother, David Reifer, emigrated to Palestine.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Josef Reifer)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Bella Reifer)
yvng.yadvashem.org (Shulam Reifer)

Reig, Simon
  • Simon Reig
  • שמעון רייג
11.1.1909

Simon Reig was born January 11, 1909, in Leipzig, Germany, the son of Mortko Max (Markus, Mordechai) Reig, a merchant, originally from Chocin in the Carpathian Mountains (Galicia, Poland, now Ukraine), and Dresel (Reizel) Reig (born Neumann) from Tarnov. He had two siblings, Rachel (Rosa) (1910) amd Kalman (1916).

Simon received a religious education. His younger brother Kalman, about whom more is known, was a member of the Youth Union of the Mizrachi Youth and then joined the Alliance of Religious Pioneers ("Bachad"). After undergoing a training course in a yeshiva in the city of Frankfurt, he would later go to agricultural training in Italy. Although no such information is available about Simon, one can assume that his path to Aliyah may have been somewhat similar and that he may have been affiliated with the Religious Zionist Mizrachi or Bachad group.

At the time of the German Minority Census taken in mid-May 1939, Simon Reig lived in Leipzig with his parents Mortko Max Reig (60) and Dresel Reig (59). Simon was single, 30 years old.

Simon left Leipzig some time between May and July 1939 and came to Antwerp from where he boarded the Dora.

In Palestine he changed his name to Shimon Reig. He lived in Kibbutz Maoz Haim.

Shimon Reig died in July 1953.


Simon's father, Mortko Max (Markus Mordechai) Reig and his mother, Reizel Reig, disappeared in the Shoah without leaving a trace.

His brother Kalman Reig emigrated to Palestine. He was killed by British soldiers on August 1 1947 in Tel Aviv during Anti-British riots.
Simon's sister, Rachel (Rosa) Soltes (born Reig), emigrated to Palestine.

Sources
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com
www.maozhaim-album.co.il
www.izkor.gov.il (brother)
www.tiratzvi.org.il (brother)
www.tiratzvi.org.il (father)

Roer, Kurt
  • Kurt Roer
  • Kurt Isaac Roer
31.1.1907
[Berg, near Landshut]

Kurt Isaac Roer was born January 31, 1907, in Berg near Landshut, in the Greater Munich area, the son of Moritz Roer and Selma Roer (née Marx). He had a sister, Ilse (1905). His father was a cattle and hop dealer in Landshut.

Kurt Roer was a member of the boxing club SC Bavaria in Landshut, and according to the 1936 Landshut address book, he was a livestock dealer together with his father Moritz.

Following the November 9/10 Kristallnacht Pogrom, Kurt Roer was held in the Landshut regional court prison, and was then incarcerated in the Dachau concentration camp on November 12, where he remained until his release on January 5th, 1939.

On March 1st, 1939, Kurt Roer left Landshut and came to the Gut Winkel Hachshara farm near Spreenhagen. At the time of the German Minority Census of May 1939, he was residing in Beeskow-Storkow, Spreenhagen and his place of emigration was recorded as the USA. It is not clear if this was indeed where he intended to emigrate, or simply incorrect information.

Kurt Roer left Spreenhagen and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora to Palestine.


Kurt's father, Moritz Roer (born November 18, 1870), died on October 20th 1936 in Landshut.

Kurt's mother, Selma Roer (born 08/16/1880, born Marx), fled to Porto Alegre in Brazil in 1939.

The fate of Kurt's sister Ilse is unknown.

Sources:
Yvonne Löken, Hans-Carossa-Gymnasium, Landshut.
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.alemannia-judaica.de (PDF)
www.alemannia-judaica.de

Rosenthal, Ernst
  • Ernst Rosenthal
10.12.1901
Rothschild, Charlotte
  • Charlotte Richheimer
  • Charlotte Rothschild
  • Charlotte Lieselotte Rothschild
  • שרלוטה רוטשילד (born ריכהיימר)
17.3.1915

Charlotte Lieselotte Rothschild (née Richheimer) was born March 17, 1915, in Dermbach, Thuringia, the daughter of Salomon (Shlomo) Rischheimer, and Clara Gutmann, his second wife. Charlotte had two half-sisters: Lisbeth "Elisabeth" (1906) and Gertrude (1910 - 1933), and three sisters: Dina (1916 - 1934), Sitta (1921), and Ilse (1928).

Charlotte's parents came from two small villages in Thuringia, her father from Aschenhausen, and her mother from nearby Andenhausen. They lived in Dermbach, a small town with four Jewish families. Her father was a shoemaker and had a shoe shop in Unteralba, a village close to Dermbach.

Charlotte was a seamstress and married Emil Rothschild in August 1937 in Tiefenort, a village near her hometown, where they lived until they fled Germany.

The couple came to Antwerp from where they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

At first they lived in a kibbutz. The couple had two children, a son and a daughter.

Charlotte Rothschild died in December 2008 in Ramat Gan.


Charlotte's parents, Salomon (Shlomo) and Klara Rischheimer, and her youngest sister, Ilse, emigrated to Palestine in September 1935. They lived in Kibbutz Naan.
Her sister, Sitta Aviva Wolf, emigrated in October 1935. She lived in Kibbutz Naan with her husband.
Two other siblings had emigrated to Palestine even earlier: her half-sister, Gertrude Richheimer, died in Palestine in 1933. Another sister, Dina Richheimer, also died in Palestine, in 1934.

Her half-sister, Elisabeth Ullmann, emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (parents naturalization)

Rothschild, Emil
  • Emil Rothschild
  • אמיל רוטשילד
17.3.1915*

Emil Rothschild was born September 3, 1909, in Grünsfeld, a village in Baden, Germany, the son of Siegfried (Simon) Rothschild, a merchant from Grünsfeld, and Rosa Bierig, from Edelfingen, Baden-Württemberg. He had seven siblings: Irma (1903), Bruno (1904), Max (1905), Rita (1906), Elly (1911), Justin (1915) and Klementine (1917).

Emil's father was a soldier during WW1, as evidenced by a portrait of him in uniform. He died in 1937 (1939 according to other sources).

Emil married Charlotte Richheimer in August 1937. The couple later left Germany and came to Antwerp, from where they boarded the Dora to Palestine.

The couple had two children.

Emil Rothschild died in December 1984 in Rishon LeZion.


Emil's mother, Rosa Rothschild, was deported from Baden to the Gurs internment camp in France in October 1940, where she perished in January 1941, presumably from typhus or dysentery.

His sister Irma Baer was deported to Auschwitz where she was murdered.

His brother Bruno Rothschild emigrated to Palestine in 1933 and lived in Kibbutz Givat Brenner.
His brother Justin Rothschild and his sisters Elly Rothschild and Klementine Heyne emigrated to Palestine and lived in Tel Aviv.

His brother Max Rothschild went to Paraguay in 1936, then immigrated to the United States in 1948.
His sister Rita Löwenberg emigrated to the USA in 1937.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
archives.cjh.org
collections.yadvashem.org
www.myheritage.com (father)

The date of birth on the Antwerp passenger list is incorrect. He didn't share the same birthdate as his wife Charlotte but was born on September 3, 1909.

Emil's name is one of only two names on the Antwerp with a pencil mark. I originally assumed this was an indication that he had not been able to board the Dora; this assumption is actually wrong since he came to Palestine with his wife Charlotte. It is not clear then what this mark meant.

Rymald, Adolf
  • Adolf Rymald
8.6.1921
Sachsenhaus, Philipp
  • Philipp Sachsenhaus
  • Pinchas Sachsenhaus
14.2.1912
[Munich]
[Polish]

Philipp Sachsenhaus (later: Pinchas Sachsenhaus) was born February 14, 1912, in Munich, the son of Markus Sachsenhaus and Rebekka Banda. He had a younger sister, Mathilde, born in 1917. His mother (and presumably his father) came from Galicia, and thus Philipp held Polish nationality.

Philipp Sachsenhaus was a salesman or salesclerk ("Verkäufer"). He was married to Irmgard Berkhausen (Miriam Sachsenhaus), another Dora passenger. At the time of the Minority Census, in May, 1939, the couple resided in Leipzig.

Born into a family of Polish descent, Philipp Sachsenhaus held Polish citizenship, which allowed him and his wife to leave Germany. They came to Antwerp and, on July 17, 1939, they boarded the Dora for Palestine.

The couple had a daughter. In Israel, Philipp changed his name to Pinchas Sachsenhaus.


His father had deregistered for Warsaw in 1933, suggesting a separation with his wife. His fate during the war is not known.

His mother Rebecca emigrated to Italy.
His sister Mathilde emigrated to the Netherlands and from there reached safety in England before the beginning of the war.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
spurenimvest.de

Sachsenhaus, Irmgard
  • Irmgard Berghausen
  • Irmgard Sachsenhaus
  • Miriam Sachsenhaus
17.5.1911
[Brake]

Irmgard Sachsenhaus, née Berghausen, (later: Miriam Sachsenhaus) was born May 17, 1911, in Brake near Bremen, the daughter of Robert Berghausen, a cattle dealer, and Bertha Grueneberg. She had two siblings: Julius (1908) and Ruth (1913).

Irmgard was an artisan, and she was married to Philipp (Pinchas) Sachsenhaus. By the time of the minority census on May 17, 1939, Irmgard and her husband Philipp still lived in Leipzig.

Irmgard and her husband Philipp Sachsenhaus boarded the Dora on July 17 in Antwerp.

Irmgard later changed her name to Miriam Sachsenhaus. The couple had daugher.

Miriam Sachsenhaus (née Irmgard Berghausen) died in Israel in 2006.


Her father, Robert Berghausen, died in 1941 in Hanover, possibly in the Jewish hospital.

Her mother, Bertha Berghausen née Grueneberg, was deported on July 31, 1942 to the Theresienstadt ghetto and from there to Treblinka on September 26 1942 where she was murdered.
Her brother, Julius Berghausen, was incarcerated in Buchenwald following Kristallnacht in November 1938. After his release he joined the Jewish Hachshara on Grüner Weg in Paderborn. He was deported with his wife Ursula Ardel and their infant daughter Tana to Auschwitz in the March 2, 1943 transport, along with other chaverim from the labor camps in Bielefeld and Paderborn. Upon arrival on March 4, their four-month-old daughter Tana was beaten to death by an SS soldier under the eyes of her horrified parents. According to a survivor testimony, an SS man smashed little Tana's head on a railway wagon upon arrival in Auschwitz. Julius Berghausen mas murdered in Auschwitz in March 1943, and, presumably, so was his wife.

Her sister Ruth Berghausen (later Ruth Stone) fled to England and survived the war.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
spurenimvest.de
www.myheritage.com

Sapierstein, Isaak
  • Isaak Sapierstein
  • Isaac Sapirstein
  • Yitzhak Sapirstein
  • יצחק ספירשטיין
5.2.1916
[Chemnitz]

Isaac Sapirstein (later: Yitzhak Sapirstein) was born February 5, 1916, in Chemnitz, the son of Josef Elstein, originally from Kherson (Ukraine), and Freida Sapirstein, originally from Sokolka (Poland). He had three siblings, Mirel (1913), Genda Debora (1914), and Sara Rebecka (1917). His father may have been a "Messianic Jew" - i.e. a Jew who believed in Jesus Christ, yet continued to see himself as a Jew and continued to celebrate Jewish customs. He died in 1925 when Isaac was 9 years old.

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, Isaac Sapirstein was a delicatessen merchant. He lived in Regensburg, and had been incarcerated in Dachau - presumably following the November Pogrom.

He left Regensburg and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, from where he boarded the Dora to Palestine.

Yitzhak Sapirstein married Mina Linden in Israel. The couple had two children and lived in Ramat Gan.

Yitzhak Sapirstein died in March 1992 in Israel.


Yitzhak's mother, Freida Sapirstein was deported to Auschwitz in 1943 where she was murdered.

Two of his sisters, Sara Rebecka Sapirstein and Genda Debora Perelman, emigrated to England.
His third sister, Mirel Mayer, died in 2003 in Berlin.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)

Segal, Lipa
  • Lipa Segal
29.1.1905
Segal, Srul
  • Srul Segal
10.2.1911
Simon, Adalbert
  • Adalbert Simon
26.7.1892

Adalbert Simon was born July 26, 1892, in Berlin.

Simon was one of the two oldest passengers on the Dora, and turned 47 during the crossing to Eretz Israel.

He married Bettina Hirsch in 1923 in Frankfurt. His profession was "Kaufmann" (merchant, shopkeeper). One of the witnesses was Fritz Simon, 28 years old, also a "Kaufmann", possibly a brother of his.

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, he lived in Berlin, Schöneberg (Münchener St. 23) with his wife, Bettina Simon. He was 46 years old.

On June 29, 1939, his marriage certificate was amended by the authorities in Frankfurt, adding "Israel" to his name, (and "Sara" to his wife's), following the "The Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names". It is not clear if this means that the couple was still in Frankfurt by that time, or if this was done in their absence.

Simon and Bettina Adalbert left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May 1939 and mid-July 1939, from where they boarded the Dora to Palestine.

Adalbert Simon died sometime before June 1947, as evidenced by Bettina's emigrant application. According to this document, he had been employed by the Government Department of Light Industry.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.archives.gov.il

Simon, Bettina
  • Bettina Hirsch
  • Bettina Simon
12.11.1901

Bettina Simon, née Hirsch, was born November 12, 1901, in Frankfurt.

Bettina married Adalbert Simon in June 1923 in Frankfurt. One of the two witnesses was Ludwig Hirsch, 22 years old, presumably a brother of hers.

At the time of the German Minority Census in mid-May 1939, the couple lived in Berlin, Schöneberg, (Münchener St. 23). She was 37, he was 46 years old.

On June 29, 1939, her marriage certificate was amended by the authorities in Frankfurt, adding "Sara" to her name, (and "Israel" to her husband's), following the "The Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names". It is not clear if this means that Bettina and Adalbert were still in Frankfurt by that time, or if this was done in their absence.

Bettina and Simon Adalbert left Berlin and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May (or after June 29 if they were present at the time their marriage certificate was updated) and mid-July 1939, from where they boarded the Dora to Palestine.

On May 30 1947, Bettina Simon filled out an emigrant registration application with the British Government of Palestine ("Application by a traveller for permission to remain permanently in Palestine") and was now a widow. She stated that her late husband had been employed by the government Deptartment of Light Industry, which she claimed to be ground for being registered as an emigrant. She lived in Tel Aviv, 23 Pinsker Street and did housework.

She stated having entered Palestine on August 12 1939 by sea. In another document ("Record of Traveller registered as an immigrant"), she listed her place of entry as Haifa. It is not clear if this was a forged document, or if it was possible to provide unverified information, presumably to appear as a legal emigrant.

An envelope from the Consulate General of Poland in Tel Aviv suggests that either Bettina's or her late husband' family originally came from Galicia, and that, although born in Germany, they were Polish citizens.

No further information is available.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.myheritage.com (Marriage)
www.archives.gov.il

A Ludwig Simon born in Frankfurt in August 1900 may have been her brother who was a witness to her wedding. He emigrated to Palestine.

Schaefer, Kurt
  • Kurt Schaefer
23.4.1915
Schaefer, Ester
  • Ester Schaefer
26.4.1916
Schieber, Schiffre
  • Schiffre Schieber
25.1.1910
Schlorch, Erich
Samuel Herzberg
  • Erich Schlorch
  • Eric Shore
12.11.1915
[Obbach]

Erich Schlorch (later: Eric Shore) was born on November 12, 1915, in Obbach, Bavaria, the son of Emil Schlorch, from Obbach, and Sophie, née Silbermann, from Walsdorf (Bavaria). He had one sister, Irma (1913).

Obbach was a village in Bavaria with a large Jewish population, making up 30% of the total population in 1850. In 1933 there were 106 Jewish citizens.

On November 10, 1938, the day after the November Pogrom, the Obbach synagogue was set on fire by the SA and burned to the ground. Jewish houses were devastated and their shops looted. Erich Schlorch was arrested on that day and sent to the Dachau concenttration camp.

At the time of the German Minority Census in May 1939, he was registered in Regensburg. Sometime between May and July, he left Germany and came to Antwerp from where he boarded the Dora for Palestine.

Erich Schlorch married Edith Maier in November 1947 and the couple had two children in Israel.

In April 1953, the family left Israel and emigrated to the USA. There, two more children were born, and the family changed their name to Shore.

Erich Shore (Schlorch) died in Chicago in January 1996.


Erich's parents, Emil and Sophie Schlorch, were deported from Würzburg on April 25, 1942, to Krasnystaw. They were then probably deported to Sobibor on the July 6, 1942, where they were murdered.

His sister Irma Gruen emigrated to the USA.

Sources:
geni.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.myheritage.com
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (father)

Schwarz, Bernhard
  • Bernhard Schwarz
5.11.1918

Bernhard Schwarz was born in Mátészalka, Hungary, November 5, 1918, the son of Josef Schwarz and Serena, née Klein. He had (at least) one brother, Moritz (1912).

In 1938, his brother, Moritz Schwarz, filled out emigration application with the Vienna Jewish Community (IKG). Born in Mátészalka, he had lived in vienna since 1932. The only relative he listed on this form was his brother, Bernhard, born November 5, 1918 in Mátészalka, who was a taylor's assistant. It is likely then that Bernhard too had emigrated to Vienna, and possibly lived wiht his brother.

Bernard Schwarz came to Antwerp, presumably from Vienna, sometime after the Anschluss (March 1938) and at the latest in early July 1939. From there he would board the Dora.

Bernhard later left Israel and emigrated to the USA as early as 1960. His name appears in the US with a few variations: Bernhard Dav Schwarz, and Bernhard H Schwarz. He was married and had two children.

Bernhard Schwarz died in West Palm Beach, Florida in 2007.


The fate of Bernard's brother, Moritz Schwarz, is not known, neither is the fate of their parents.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
www.legacy.com
www.myheritage.com (brother - Vienna)

Schwarz, Ester
  • Ester Schwarz
2.12.1918
Schwarz, Kaete
  • Kaete Schwarz
9.10.1912
Schwarz, Theodor
  • Theodor Schwarz
14.11.1916
[Chemnitz]

Theodor Schwarz was born November 14, 1916, in Chemnitz.

He lived in Mainz in the 1930s.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com

Sokolski, Karol
  • Karol Sokolski
  • Yaakov Sokolski
  • יעקב קרול סוקולסקי
14.2.1919

Karol Sokolski (later: Yaakov Sokolski) was born February 14, 1919, in Berlin, the son of Leiv and Miriam.

He was a Polish citizen and had been living in Regensburg since at least 1938. His profession was listed as "worker". At the time of the German Minority Census, on May 17, 1939, he lived in Regensburg on Weißenburgstrasse.

Karol Sokolski left Regensburg and came to Antwerp some time between mid-May and mid-July 1939, and from there boarded the Dora.

In Israel, he changed his name to Yaakov Sokolski (יעקב קרול סוקולסקי).

Yaakov (Karol) Sokolski died in February 2002, and is burried in the Yarkon Cemetery.

Based on the inscription on his gravestone, he had at least two children ("our dear father"), one sibling, and several grandchildren.

Sources:
www.mappingthelives.org
www.myheritage.com (German Minority Census)
www.heimatforschung-regensburg.de
www.myheritage.com
billiongraves.com

www.myheritage.com has Karol Sokolski's gender incorrectly as female.

According to a History of Jews in Regensburg, Karol Sokolski was deported from Regensburg to Poland on October 28, 1938 during the "Polenaktion". This is most likely incorrect, as he was still in Regensburg, according to the Minority Census seven months later, unless he was able to return to Germany momentarily.

Spiegel, Samuel
Shmuel Spiegel
  • Samuel Spiegel
  • Shmuel Spiegel
  • Shmuel "Moyle" Spiegel
  • שמואל שפיגל
2.10.1913*

Samuel Spiegel (later Shmuel "Moyle" Spiegel) was born on October 12, 1913, in Irshava, the son of Joseph (Yosef) Spiegel and Ronya, née Berger. The fourth child in a family of 11 [or 12?] children, he had 5 sisters and 5 [or 6?] brothers: Marek (Moshe) (1909), Isaac (1910), Ester (1911), Avraham (Bumi) (1915), Feigy (1917), Lea (1918), Beri Dov (1920), Malka (1921), Alex (1924), Helena (Henchi) (1926), and Ephraim Fishel (1928).

Irshava, a small town in the Carpathian mountains, had a large Jewish and Ruthenian population, with small Hungarian and Czech communities. Previously belonging to the Austro-Hungarian empire, it became part of Czechoslovakia after WW1 and is now in Ukraine.

Shmuel's family owned property and land, including a mountain named Spiegel Berg, an orchard, the only hotel in town, a movie theater, and a restaurant in which a Gypsy orchestra played. They built a large house, the longest in town. His father was a contractor with the Czech government for building schools and bridges in the province. He was also the master of the local train station - from which most of the family would presumably be taken to Auschwitz.

Shmuel's parents were religious, but fairly open-minded and liberal, and the language spoken at home was Hungarian.

Shmuel went to a German high school between ages 15-17, then to the Hebrew Academy in Munkacs ages 18-22 (1931-1935). He excelled at maths and spoke seven languages: Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, German, Hebrew, Yiddish and English.

He later joined ha-Shomer ha-Tzair, the Socialist-leaning Zionist movement, was a Madrich (counselor) and taught Hebrew.

In 1937, when he was 24 years old, Shmuel succeeded in convincing his father that the situation was getting worse, and that he should consent to let him go to Eretz Israel. He traveled in 1938 to Antwerp and waited his turn, while teaching Hebrew.

In Eretz Israel, Shmuel settled in Kfar Masaryk, a Kibbutz built by Czeck pioneers. He married Hela Geiger in October 1941 and the couple moved to Kibbutz ha-Zorea. They later left the kibbutz and first moved to Mt Carmel.

Shmuel Spiegel then enrolled in the Jewish Brigade and served as an officer in Benghazi. After his return, the family moved to Kiryat Hayim, and finally settled in Neve Sha'anan, Haifa. The couple had two children.

Shmuel Spiegel died in Neve-Sha'anan, Haifa, on October 17, 2000, 5 days shy of the age of 87.


Shmuel's parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, in-laws, cousins, and six of his siblings and their families, were killed by the Nazis.

His parents, Yosef and Ronya Spiegel, were murdered in Birkenau in May 1944.
His brother, Isaac (Itzik) Spiegel, was shot while hospitalized in Germany on February 3, 1943.
His sister, Lea Mauskopf, was murdered in May 1944 in Birkenau. (other sources: 1943).
His sister, Ester Yakobovitz, was murdered on May 25 1944 in Auschwitz.
His brother, Ephraim Fishel Spiegel, died in the "death march" from Auschwitz in January 1945. He was 16.

His brother, Avraham (Bumi) Spiegel, was sent to walk on a minefield and died while clearing mines, most likely having been drafted into a forced labor battalion on the Eastern front by the Hungarian army.

Shmuel's surviving siblings came to Eretz Israel between 1941-1948:
His brother, Alex (Shiku), and three sisters, Malchi (Malka) Spiegel/Braverman, Feigy (Tzipora) Spiegel/Steinberger, and Henchi (Helena) Spiegel/Farkash, were together in Auschwitz and survived. They emigrated to Israel after the war.
His brother Dov joined the Czech army during the war and came to Israel with the army, where he remained.
Shmuel's eldest brother, Marek (Moshe, Moyshe) Spiegel, came to Israel in the 70s but later returned to Germany.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother Avraham)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother Aaron Yitzhak)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother Ephraim)
Communication from Shmuel's daughter, Batsheva Ben-Amos (Jan 2024)

* The passenger list incorrectly has Octobter 2 instead of 12 as his date of birth.

Spitz, Walter
  • Walter Spitz
27.11.1908

Walter Spitz was born on November 27, 1908, in Vienna, the son of Hugo Spitz, from Frýdek-Místek (Czechoslovakia), and Sidonie, née Bäck, from Dukovany (Czechoslovakia). He had two brothers, Alfred (1905) and Paul (1906).

On June 15 1938, three months after the annexation of Austria by Germany (the "Anschluss"), Walter Spitz filled out an emigration application with the Emigration Department of the Welfare Headquarters of the Israelite Kultusgemeinde (IKG, Jewish Community) in Vienna. At the time, he was 29 years old and was married.

Under "Profession", Walter Spitz provided a long list of occupations: Seller of men's and women's wool fabrics, certified window dresser, typewriter mechanic, seller and manager in the typewriter sales and rental industry, specialist in liqueur production, distribution and serving, specialist in gift advertising and accessories, warehouse specialist and manager of the sale of wood and coal. He had received vocational training in a commercial school, a textile school, and a window dresser state school.

He stated: "I am currently in the worst financial situation, as I have to support my wife with unemployment benefits of RM 10 per week and I have no other income." As for his future plans, he wrote "I am willing to accept any kind of work." He left unanswered the question as to what funds he could contribute for his emigration, suggesting he had none.

His preferred destinations were Australia,New Zealand, Nordic States, English Dominions, U.S.A., South American States, (Palestine). He had made sure to underline his top choices, while (Palestine) was in parentheses - his very last choice.

Walter Spitz had no connections in any of the countries he wanted to emigrate to. The only relative he listed was his wife, Gerta Spitz, from Trebitsch (Třebíč, Czech Republic). She too listed multiple professions and skills: Saleswoman, accountant, correspondent, seven years of practice as manager, full-time economist, dietetic kitchen, glove seamstress and arts and crafts.

To the last question "Which of the above-mentioned members should emigrate now and which later?", he explained: "First Walter Spitz, then my wife, but if possible both at the same time."

It is not known how Walter Spitz ended up in Antwerp, and if this was organized by the Vienna Jewish Organization, but he arrived in Belgium in December 1938. From there he boarded the Dora seven months later and came to Palestine.


Walter's mother, Sidonie Spitz, was murdered on September 09,1941, "on the way to Hungary". [Other sources have September 18, 1942 in Maly Trostinec, Belorussia.]
His brother Paul Spitz was deported from Vienna to Poland and disappeard in the Shoah.

The fate of his father Hugo Spitz is not known.

In February 1939, his wife Gerta who had remained in Vienna, filled out an application with the Emigration Department of the Jewish Community in Vienna, stating that she intended to emigrate to Palestine and had a valid passport. A few days later she received RM. 150 to help pay for her emigration. It is assumed that she was able to flee Vienna and possibly Europe as her name doesn't appear in Yad Vashem.

Walter's brother Alfred Spitz was incarcerated in Dachau for almost four months, from May 31, 1938, to September 23, 1938. He emigrated to Shanghai in 1939. He later came to Brazil in 1947, then finally settled in the USA.

Sources:
www.geni.com/
www.myheritage.com (Vienna Immigration Form)

Staendig, Charlotte
  • Charlotte Staendig
  • Lotte Ständig
  • Yael Neuhaus
  • "Lotchen" Neuhaus
  • יעל נויהאוז
26.1.1921*
[Gelsenkirchen]

Charlotte (Lotte, "Lotchen") Staendig (Ständig) (later: Yael Neuhaus) was born on January 25, 1921, in Gelsenkirchen, the daughter of Moritz (Moses) Ständig and Rebecca Alpern. Her parents were originally from Eastern Galicia and first lived in Herten, where her three older brothers were born: Alexander (1917), Karl (1919), and Max (1922). There her father owned a shop for manufactured goods, ready-made goods and shoes. Her family then moved to nearby Gelsenkirchen, where Lotte then her three younger sisters were born: Leah (1931), Betty (1933), and Sabine (1934).

Lotte grew up in a Jewish home where kosher and Jewish holidays were observed, and she remembered her early years as a happy childhood.

With the rise of the Nazis to power and the expulsion of Jewish children from schools in Germany, Lotte joined the Habonim movement, where one of her brothers already belonged, while another one was in the Mizrahi movement. In 1936, she was in urban training (Hachshara) in Cologne with Hechalutz, then a year later received agricultural training in the Elgut Hachshara, where she was one of the youngest members. She and members of her group decided to emigrate to Israel and establish a kibbutz. (The guides - Georg Yoseftal and his wife Senetta - traveled a year in advance to prepare such a place).

On October 28, 1938, while she was in Elgut, her parents, brother Karl and sisters were deported to Zbaszyn on the Polish border. A week and a half later, on Kristallnacht, dozens of villagers from the area with the support of the local police broke into the property and beat its occupants. The young men were incarcerated in concentration camps, while the girls were expelled and scattered in all directions. The Hechalutz organization would later succeed in freeing the young men from the concentration camps and send them to farms in Belgium and the Netherlands.

In May 1939, Lotte was in the Gut Wecker Aliyah camp of the Jewish socialist-Zionist youth movement in Rüdnitz, near Berlin. From there she came to the Hachshara in Urfeld (Urfeld am Rhein) in Nordrhein-Westfalen, near Bonn and Cologne, about 60 miles from the Belgian border.

One day her group was notified to gather at a certain place to prepare for their departure. For many hours they rode in a truck and walked in the woods, and at the end of the journey Lotte arrived with her friends to the port of Antwerp. She recalled in an interview with the Ha'apala museum:

"I was brought to a Hachshara in Urfeld, where more people had come for a week, and from there was taken in a tarpaulin-covered truck with about ten people, without instructors, as far as Antwerp. The road to the Belgian port was smooth, greased with bribes."

There she boarded the Dora. She recalled:

"After a month of sailing on the Dora, problems with the foreign crew. On the way we saw a ship from afar with a yellow flag on which people sang the Hatikva. We reached Shefayim near the beach, walked in the water and went up without being discovered, everything was beautifully organized."

She spent one day in Shefayim and then came to Givat Haim where she joined a group of chalutzim from Germany who were already there. In December, the group moved to Raanana, where her brother Alex lived.

In Israel, Lotte married Kurt (Gideon) Neuhaus, an immigrant from the "Patria", and she changed her name to Yael Neuhaus. The couple lived in Kibbutz Gal'ed and had sons, grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Yael "Lotchen" Neuhaus (Lotte Staendig) died in 2019, age 98 in Kibbutz Gal'ed.


Her parents, Moses and Rebekka Ständig, and four of her siblings were deported to Poland. The last sign of life from her parents was through the Red Cross in 1942. Her mother (age 47) and little sister Sabine (age 8) were deported to Warsaw in the spring of 1942, then disappeared in the Shoah. Her father (age 51), her two other sisters, Leah Ständig (age 11), Betty Ständig (age 9), and her brother Karl Ständig vanished in the Shoah.

Two brothers emigrated to Palestine and survived: the youngest, Max Ständig, with Youth Aliyah, and one an older brother, Alexander Ständig, with Aliyah Bet.

Sources:
maapilim.org.il
www.galed.org.il
spurenimvest.de
www.vvn-bda-re.de (PDF)

Staub, Leizor
  • Leizor Staub
  • Leiser Staub
  • Eliezer Staub
  • Eliezer Shtoib
  • אליעזר שטויב
7.6.1913

Leiser Staub (later: Eliezer Staub) was born on June 7, 1913, in Przeworsk, (Austrian Galicia, Poland after 1918), the son of Israel Staub, a merchant, and Chaje Frohlich (Berglas). He had one older brother, Ozyasz Samuel (Yehoshua) Staub (1905), and two sisters: Feige Staub (1903) and Curtel (later Curtel Russek) (1909). (A Sainwel Staub (1907) may have been yet another sibling).

The Staub family emigrated to Antwerp sometime between 1916 and 1930.

On May 21, 1939, Leiser married Hannah Feigenblum in a civil marriage, then in a religious marriage on June 30. A little over two weeks later, they would board the Dora for Palestine together.

The couple had three children.

Eliezer Staub died in January 1966 and is buried in Kiryat Shaul, Tel Aviv.


Eliezer's parents, Israel and Chaje Staub, were deported to Auschwitz where they were murdered.
His brother, Osyas (Yehoshua) Staub, was deported with his wife Sari from the Malines-Mechelen camp in Belgium to Auschwitz Birkenau on October 24, 1942, where he perished at the age of 36.

His sisters Curtel Russek and Feige Staub may have emigrated and/or survived as their names were not memorialized by their brother in Yad Vashem.

Sources:
kehilalinks.jewishgen.org
www.myheritage.com (emigration to Antwerp)
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (brother)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)

Staub, Hanna
  • Hanna Staub
  • Hannah Feigenblum
29.2.1916

Hanna Staub (née Feigenblum), was born on February 29, 1916 in Whitechapel, London, the daughter of Abraham Feigenblum, a cantor from Warsaw, and Esther Brzozowska*. Hanna had five siblings: Itzhak, born in Warsaw in 1908; Pincus Haim, born in 1909 in Warsaw; Rifka born in 1911 in Warsaw; Helena (Hinda), born in 1912 in Antwerp; and Lily, born in 1919 in London.

Her parents, originally from Warsaw, had emigrated to Antwerp between 1911 and 1912 with their first three children, Itzhak, Pincus Haim, and Rifka. Their second daughter, Helena, was born in Antwerp in 1912. They then moved to London, possibly around 1915, presumably fleeing from the war. They lived in Whitechapel, home to a large Jewish immigrant population. It is there that Hanna was born in 1916, followed by Lilly in 1919. After the war, the family returned to Antwerp.

Hanna married Leiser Staub in Antwerp on May 21, 1939, (civil marriage), then on June 30 (religious ceremony). The marriage may have been required by her parents before they would allow their daughter to sail with Leiser Staub, echoing what happened to Regina Elsoffer. A little over two weeks later, Hanna and Leiser would board the Dora for Palestine together.

The couple had three children.


Hanna's parents, Abraham and Esther Feigenblum, were deported with Transport XIV from Caserne Dossin (Malines-Mechelen Camp) to Auschwitz Birkenau on October 24 1942. Her brother, Yitzhak Feigenblum, and her sister, Helena Hinda Feigenblum, were deported to Auschwitz.

Her brother, Chajm Pinchas Faigenblum, emigrated to Palestine. Her sister, Leah Lily Dubinsky, also emigrated and died in Israel.

The fate of her sister Rifka Feigenblum is not known. (check again)

Sources:
kehilalinks.jewishgen.org (marriage)
www.myheritage.com (emigration)
www.myheritage.com (birth)
collections.yadvashem.org (father)
collections.yadvashem.org (mother)
collections.yadvashem.org (sister)
collections.yadvashem.org (brother)

Note: Data about family members is somewhat inconsistent and my attempts to reconstruct her family history may contain some inacurracies.
*Multiple spelling variations exist for Hanna's mother's maiden name: Brozozowska, Brzozowski, Bzhozhovskim, Bzezowsky.
Hanna Staub may have changed her name to Nechma Staub (נחמה שטויב), as this name appears in several testimonies for her family in Yad Vashem.

Stein, Peppi
  • Peppi Stein
22.1.1921
Steinhauer, Max
  • Max Steinhauer
13.1.1910

This *may be: Max Mordechai Steinhauer, born in 1910 in Berlin, the son of David Steinhauer and Hela Mindel Steinhauer (née Pufeles). One brother, Heinz J (Yakov Zvi) Steinhauer who emigrated to Johanesburg (1912 - 1981), and one sister, Esther Steinhauer, later Esther Sendal (1922 - 1986).

If this is indeed the same person, Max Mordechai Steinhauer died in August 1986 in Tel Aviv and doesn't appear to have started a family.

This entry cannot be confirmed as the date of birth is too vague ("1910"). Leaving here as a placeholder until more information becomes available.

Sources:
www.myheritage.com
ics.uci.edu

Stern, Albert
Albert Stern

1948

  • Albert Stern
  • Albert Aron Stern
30.7.1916

Albert Aron Stern was born on July 30, 1916, in Geisa, Thuringia, the son of Adolf Avraham Stern and Sitta/Zita Sidonie, née Schwahn. He had an older brother, Martin Werner (1915), and a younger sister, Marga (1919).

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Stillmann, Guenther
Guenther Stillmann
  • Günter Stillmann
  • Guenther Stillmann
2.5.1912
[Berlin]
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Storch, Hillel
  • Hillel Storch
  • Heinrich Storch ?
  • הלל שטורך
16.1.1899

Hillel Storch was born on January 16, 1899 in Rozdol in Austrian Galicia (after 1918, Poland, now Ukraine). His family came to Vienna in 1909.

Hillel Storch was married to Marie (Miriam) Kranz, born in Rzeszów, (Galicia, later Poland), and the couple had two children: Alfred (Ephraim), born in 1926, and Ernestine (Esther), born in 1936, both in Vienna.

On May 15, 1938, two months after the Anschluss, Hillel Storch filled out an emigration application form with the IKG in Vienna. A self-described "small merchant", his business was suffering greatly and he had no money to pay for his emigration, but was willing to do any work.

Although he only spoke German and didn't list any relatives in that country, he stated that he prefered to emigrate to Palestine, and "otherwise it doesn't matter." (His in-laws were in Antwerp, and he listed another person in New York).

To the question "Which of the above-mentioned members should emigrate now and which later?", he stated: "As soon as possible and all at the same time."

Hillel Storch was incarcerated in Sachsenhausen, and his name appears on a list dated December 2, 1938. It is not clear if this was the day he was arrested or when he was released.

A Heinrich Storch born on January 16, 1899 - presumably Hillel Storch - is listed in the records of the "Vermögensverkehrstelle" (Assets Transfer Office) of the Nazi-era "Ministerium für Handel und Verkehr" (Ministry of Commerce and Transportation). (A decree concerning the Reporting of Jewish assets of April 26, 1938, required all Jewish citizens to report their total domestic and foreign assets, where such assets exceeded 5,000 Reichsmarks, and the Vermögensverkehrstelle was created three weeks later to oversee the transfer of such Jewish assets into Aryan hands.)

The family came to Antwerp after his release from Sachsenhausen, possibly because Hillel's in-laws resided there. It is not known if the IKG helped the family with their emigration, or if they helped Hillel receive a place on the Dora.

Hillel Storch boarded the Dora for Palestine on July 19. His wife Marie (Miriam) and his two children however did not accompany him, since his children were too young to sail on the illegal ship. (Ernestine was under 3, and Albert, not yet 13). The family presumably planned to join him later via legal means, but the German invasion ten months later would make their departure impossible.

In 1945 Hillel lived in Nachal Yitzhak in Tel Aviv. Nothing more is known about him.


Hillel's wife, Marie (Miriam) Storch, and his daughter, Esther (Ernestine) Storch, were deported from the the Malines-Mechelen Camp (Caserne Dossin) on April 19, 1943, to Auschwitz, where they were murdered on arrival. Miriam was 38. Esther was 6.

Hillel's son, Alfred Ephraim Storch, was deported to Buchenwald (and possibly previously to Auschwitz). He survived the war and came to Eretz Israel in September 1945 aboard the Mataroa. The Mataroa was the first ship that brought immigrants after World War II, with 173 children survivors of the Buchenwald concentration camp who had family in Palestine. He was 19 years old.

Sources: