The Dora, anchored off the waterways of Vlissingen.
Photo: De Maasbode Van Woensdag, 19 July 1939
The "Death Ship" Dora: An old coal boat that saved hundred of Jews
By: Chaya Brasz, Historian.
Former Director of the Center for Research on Dutch Jewry, Ben-Zion Dinur Institute for Research in Jewish History.
Originally published as "Dodenschip Dora; Een oude kolenboot redde honderden Joden ondanks Nederlandse tegenwerking" in Vrij Nederland, May 1, 1993, pp. 38-41.
Translation by Erik Post.
Condensed and edited for clarity.
The Dora was the only illegal boat (Aliyah Beth) to leave from Northern Europe with Jewish refugees before the war. Described at the time in the local press as a "Death Ship" and "practically falling apart", it managed to reach the shores of Palestine despite the British navy embargo and saved hundred of lives, including my mother's, Toni Katz.
The Refugee Situation
Since the begninning of the Nazis' takeover of power in Germany, the Netherlands had taken in about 15,000 Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria. In 1933, The Deventer Association ("Vereniging tot Vakopleiding van Palestina Pioniers": "The Association for Professional Training of Palestine Pioneers"), along with the Committee for Jewish Refugees, had obtained visas for tens of young refugees in the Netherlands who were then placed among Dutch farmers, and in a laborer village ("Werkdorp") in Wieringer where a large group of youths received training for immigration to Palestine.
After Kristallnacht at the end of 1938, the Dutch government allowed 150 halutzim to enter the country on condition that they would leave the country within a year. By that time, there were a little over 1000 young people in hachshara - agrarian training in preparation for emigration to Palestine - in the Netherlands.
In the 30's, it was almost impossible for Jewish refugees to get visas to other countries, and as for Palestine, then under British mandate, Great Britain imposed restrictions starting in May of 1939, that striclty limited Jewish immigration to "Eretz Israel" to 75,000 over the next 5 years.
It was at that point that Jews in Palestine decided to organize illegal immigration from the Netherlands. Mossad LeAliyah Bet, a branch of the Haganah, started operating in 1938 to help thousands of Jews escape from Europe and sail to Palestine using clandestine immigration, despite the opposition of the local Jewish organizations, in particular David Cohen, the head of the Refugee Committee (and future head of the Judenrat during the German occupation of the Nederland).
The Haganah decided to organize the immigration of 300 halutzim from Holland, 150 from Belgium, and another hundred from France, and sent several representatives of Mossad leAliyah Bet to organize the clandestine departure. Their leader was the German-born Gideon Rufer (Later known as Gideon Raphael, he woudl become Secretary General of Foreign Affairs and Israeli Representative to the UN after the war.)
His assistant was Shmarya Tsameret, a young American-born member of Kibbutz Bet Hashita from the central office of the illegal immigration organization in Paris, who travelled on a US passport under his birth name of Grey
In Copenhagen, Zameret arranged the purchase of the SS Tjaldur, a small boat (584 gross tons, 199 feet by 30 feet) built in 1898. She was soon renamed the Dora and would sail under Panamanian flag. Although previously used for the transport of coal, it held a certificate to transport passengers. With the help of two Greek sailors, the brothers Pierre and Kosta, he installed 175 iron bunk beds, a kitchen, lavatories, showers, cleaned the engines, and brought life jackets onboard.
Since funds from the Join could not be usef of illegal enterprises, Gertude's Dutch associates covered the £3,000 to cover expenses.
Early on, the trip had been delayed several times, and Zameret had to reassure the Dutch government that the Palestine pioneers would soon leave Holland as promised. As for the Refugee Committee, not all members new about the illegal nature of the immigration plan. Chief among them, the chairman, Prof. David Cohen, was not told anything, while Gertrude van Tijn-Cohn and other members of the committee were in the know, but didn't entirelly trust the Haganah.
A group of pioneers staying in the work village of Wieringermeer was supposed to go to France by train to board an illegal immigration ship there. However, a few Dutch members of the group decided not to leave after all because their family thought it was too dangerous, or unnecessary - they thought they were safe there. (Only a few of those who stayed behind would survive the war). Having changed their plan, the Haganah decided that they, too, would leave from Amsterdam. Uri Kochba (Walter Koch), the head of the Hechalutz movement, transfered them from Wierinermeer and hid them in Beverwijk, Assendelft and Heemskerk, small villages near the Dutch coast close to Amsterdam where they would remain and wait until they could board.
The halutzim usually stayed in hiding places for a couple nights only, but they had now been there for a couple weeks already, so there was a risk that people would start to wonder what they were doing there and that their plan would become known. In Antwerp, the situation was worse: 150 people who had crossed the Dutch/Belgian border illegally had now been there for more than six weeks. The police arrested them every day, after which they were released, because they promised they would leave the next day, as soon as the ship would enter the harbor.
When the Dora left Copenhagen, Kosta and Mr. Grey took the train to Antwerp to meet the Greek crew that would replace the Danish crew, to hire more sailors, and to buy more lifeboats.
The Dora arrived in the Amsterdam harbor. Gideon Rufer needed the help of someone who could speak Dutch fluently, and met Flip Cohen in the harbor. Flip Cohen went with Rufer to the shipbroker on the Geldersekade canal to get the provisions they needed for the trip. Uri Kochba says: "I was sent to the bakery, and had them bake special kosher bread that would stay good for a long time. We ate that aboard until it became moldy. After that, we switched to biscuits."
The provisions were brought from the canal to the Dora in the harbor on a motorboat. That's where he saw the Dora for the first time and met Amiram Shochat, one of the three people from the Haganah who had organized the trip of the Dora, who told him in Hebrew: "Don't talk to anyone in the crew". The Danish crew didn't know about the illegal nature of the trip, nor were they supposed to know.
Everything was going well until people from the Refugee Committee came to see the boat. They had expected a luxury passenger ship. When they saw the Dora, they refused to let the Halutzim board the boat. The members of the Refugee Committee were mostly wealthy, assimilated Jews who "followed the rules" and represented the Jewish Community with the government. Their idea of what a boat should be didn't fit with the reality of illegal immigration. They were upset by all the delays so far and the problems they would cause with the Dutch Government, to whom they had promised that the halutzim would be leaving in an orderly fashion and without delay. They had contempt for "Ostjuden", the people who had organized the trip, and said "Ostjuden don't keep their word". They also suspected that the papers for the boat might be fakes bought on the black market.
Siegfried Kramarsky, a German Jewish banker who lived in the Netherlands, along with S.J. Florsheim and a few other members of the Refugee Committee, had paid the 115 000 guilders that the trip would cost, and felt responsible for the whole enterprise. The Refugee Committee blamed the Haganah for the poor quality of the ship, as they felt responsible for the voyage. In case the British captured the Dora, it was clear that the Dutch government would claim knowing nothing about the whole trip, and they would be fully responsible.
Zameret was astonished by these assimilated, law-abiding Jews who, with their haughty attitude, made decisions regarding the halutzim. In his report to the Mossad LeAliyah Bet, he noted that these people were so removed from the problems of the Jewish people. After the remark about the OstJuden, he pretended to be an American and would only speak English.
He convinced Gertrud Van Tijn, whom he saw as a woman with great capacities, to go to Kramarsky. Grey explained to her that the Dora was a solid ship; he also explained to her why the trip had been delayed so many times. Everything had been inspected by officials, and the insurance papers turned out to be in order, so in the end the Refugee Committee decided to let the trip continue.
At this moment, new complications arose. The harbor workers who had brought the coal aboard had noticed that there were beds aboard. Not meaning any harm, they called the editors of the Communist party's newspaper, and so, a day after the arrival of the Dora in Amsterdam, there was a big article in the Communist Volksdagblad (the People's Daily), in which the Dutch government was attacked for letting such a wreck of a ship with "slave traders quarters" and hundred of refugees aboard, whom they were sure would drown.
Other newspapers started to write about the "Ship of the Dead" ("Dodenschip"). Photographers circled around the Dora in the Amsterdam harbor in small boats, so the harbor master received the order to go inspect the ship.
Grey talked to the harbor master and explained the real reason of the transport, and the harbor master gave his approval, however he did make a list of improvements that had to be made. Because there were only 350 beds and 300 people were supposed to board from Amsterdam, Grey told the harbor master that there would only be 50 more people boarding from Antwerp.
Jacob Oppenheimer had come to Holland in 1936 from Frankfurt am Main. (He later lived in the moshav Kfar HaRoeh and worked for the Israeli Ministry of (?)). He said:
"The Dutch immigration police wanted to get rid of us, but they were afraid of the publicity. The relationship with England wasn't too good, and the British of course didn't want any immigration. So in 1939, all of a sudden we were brought to Heemskerk (15 miles from Amsterdam), where we had to wait for a couple of weeks. Of course we knew where we were going. On July 14th, I was brought to the house of Dr. Pinkhof in Amsterdam. I was very religious and couldn't travel on Shabbat. Dr. Pinkhof's house wasn't far from the harbor, so on Saturday, they came and picked me up and they took me straight to the Dora."
"It was a small ship, full of people, but we never felt unsafe on the ship. The only danger we feared would come from the British."
Flip Cohen was with another group of Halutzim in Beverwijk, a town about 15 miles from Amsterdam. He remembered:
On Saturday, I ordered some taxis. We went with the whole group. That evening, I was home for a just little while. My mother said, "Are you leaving today?" We said: "See you in Eretz Israel". I took my backpack and left.
Apart from my younger brother Samuel, I never saw them again. I came back to the Netherlands in 1945 as a soldier with the Jewish Brigade. I found Samuel in the Portuguese Israelite Hospital. He was just back from Bergen Belsen. All the others had been murdered.
Most of the halutzim were were shuttled with busses all day Saturday to the Lloyd hotel, which served as a refugee center.
Gertrud van Tijn, Florscheim, Kramarski, and Ru Cohen were all present. The heads of the immigration police from The Hague and from Amsterdam came to control the boarding with 35 civil servants. People sang, both those who were leaving, and the members of the Refugee Committee. A few of the civil servants of the immigration police even teared up. The immigration police were amazed that there were also some Dutch people among the halutzim, but they didn't ask any questions.
At dusk, the Dora was moved to the Handelskade (the pier). The police cordonned off the pier to keep the press away, but the authorities were afraid that the Communists would come to demonstrate. Everybody knew what was going on, and when a young woman without papers managed to move through the police cordon, they just let her go aboard without any trouble.
Before Grey left Amsterdam for Antwerp, Gertrud van Tijn came to visit him in the hotel where he was staying. He told her that the Haganah would let her know as soon as the ship arrived in Eretz Israel. But she had already thought of this herself and had given money to Eli Reens, so he could telegraph her as soon as he arrived.
The goodbyes between Grey and the Refugee Committee were not particularly cordial. Kramarsky announced that he planned to go to Antwerp to ensure that the lifeboats required by the Amsterdam harbor master were brought on board, and to ensure that too many passengers wouldn't go aboard. Grey and Rufer tried to tell him this wasn't necessary, but to no avail.
Kramarsky arrived in Antwerp before the Dora had moored, and found out that instead of the fifty people previously mentioned, a hundred and fifty people wanted to board the ship. When Kramarsky saw Grey, the two men started to argue, with Kramarsky complaining that there weren't enough beds onboards. Grey replied that there were just enough: beds were put side to side, two by two, so that three people could lie there. Grey also explained that these were refugees who were in Belgium illegally and had no other choice but to board the ship and leave regardless of the conditions. If they couldn't board, they would be sent back to Germany.In the meantime, Kosta had bought the additional lifeboats, and had brought one more captain along with some additional crew members.
Zameret wrote in his report: "I spoke to a high-level Dutch civil servant who said that he wasn't interested in the plans of the Haganah, and that the only concern of the government was that the boat would disappear with the refugees as soon as possible." Grey had ordered that the passengers from Antwerp should board the Dora as soon as possible, but didn't tell Kramarsky, and continued the negotiations with people from the Refugee Committee. When Kramarsky sent his chauffeur to the harbor to take a look, he reported that the boat was there and the refugees were already aboard.
Kramarsky went to the Belgian harbor master and demanded that one hundred people be taken off the boat. The Belgian harbor master, a devout Christian who saw the return of the Jewish people to the Promised Land as a Biblical fulfillment, became a spokesman for the Halutzim. He told Kramarsky not to worry, that it wasn't such an imposition if the refugees suffered a little for a couple of weeks if it meant that they would reach the coast of the Promised Land. Kramarsky threatened to call the Dutch Governement and ask them to take diplomatic action. This angered the harbor master and he refused to talk to the Dutchman any further.
As last resort, Kramarsky went to the ship and tried to convince the halutzim to not go on the trip, but the passengers explained that they were happy with the situation on the boat, so he finally gave up and left. Then, a tugboat from the Belgian Security Agency arrived to take the Dora to Vlissingen.
. Meanwhile, Kosta was in a café with Grey, demanding more money for the trip. One of the engine mechanics had also missed the boat. A newly hired Belgian radio operator had found what the actual goal of the trip was and didn't show up. Kosta and Grey had to find a new radio operator and contacted a Spanish Communist who used to smuggle weapons to Spain. His ship was gone and he was stranded in Antwerp without papers.
In the meantime, the Haganah in Paris decided that the Dora would not pick up the hundred refugees in France after all because there had already been too many delays,putting the entire expedition at risk. Grey sent Kosta, the Spaniard and the mechanics to Vlissingen by taxi, but they were soon sent back to the Dutch harbor: the Greek didn't have a visa, and the Spaniard didn't have a passport. There was no other choice but for the four of them to leave Antwerp the next morning on a motorboat for Vlissingen.
By now it was already July 18th, the Dora was anchored off the coast of Vlissingen, and Grey wanted the Dora to leave as soons as possible. The captain however had ordered wine and brandy for himself, and these wouldn't be delivered until the next afternoon. Grey became very nervous that the Dutch press in Vlissingen would find them out, that the Refugee Committee would realize that the ship was again along the Dutch Coast, and that the Dutch government might decide, perhaps under public pressure, to take the ship because there were too many people aboard. The captain relented and promised to leave the next morning, without wine and brandy.
At five o'clock in the morning, Grey observed the Dora from the Vlissingen dike through his binoculars. There were fishermen and a little boy on the dike. The kid said: "You see the boat? That's a death ship. A ship full of Jewish refugees from Germany that will sink, for sure." It was as if everybody in the Netherlands knew about the Dora, even the children.
Meanwhile, the local press had been following up the Dora and many stories about the mysterious refugee ship appeared in the newspapers. While the Dora had been anchored off the coast of Vlissingen, a journalist from the Daily Herald had come aboard. He wrote that the passengers slept on the deck on straw mats, and that they had told him they were going to Bangkok, or Siam. The news drew the attention of the British government. The British representative Nevile Bland made inquiries at the Foreign office in the Netherlands, and pointed out that immigration to Palestine was illegal. The Foreign Office responded to the British that the ship had given its destination as Siam, and that they weren't aware of any another destination.
Today's Algemeen Handelsblad reports the departure of the Dora with "500 Jewish passengers". The destination of the ship is said to be Bangkok, yet the reporter doesn’t seem to believe that this is the real destination, but that the captain is awaiting "further instructions”.
The article describes the accommodations for the passengers:
"The passengers were hanging over the railing, talking to each other, and others were busy working. However, no answer was given to the questions we asked. The whole thing made a rather sad impression.”
"As there seemed to be no room for all passengers, many had to be satisfied with a berth in the straw on the fore or afterdeck. Large sails were stretched over these decks.”
On the same day, the Haagsche Courant also brings up the destination of the Dora:
"Little credence is given to the claim that the ship will go to Siam, and a veil of mystery surrounds the ship.”
Surprisingly, despite the secret nature of the Dora's voyage, a reporter from the Haagsche Courant is allowed onboard and reports that
"the crew was busy trying the lifeboats with the assistance from the passengers. However, it was very primitive and it took a lot of time and effort to lower a boat, and the boat was not even manned. Moreover, the unpainted lifeboats don’t give a reassuring impression.”
What the reporter witnessed was the passengers practicing the maneuvers they would have to take when arriving in Palestine. Since the Dora would not land in a harbor but on a beach,the passengers would have to be lowered into the lifeboats to get close to land.
Another reporter, this one with the Vaderland Staat reported what he saw on the Dora:
"The passengers were hanging over the railing, talking to each other, others were doing a bit of work. [...] The whole thing made a sad impression. As there was not enough room for all the passengers in the holds, many had to be satisfied with a berth on the fore or afterdeck in the straw. Large sails were stretched over these decks. It was particularly striking that so little noise was heard on board. One did not hear laughter or cry: it was as if all were feeling the pressure of an uncertain future."
Also today, the Volksdagblad (the Communist People's Daily) shared its belief that the ship was not seaworthy and that the government in the Netherlands should grant the refugee asylum. The journalist believes that the Dora is anchored in Vlissingen because of the rough weather from the previous days - confirming that the Dora is ill-equipped to take to the sea. In a dramatic fashion, he predicts that once it moves into the open sea, the Dora, being a wreck, will become a real "Death Ship” wandering from port to port, without a final destination.
Insisting that the Dora is too small to accommodate 420 passengers - for proof the dozens of refugees forced to sleep on deck on straw - it ends with a call to action:
"The public opinion in the country must be shaken... It is a shame that this ship left the Netherlands. The only solution is: right of asylum in the Netherlands... or the clear guarantee that these unfortunates can find accommodation in another country...”
One other newspaper, the Zaans Volksblad declares that "the veil of mystery around the refugee ship "Dora" is getting thicker”, and suspects that the ship may be waiting for more clement weather before taking to the sea. It adds that the passengers, who are not allowed to disembark, are lying on straw on the deck, because "on a boat of such dimensions, it is not possible to properly accommodate 400 people”. It also writes that "In the afternoon there was a boat drill on deck, which is somewhat comical, taking into account how absolutely inadequate the rescue material is. The women were washing and trying to create some order in the chaos on board, by sweeping and removing the worst dirt.”
After having spent almost two days anchored in Vlissingen for no clear reason, the Utrechts Volksblad explains that the delay had been caused by the captain waiting for the arrival of a crew member whom he could not miss and who could only get on board today. What that journalist sees from the shore with binoculars is "not an encouraging spectacle”, and that "the hundreds [...] now on this boat, are compressed on a much too small space.”
Following such reports in the press, Louis de Visser, The Chairman of the House of Commons, and a member of the Communist Party of the Netherlands, raised questions at the end of July to the Minister of Justice, Prof. Gerbrandy. Feeling pity for the refugees, and full of good intentions, he asked the minister if he had pushed the Jewish Committee to take such action. He argued that the refugees shouldn't leave if they couldn't secure a destination, and pleaded for them to be allowed to come back to the Netherlands if needed. Minister Gerbrandy denied having any knoweldge of the Dora. In the meantime, the government representative for refugees, Mr. B.G.A. Smeets, unhappy about the conditions on the Dora, sent a letter to the Justice Ministry, dated July 22, 1939, in which he accused the Jewish Committee of "irresponsible behavior":
"What I understand makes me ask if the government shouldn't have just prevented the ship from leaving. It was too crowded. Refugees are sleeping under sails on the upper deck, on straw. One storm and they will be gone. There isn't enough safety equipment, four little boats for 20 people each. In Amsterdam the boat was already overloaded, and in Antwerp another 100 refugees were added. [...] You should realize that illegal immigration with ships has already been causing much trouble everywhere. Ships that aren't allowed into harbors, that are at sea for months, that have the plague on board - for example the odyssey with the St Louis, which was actually a comfortable ship, while the Dora..."
On July 20th, in London, the "Daily Herald” publishes an article and two photos of the Dora. The Herald’s reporter describes having gone on board the Dora and reports:
"...Her holds packed with human cargo, she was a passenger ship, carrying 500 Jewish refugees to a destination that nobody seems to know... ...The Greek captain, whom I met in a Flushing hotel, was silent about the ships’ destination. He had "sealed orders", he said. "Go and talk to the passengers yourself if you want to,” he went on. "They don’t know either”.
The harbourmaster said "We accept no responsibility for that ramshackle boat. She got her certificate of seaworthiness in Amsterdam – so good luck to her.”
Here is what he saw:
"The Dora has two lifeboats on each side, each capable of taking 15 passengers. Should she meet disaster, the crazy state the lifeboats are in leaves little hope of even 60 escaping in them. It would not take a hurricane to sink the Dora either. Her portholes are only secured with old rubber bands."
None of the passengers seems to mind the dangers and discomforts. “What does it matter,” one of them said to me, “as long as we find freedom again?” If the land to which they are going refuses to take them, they will merely have to return to their port of embarkation."
“Where are we going to?” somebody answered when I questioned him. “To Siam.” “To Bangkok.” said another.
On the way to Palestine
On Wednesday, July 19, at about 11:15am, the Dora steamed down the river and left Vlissingen, finally starting its voyage to Palestine.
The following day, the Dora was spotted sailing past the Isle of Wight, according to the "Lloyds List and Shipping Gazette", as printed in the next day's "Utrechts Volksblad Sociaal-Democratisch Dagblad".
Leaving the English Channel, the Dora entered the Atlantic Ocean and turned south, towards the Gulf of Biscay. A region known for rough seas, fierce weather and high waves, the Dora experienced violent storms during which many of its passengers became sea-sick.
The Dora then crossed the Strait of Gilbraltar. There the British ordered the ship to identify itself. At the first signs of danger, the Greek Captain would send the refugees into the hold of the ship. The Greek declared it was a Panamanian ship on its way to Siam. The British accepted this explanation because ships with illegal immigrants never came through the Strait of Gibraltar, and instead usually came from the French Riviera, the Italian Coast, or the Coast of the Black Adriatic Sea.
Yet the Dora sailed on and instead continued towards Turkey. Once it had reached the other end of the Mediteranean, it became clear to any observer that the Dora was not trying to reach Siam as officially stated.
Were the British so easy to fool - was its navy so overworked, understaffed, or incompetent? Or, as my mother thought, had someone been paid to close their eyes as to where the Dora was really going? For once the Dora had entered the Mediteranean, the only way to reach Siam was to enter the Suez Canal.
How the British authorities let the Dora continue without stopping it is hard to understand, as the press had widely reported on the Dora sailing with hundreds of Jewish refugees, and its official destination of Siam only made sense if the Dora had sailed through the Suez Canal. Having sailed right passed the Suez Canal to end up in Turkey should have alerted the British intelligence about the Dora's real destination (or the Dora's crew's real intentions). There was no reason to continue past the Suez Canal and go to the shore of Turkey if the destination was indeed in South-East Asia - the only possible water passage being the Suez Canal, or sailing around the coast of Africa.
At that point, it would have been clear to any observer that the intention of the Dora was not going to be distant Siam, but the nearby coast of Palestine.
The Dora reached the coast of Turkey. When they arrived to the southern coast of Turkey, the Dora radioed the Haganah in Palestine. The Dora had been delayed and was told to drop anchor off the Turkish coast at Feniki, because it was now full moon, which meant that a landing was impossible. The only thing that interrupted the waiting was a visit from the Turkish police. Nobody was to go to the coast. By now, the amount of food, water and coal was starting to get very small, so the police gave permission for a boat to bring watermelons and potable water to the Dora.
Eventually, the Haganah on board lost patience, and, against the instructions from Palestine, decided to move forward. But as soon as the ship had started to move, it stopped again. The trip had taken longer than planned, so the Greek crew demanded more money. Under the command of the captain, armed with big kitchen knives, they started a mutiny. They could only just be kept from sabotaging the antenna. Negociations and collecting money from the passengers brought a solution. But to be sure, they locked up the captain for the rest of the trip.
Finally, on August 11, 1939, the Dora received the signal that the coast was clear and that they could attempt to land. Everybody got really scared when, just a little later, a British war ship appeared, 300 meters away, but she left soon after without anything happening. Then darkness fell. Looking southward, they could see the lights from Tel Aviv, while the searchlights of the police boat almost touched the ship. Everyone remained very quiet.
The landing was planned to take place in Shfayim, about 15kms north of Tel Aviv.
Yoel Golomb, a young immigrant taking part in a naval course of the Hagana participated in the landing of the Dora and helped the immigrants come ashore. He later recalled:
"During the month of September*, a ship with Olim came into shore and we brought the Olim to Shefayim at night, in complete secrecy. That was an unforgettable experience. We unloaded the Olim, men, women, and children who climbed down the side of the ship on rope ladders. We then brought them into shore. This seemed like a simple operation but [...] we were informed that a British naval vessel had been sighted and was approaching; we managed to get all the lifeboats onto the deck, except one which we tied to the ship. The ship was named "Dora” and I think it came from Holland. The ship turned and headed back to Europe and we swam to shore.
*Note: actually August.
At the same moment, in Tel Aviv:
"Shaul Avigur, the head of Mossad leAliyah Bet, and a co-worker slipped into Golda Meir’s apartment on Hayarkon Street. [...] He had decided to monitor the landing of the illegal ship Dora from the shortwave radio center in the Meyerson (Meir) apartment.
When the Dora reached its destination, the commander on the ground, David Nameri, signaled its arrival. The signals were relayed to the wireless in the Meyerson apartment, where Avigur could receive and send coded messages to the boat. In one heart-stopping moment for everyone in the flat, a British police boat with searchlights ablaze lmost spotted the immigrant ship as it neared the coast, but the ship stayed hidden in the blackness of the night. When all seemed safe, it dropped off its passengers, who silently made their way on foot to Kfar Shmaryahu, a nearby agricultural village. The captain lifted anchor and sailed westward into the dark, to begin another mission. "In the early morning hours,” Avigur reported years later, "we said good night to our hosts, Golda Meir and Leah Biskin, and went about our business.”
Source: "From Lioness: Golda Meir and the Nation of Israel", By Francine Klagsbrun. p186-187.
The olim waded in the water for the last steps. At two o'clock that night, the Dora announced that everybody had unboarded. The Haganah telegraphed Uri Koch that "the delivery was successful and the mother is healthy". Eli Reens telegraphed to Gertrud Van Tijn as had been agreed. She passed the message on to minister Van Boeijen, who could finally breathe again. The Netherlands had gotten rid of 300 refugees without damaging its relationship with Great Britain, and it hadn't cost the treasury a penny.
Three weeks later, Germany invaded Poland.
The path followed by the Dora
Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 17/07/1939
Photo: De Telegraaf, 19 July 1939
The Dora in Amsterdam.
"Authorities, shipping inspectors and others go on board for a final inspection before the departure signal."
Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939
"In groups of ten or twenty, the refugees go onboard, escorted by policemen."
Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939
Passengers boarding The Dora
Photo: Photo: De Sumatra Post, 24 July 1939
"The Dora did not leave until 5 o'clock at night, three hours later than planned. They had been waiting for seven refugees from Enschede who were coming by car and had gotten lost."
Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939
The Dora in Amsterdam.
"The Dora crew hastened to cover the name of the ship with tarpaulin, apparently to prevent anyone knowing which ship was moving across the IJ through the nocturnal darkness."
Photo: Utrechts Volksblad 18/07/1939
The "Dora" - The story of the illegal immigrant ship.
By Hillel Yarkoni. Translation by Liron Katz
In 1939, there was a big push to rescue as many Jews as possible out of the Northern European countries.
Shipping companies didn't want to take the risk of bringing those Jews into Palestine. The Aliyah activists were looking for a ship owned by people who had smuggled weapons into the Spanish Republic.
They found two Greek brothers, Pierre and Costa Arteshides, the sons of a retired Greek captain, Parisian citizens who had done that sort of operation before. They agreed to take the job for the right amount of money, to buy and take care of the supply, then to bring the boat to Palestine.
In Copenhagen, Denmark, a small ancient merchant ship was found, with the gross capacity of 584 ton. Built in 1898 as a passengers ship, it had been transformed later into a cargo ship that transported, among other things, cattle. Although the ship was old, its mechanics were in good shape.
It was bought after some serious financials difficulties and a long negotiation with the Greeks. The ship's original name of "TJALDUR" was changed to "DORA", and she would sail under Panamanian flag.
The Dora (Tjasldur)
Officially, the chief captain was the elder Arteshides, however the officer who would in fact be the active captain during this voyage was a Danish captain. The rest of the crew was from France, Algiers, as well as one Jewish guy - an immigrant from Russia who was a waiter in the officers' dinning room.
After the renovations and transformations needed to use it to carry illegal immigrant, the ship sailed from Copenhagen to Amsterdam. In Amsterdam, after some of the immigrants saw the condition of the Dora, a scandal started. The local Communist journalists took advantage of the affair, accusing the Dutch government of deporting Jews in horrendous and unsafe conditions.
Not until the immigration officers were talked into changing their mind, and the ship had gone through a new inspection by the Dutch authorities, could the Dora finally sail to Antwerp in Belgium, with 300 passengers on board.
There were 120 additional immigrants, members of the "heHalutz" who had been smuggled out of Germany. They had been staying there undercover, illegally, and had to get out as soon as possible before they would be caught. (* My mother, Toni Katz, was one of these illegal aliens, hiding in Belgium, waiting for the boat to arrive.) Sixty additional "Halutzim" were due to join the "Dora" in Belgium. Again, a scandal started when the head of the Dutch immigration committee demanded to offload 100 passengers.
The people of the Mossad LeAliyah Bet who were in charge of the illegal immigration operation didn't give in. With the help of the manager of the harbor, who wanted to get the immigrants out as fast as possible, they convinced the head of the Dutch immigration committee that it was better for the passengers to suffer for a few weeks during the trip, than to be sent back Germany and concentration camps.
Because by now the "Dora", and the scandals surrounding it, had attracted so much attention with the government and the local press, and due to the poor conditions of the boat, it was decided to abandon the initial plan of having one more stop in Le Havre, France, where an additional 100 immigrants were supposed to be picked up.
Finally, on July 12th* (actually the Dora left Vlissingen on July 19th) the Dora sailed off for Palestine.
Three "Hagana" members went along: the ship manager, Tzvi Spector, the emergency captain, Amiram Shohat, and in charge of the radio connection, Yekutiel Pekta.
After a storm in the Biscaye bay, the ship entered the Mediterranean Sea on July 29th.
The Lloyd observation station, watching Gibraltar, reported to the Palestine C.I.D (Criminal Investigation Department) on its entry in the Mediterranean Sea.
Later, the ship entered the port of Mersin in Turkey to get some supplies, mainly water and food.
Under the threat of guns, none of the people onboard were permitted to leave the ship.
A rebellion by the Greek sailors took place soon after, but the Danish captain's calm helped restore order.
The "Dora" finally reached Sheffaym beach without been caught on August 12th 1939.
Tzvi Spector swam first to the shore to make sure the way was clear. Then, the immigrants were taken down by boats, and all made it to the shore safely.
After landing, the new immigrants were first concentrated in "Kefar Shemariahu", and were later distributed in various absorption centers.
They had arrived just 19 days before the beginning of WW2.
According to the agreement with the Arteshides brothers, the Dora was supposed to do a second trip, but this agreement was not honored. Only after legal battle some of the money that had been paid in advance to the Greek family was paid back.
The Dora was later captured by the Germans and was at their service between 1941-1942. On December 21st 1942, it was sunken by a British war ship near the Djerba harbor in Tunis.
The Dora in the News
Although it was supposed to be kept secret, the departure of the Dora was widely reported in the Dutch, Belgian and British press at the time, and it's a wonder that this unwelcome publicity didn't lead to the interception of the Dora by the British navy.
Between July 14 and July 25, no less than 60 news articles and disptaches about the departure of the Dora appeared in the press in the Netherlands, some of them including photos of the passengers and of the ship. At least eight articles appeared in the British press, and several more in Belgium.
Nottingham Evening Post. July 17, 1939.
Daily Herald. July 20, 1939.
Article on the Dora, De Sumatra Post, July 24, 1939.
List of refugees who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam, 16 July 1939
Source: Dutch National Archive (courtesy Rina Offenbach, Director BeNetivei Haapalah, Illegal immigrant database and information center, Atlit Detention Camp, Israel.)
The list below was compiled from several lists provided to the authorities by Jewish organizations and contains 182 names. It is most likely not a complete list of all the passengers that boarded the Dora in Amsterdam. Previous estimates, including contemporary reports in the press, gave the number of refugees on board in Amsterdam at around 300, with Gertrude van Tijn, who took part in the rescue operation, citing 310 passengers.
Note: Four names on the original lists were crossed out. It's not clear if this means these people didn't board the Dora.
Although incomplete, the Amsterdam list includes useful demographic data on the passengers.
The Amsterdam list is made up of 80% (146) men and 20% (36) women.
69% (126) were German, 9% (16) Dutch, 8% (14) Polish, and 7% (13) "stateless". It is not clear if these "stateless" passengers were of Polish or German origin. The remaining nationalities are: 3% (6) Hungarian, 1% (2) Czechoslovak, one passenger from the Danzig and one from England, and three unknown.
Of the 182 names,
- 76, the largest group, came from Werkdorp Wieringermeer, a large hachshara center that held 300 halutzim
- 59 (or 60), from the Deventer Association, split over various locations
- 29 from the Mizrachi (religious Zionist) Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz in Beverwijk
- 7 with the Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel
- 3 with Kibbutz Misrachi (religious Zionist) in Franeker
- 2 from Berg-Stichting, Laren
A few individuals came from a few additional locations: Markelo, Almen, Zenderen, Zeddam and Delden.
|Name||Organization, Group||Group||Last adress?||D.O.B||City||Nationality||Notes|
|Abram, Susanne||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Henriette, Korte Meerhuizenstr. 3||26.8.12||Amsterdam||Polish|
|Abramczyk, Bruno||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||"De Vondelhof"
|Adler, Alfred||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||3.1.12||Lauterbach||Stateless|
|Alterberger, Karl (Altberger)||The Deventer Society||F.H. Evers "De Eekhorst", Hummelo||18.11.19||Köln||Czechoslovak|
|Appel, Rosa||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||Euterpestr. 41 Amsterdam-Z||27.9.14||Naumburg||German|
Aufrichtig, Hedwig (Hedy)
||The Deventer Society (Den Haag)||Den Haag||L. Beestenmarkt 135||23.7.16||Wien||German||
Hedwig [Hedy] Aufrichtig, born 23 July 1916 in Vienna, Austria, died 15 November 1999 in London, England.
"Hedi Aufrichtig escaped from Europe on [the Dora] to Palestine, where she offended her Jewish milieu by marrying Hanna Ibrhim Khalil of Bethlehem and Jerusalem, a Palestinian Arab. They had three daughters. [...] The fulfilment of the Zionist dream by the Jews of Palestine forced her to start a second life in Cyprus, and then a third in London. A huge swathe of Hedi's in-laws were driven out of their homeland in 1947-1948."
Photo (c) www.aufrichtigs.com
|Bagainski, Margot||The Deventer Society (Gouda)||Gouda||Ridder van Katzweg 61||10.11.19||Berlin||German|
|Baum, Charlotte||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||Kasernestr. 4||28.7.19||Beuthen||Stateless|
||The Deventer Society||MIDDELBEEK bij Voorst||bij Frederiks
Papenstraat 45, Deventer
Changed his name in Israel to: Alon Gideon
|Beifuss, Berthold||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||15.1.17||Lusphe||German||
Changed name in Israel to Lavi Baruch
|Bekker, Hymann||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||24.10.18||Den Haag||Dutch|
|Benedik, Franz (Benedikt)||The Deventer Society (Deventer)||Deventer||Papenstraat 45, Deventer||21.3.18||Unterberg||German|
|Benima, Max||The Deventer Society (Rotterdam)||Rotterdam||20.9.13||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Benjamin, Julius||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||24.3.21||Königsberg||German||
Complete (or changed?) name: Benjamin Yehuda Julius.
||The Deventer Society (Almelo)||Almelo: Erve "De Kooi"||tijd. Celebesstraat 49E Den Haag||1.1.17||Barmen||German||
Changed name to Binyamin Ozi Rudulph
|Berger, Otto||Markelo: Op het Reef Kerkspeelchor K. 51||G.W.A Brunnekreeft, Op, 't Reef, Kerspel
Goor K.51. Gem. Markelo
|Bergmann, Jaacob (Jakob)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||16.1.14||Gr. Rackchen||German|
|Besser, Wolfgang||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||22.8.21||Breslau||German|
|Bienstock, Fritz (Binstock)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||23.3.21||Wien||German|
|Bing, Marianne||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||1.3.21||Nürnberg||German||
Married name and/or changed name in Israel to: Mor Bing Miriam.
|Birnbaum, Ruth, Bertha||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||12.5.22||Hamelen||German|
|Birnbrey, Rosel||The Deventer Society (Herwikerwaard)||HERWIKERWAARD||p.a. Veldhorst||23.11.21||Stettin||German|
|Blau, Hanna||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||7.2.21||Köln||Stateless|
|Blumenfeld, Erich||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||29.7.12||Huesen||German|
|Blumenstein, Chana||The Deventer Society (Voorschoten)||VOORSCHOTEN||Veurssche weg 348||19.12.19||München||German|
|Boehm, Walther (Walter)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||17.8.19||Breslau||German|
|Bonze Mirjam (or Bomze, Marie?)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||18.4.21||Wien||German|
|Braun, Ruth||Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker||Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi)||22.4.20||Nürnberg||German|
|Brock, Ernst||The Deventer Society (Colmschate)||COLMSCHATE||G. Beekman, De Snippeling C.6 Colmschate||3.8.16||Frauenkirchen||German|
|Brück, Walther (Walter)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||1.xx.19||Bingen||German||
"Walter Brück left Bingen in April 1936 and went to Switzerland, from there to Holland. He was fortunate to be able to flee from Amsterdam via Antwerp to [Israel] on 16 July 1939 with the Dora, the last ship that left Holland for Palestine. He took the name David Barkai and lived in Kibbutz Hazorea, where he died in 1989."
|Calmann, Ludwig (Kalman), (Callman)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||12.5.17||Ratibor||German|
|Chambon, Wilhelmina||Berg-Stichting, Laren||Berg-Stichting, Laren (North Holland)||7.4.15||Groningen||Dutch|
|Cohen, Justus||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||Amstellaan 235||28.3.18||Groningen||Dutch|
|Cohen, Paul||The Deventer Society (Utrecht)||UTRECHT||Croeselaan 144||15.3.11||Dinslaken||German|
|Cohen, Philipp ("Flip") (Uri)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||Kastanjeplein 3||30.5.18||Amsterdam||Dutch||
"(In 1939) Philip (Uri) Cohen, brother of Samuel Cohen left for Palestine. Uri left with the Dora [...]"
"On Saturday, I ordered some taxis. We went with the whole group. That evening, I was home for a just little while. My mother said, "Are you leaving today?" We said: "See you in Eretz Israel". I took my backpack and left. Apart from my younger brother Samuel, I never saw them again. I came back to the Netherlands in 1945 as a soldier with the Jewish Brigade. I found Samuel in the Portuguese Israelite Hospital. He was just back from Bergen Belsen. All the others had been murdered."
Changed name to Cohen Uri in Israel
|Cohn, Bernd||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.5.19||Berlin||German|
|Cohn, Heinz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.2.20||Berlin||German|
|Daube, Elie||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||21.1.15||Königsbad||German|
|Dinner, Sara||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||13.12.11||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Ebel, Siegismund (Sigismund)||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||"De Vondelhof"
"Born on 28-07-1915 in Beuthen, Germany, now Poland. He stayed on the farm on Deurningen no. 17 with the Arnold ten Kate family in the municipality of Weerselo from November 1936 to April 1938. Sigismund came from London to Deurningen. He left for the club building at Brink 70 in Deventer. From here he went to Klarenbeek near Voorst and later to the youth hostel in 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk. From May 1939 he worked at the 'youth aliyah' the Vondelhof in Amsterdam, after which he left for Palestine with the Dora in 1939."
|Englard, Leo (Leiba ?)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||7.7.21||Przemysl||German|
|Fischer, Ernst, Jacob||(Almen: Het Laren)||ALMEN: Het Laren||p.a. Woestenenk||17.8.18||Frankenthal||German||Ernst Fischer did his hachshara in Jägerslust (Flensburg) until November 1938.|
|Förder, Ernst||Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker||Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi)||8.1.18||Beuthen||German|
|Frydmann, Mejer (Friedmann, Meyer)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||5.11.17||Postawie||Polish|
|Geisel, Siegfried||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||16.10.10||Bullay||German|
|Goldbach, Ilse||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||25.11.14||Marktbreid||German||
Married name: Horin Elza; previous married name: Frank
|Goldschmidt, Arno||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||25.8.07||Recksdorf||German|
|Goldschmidt, Julius, Ernst||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||30.03.20||Berkach||German|
|Goldstein, Lilo (Liselotte)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||12.2.18||Berlin||German||
Married name: Tachover Lilu (Lilo?)
|Gottlieb, Mary (married name: Weisskopf Miriam)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||15.12.21||Wien||German||
Married name: Weisskopf Miriam. Married to Herward Weisskopf (Herward Zvi Weisskopf), another passenger on the Dora.
|Goudsmit, Marianne||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Pres. Brandtstr. 74||13.9.18||Amsterdam||Polish|
|Griver, Norris||The Deventer Society||25.5.15||London||English|
|Gross, Simon||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||14.5.18||Wien||German|
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||2.1.14||Breslau||Stateless||
Martin Grünpeter's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
|Grünberger, Philip||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||3.1.13||Boskowitz||German|
|Gusdorf, Hans, Rudolf||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||10.4.21||Berlin||German||
Changed his name in Israel to: Gidron Reuven (Haro)
|Gutmann, Gustav, Gerhard||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||28.9.20||Berlin||German|
|Guttmann, Heinemann||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||13.12.15||Burgreppach||German||
Changed his name in Israel to: Gutman Elhanan.
|Haas, Edwin||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||13.1.20||Manheim||German|
|Heineberg, Walther (Walter)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||28.7.20||Dusseldorf||German||
Changed his first name to Heineberg Gavriel in Israel.
|Hirsch, Eva||The Deventer Society (Apeldoorn)||APELDOORN: "Het Apeldoornsche Bosch"||15.9.16||Berlin||German|
|Hirsch, Issy||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||13.11.19||Dusseldorf||German|
|Hirsch, Manfred||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||29.3.20||Berlin||German||
Changed name in Israel to Refaeli Moshe
|Hochberger, Abraham||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||21.6.18||Wien||German|
(Changed his name in Israel: Chaim Bar-Tikva)
||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||6.11.16||Schreiberhau||German||
Born on November 6, 1916 in Schreiberhaus (Lower Silesia). Died age 95 on 19. November 2011.
Heinz Hoffmann left Germany in 1936, and followed his agricultural training required for immigration to Palestine in Denmark from May 1936 to 1938. He then went to Amsterdam, from where he emigrated to Palestine on board the Dora in 1939. In Israel, he worked for almost 30 years with the shipping company "ZIM". He lived in Kiriat Yam since 1949. In addition to his work with Zim, he held various honorary posts, was a preacher and led the main synagogue of the city Kiriat Yam.
He had a son, several grandchildren and a large number of great-grandchildren.
|Horowitz, Marcus (Max)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||17.1.14||Frankfort||German||
Assuming this is the same person as Horvitz Mordechai.
|Israel, Manfred||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||7.9.20||Schlawe||German|
|Jacob, Leopold Siegfried||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||10.6.17||Berlin||German|
|Jacobsohn, Ernst||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||18.7.16||Hamburg||German|
|Jonas, Max Gerhard||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||16.4.21||Berlin||German|
|Kahn, Siegbert||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||5.7.20||Lichtenfels||Stateless|
|Kampf, Heinrich||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||24.2.16||Wien||German|
|Kapelner Heinrich (Kapellner)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||31.3.20||Köln||Polish|
|Katz, Abraham (Maybe same as Katz, Albert?)||The Deventer Society (Weelsche Broek)||WEELSCHE BROEK||p.a. Gerritsen||1.7.16||Nyirgelse||Hungarian|
|Katz, Albert (Maybe same as Katz, Abraham)||(Assuming Deventer society, based on the address: Papenstraat 45, Deventer)||Papenstraat 45, Deventer||Hungarian|
|* Katz, Benjamin||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||* name crossed out - maybe didn't board?|
|* Katz, Ignatz||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||* name crossed out - maybe didn't board?|
|Katz, Susi||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||25.7.18||Posen||German||
Born in Fuessen, Germany.
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||15.7.20||Berlin||Stateless||
Gerhard Katzenstein appears in one photograph taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.
Gerhard Katzenstein's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
Changed his name in Israel to Nevo Gershom
|Kaufmann, Ellen||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||28.1.20||Berlin||German|
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||22.9.18||Berlin||Stateless||
Ernst Kaufmann appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.
Ernst Kaufmann's photograph by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
|Kleestadt, Hans (Klestadt)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||19.4.20||Geseke||German|
|* Kohn, Mozes (?)||* handwritten list, name hard to read.
* Name crossed out on list; maybe did not board the Dora.
|Kornicker, Peter, J.||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||14.12.17||Breslau||German|
|Lampelz, Saul||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||27.10.20||Stuttgart||Polish|
|Landsberger, Walter||The Deventer Society (Klarenbeek bij Voorst)||KLARENBEEK bij Voorst||Papenstraat 45, Deventer||20.3.20||Goslar||German|
|Leefsma, Eddy (Eduard)||(Zenderen)||ZENDEREN; near Borne||1.5.17||Den Haag||Dutch||
"Born 31-05-1917 in The Hague. Deceased 28-01-2009 in Israel.
He stayed in Hasselo no. 55 with the family Jan Lambertus Snuverink on the farm 'De Bongerd' from June 1938 until February 1939. Eduard/Eddy came from Diepenveen to Hasselo, then he went to the Smit family in Zenderen. From the about thirty pioneers who lived in the municipality of Borne, ten stayed at this address in the course of the years. In July 1939 Eduard left to Palestine on the 'Dora'. He later married the widow Clara Helena Goldschmidt-Leefsma. They had two children together.
His parents, sister Ella and brothers Raphaël and Frits all died in concentration camp Sobibor, Poland. "
Eddy Leefsma's letters and documents (1939-1995) are in Yad Vashem: "Eddy Leefsma, born in Utrecht, 1917, (who) made aliya to Eretz Israel in 1939."
|Lesser, Eva||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||26.4.19||Berlin||German|
|Levie, Kurt||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||7.10.12||Essen||Polish|
|Levy, Hans||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||6.7.18||Berlin||German|
|Lewinsky, Hans, Arnold||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||6.12.19||Neustettin||German|
|Lewinsohn, Kurt (Curt)||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||?.12.12||Osterode||German|
|Lewy, Ruth (Levy)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||22.3.21||-||German|
|Litten, Harry||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||20.2.10||Posen||German|
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||20.10.21||Dusseldorf||German||
Hans Loeb appears in two photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.
Hans Loeb's photo by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
|Loewenthal, Bernhard||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||22.7.20||Schoneberg||German|
|Loszynski, Ernst||The Deventer Society (Hall, bij Eerbeek)||HALL, bij Eerbeek.||p.a. H. J. Maaldering 23.
Papenstraat 45, Deventer
|Luft, Günter||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Topaasstr. 7. p/a. Koopman||21.9.12||Lubschan||German|
|Mainzer, Alfred||The Deventer Society (Hummelo)||HUMMELO||J.E. Hupkes, Op de Kip, A, 109 Hummelo||25.3.20||Wisseck||German|
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.5.20||Lüdinghausen||German||
Changed name in Israel to Mainzer Omri (Robert)
|Maks, Rita||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||23.10.14||Haarlem||Dutch|
|Margulius, Heinz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||28.5.21||Berlin||German|
|Marx, Ernst||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||30.9.16||Erfurt||German|
|Masur, Klaus||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||29.2.20||Breslau||German|
|Mattuscak, David (Matuszak)||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||24.7.17||Gelsenkirchen||Polish|
|Mendelsohn, Kurt||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||31.1.21||Gr. Strelitz||German|
|Meyer, Behrend (Meyer Berend, Leo), (Mayer, Berend Leo)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||26.2.14||Hamburg||German|
|Münzer, Walter||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||28.4.12||Berlin||German||
"Born 28-04-1912 in Berlin, Germany. Walter stayed in Hasselo no. 60 at the Gerhardus Leuveld family farm 'de Kogelboer' in the municipality of Weerselo, from February 1937 to February 1939. He came to the Netherlands from Berlin. He was a pioneer of the Deventer Association and stayed before he came to Hasselo in the association building at Brink 70. After his stay in Hasselo he left for the youth hostel 'De Assumburg' in Heemskerk.
His father died in 1933, his mother was a victim of the Holocaust. His sister Dorothea survived the war, she left for Palestine."
|Naftalie, Erich||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||3.5.20||Dortmund||German|
|Nattenheimer, Kurt||The Deventer Society (Hasselo)||HASSELO 5||p.a. Sanderman
Papenstraat 45, Deventers
"Born 04-08-1920 Hamburg, Germany. He stayed, coming from Weerselo, from late June 1939 to mid July 1939 in 'De Korenbloem' before leaving for Palestine."
Possibly: Kurt Nattenheimer (Netta), who married Gerda Gila Lipper and lived on Kibbutz Gal'ed. see geni.com. One of the founders of Kibbutz Gal'ed was Giora Yoseftal who had been involved in the early stages of the Dora trip. See: wikipedia.org
|Niedermann, Simon E. (Ernst)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||8.9.20||Frankfort||German|
|Noahfeldt, Wolfram (Noafeldt)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||2.4.21||Königsberg||German|
|Nussbaum, Paul, Karl (Paul)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.3.20||Berlin||German|
|Ochs, Rudolf||The Deventer Society (Ellecom)||ELLECOM||G. Frederiks,
||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||15.8.19||Marktbreid||German||
Changed his name in Israel to Mordechai Oppenheimer.
|Oppenheimer, Walter (Oppenheim ?)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||30.12.17||-||Stateless|
|Polak, Edmund (Pollack)||The Deventer Society (Voorst)||VOORST||Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam||23.11.13||Wien||German|
|Radzewski, Bernd||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||14.3.16||Wriesen||German|
||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||31.8.19||Stanislawo||Stateless||
"Born 31-08-1919 in Stanislav, Russia. Deceased in 2010 in Omer, Israel.
He stayed on the farm on Hasselo no. 46 (municipality of Weerselo) with the family Jan Willem Huiskes from June 1937 to February 1938. He came here from Amsterdam, where his parents lived. After his stay in Hasselo he left for Brummen and a year later to Heemskerk. He left in July 1939 to Palestine with the 'Dora'. He married Deborah Schönfeld.
His parents and his brother Gerchon survived the war. His brother Rubin and sister Erna died with her family in the Holocaust.
Source and photo: hoorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
Alternate name: Rawet, Samuel Judel
|Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||12.2.18||Altona||Polish|
|Reens, Elias (Eliahu)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||Pl.Muidergr. 27||3.1.13||Amsterdam||Dutch||
Name: Reens Eliyahu
|Riez, Hermann||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||9.9.20||-||Hungarian|
|Roodveldt, Jakob||Berg-Stichting, Laren||Berg-Stichting, Laren||3.9.15||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Roodveldt, Mietje||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||5.5.14||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Rooz, Isaak (Isaac)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||22.2.19||-||Hungarian|
|Rosen, Bernhard||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||15.11.20||Magdeburg||Stateless|
|Rosenberg, Heinz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||29.6.17||Thorn||German||Assuming this is the same person as Heinrich
Rosenberg as he was born in Thorn
Heinrich Rosenberg did his hachshara in Jägerslust (Flensburg) until November 1938.
|Rosenberger, Emil||The Deventer Society (Vierakker)||VIERAKKER||H. Wagenvoort, Vierakker||12.1.10||Iwan Unger||German|
|Rosenblatt, Eli||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||30.6.21||-||German|
|Rosenfeld, Josef, Joachim (Janos J. ?)||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||24.12.13||Breslau||Hungarian|
|Rottenberg, Lucia (Luzia)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||22.8.21||Wien||German|
|Rottenberg, Rubin||Enschede Hachscharah Agudas Yisroel||10.12.15||Berlin||Polish|
|* Rubinstajn, Hanna (Rubinstein, Channa, Chana)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||16.7.17||Lodz||Polish||* Name crossed out|
|Ruhemann, Ursula||The Deventer Society (Zandvoort)||ZANDVOORT||p.a. Waldeck Breederoodeweg 45 a.||28.2.21||Berlin||German|
|Russ, Günter||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam||21.6.14||Berlin||German||
"Born 21-06-1914 in Berlin, Germany.
Günter was a pioneer of the Deventer Association. In January 1937 he lived for a short time, together with Walter Münzer* (*another Dora passenger), in the association building at the Brink 70 in Deventer. Before coming to this address, he lived at two other addresses in the municipality of Weerselo, namely Hasselo No. 42 and Deurningen No. 21.
Günter stayed on the farm of the Sanderman family in Hasselo No. 5 (municipality of Weerselo) from November 1938 to February 1939, after which he left for Amsterdam. In July 1939 he left for Palestine.
His mother died in the Holocaust, the fate of the further family is unknown."
|Sallein, Werner||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||8.2.18||Berlin||German|
|Sanders, Adolf||The Deventer Society (Enschede)||ENSCHEDE||Prinsenstraat 12||27.2.17||Arnhem||Dutch||
Alternate name: Benjamin (Amos) Adolf Sanders
Changed name to Sanders Amos ("previous first name: Benjamin")
|Schelasnitzki, Horst (Schelanitzky)
||Kibbutz Misrachi, Franeker||Franeker, Harlingerweg 45 (Kibbutz Misrachi)||1.6.21||Darkehmen||German|
||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||19.8.19||Heilbronn||German||
Kurt Scheuer appears on several photographs taken by Roman Vishniak in the training camp Werkdorp Wieringermeer in 1939. See Joods Cultureel Kwartier.
Kurt Scheuer's photo by Roman Vishniak, (c) Erven Vishniac / International Center of Photography New York.
Portrait photo from maapilim.org
|Schönenbaum, Heinz (Schönebaum) (Later changed name to: Ilan Chanoch)||The Deventer Society (Deventer)||DEVENTER||Papenstraat 45
B. Oosterink, Brinkweg 28, Rheden
Changed his name in Israel to Ilan Chanoch.
|Selka, Hermann||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||11.9.19||Frankfurt||German||
Changed name in Israel to Selka Zwi.
|Siegel, Kurt||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||6.7.21||Altona||German|
|Sigal, Markus||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||24.4.18||Groningen||Dutch|
|Silberstein, Hermann||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.1.21||Berlin||German|
|Simonie, Heinz (Simonis ?)||(Zeddam)||ZEDDAM||Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam||30.4.19||Berlin||German|
|Singer, Ascher||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||16.12.20||Ustrzyki||Polish|
|Singer, Michael||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||4.2.12||Baden||German|
|Sondheimer, Ewald||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Frederikstr. I8 a.||16.8.19||Neuhof||German||
"Born 16-08-1919 in Neuhof-Fulda, Germany. Deceased 21-11-1996 in Beit Yitzchak, Israel. He stayed on a farm on Deurningen no. 17 with the Arnold ten Kate family in the municipality of Weerselo from October 1936 to April 1938. Ewald was a pioneer of the Deventer Association. He was the youngest of a family of three children. The family left for Hünfeld in 1929 and to Kassel in May 1933. Ewald left for the Netherlands in 1936, the rest of the family followed a year later. He then came to Deurningen as a farmer in October 1936 and then moved to the club building at Brink 70 in Deventer. He became very active with the Hachshara movement. Ewald lived among others in the 'youth aliyah' the Vondelhof.
After coming to Eretz Israel, Ewald changed his name to Shlomo and founded a new kibbutz with other pioneers from the Dora. He lived there with his wife Hava Eva Levy, whom he knew from the Netherlands and with whom he married in Palestine. After a few years they left for Emek Hefer, where they started their own settlement Nira. Their two children were born here. Their farm became a great success and an example for many others. In the 1970s, he engaged more in local politics and soon rose to leadership positions. In his function as "Regional Council deputy" he actively participated in the exchange between Israel and Germany. He died in 1996. His sister Liesel Wijnman and her family died in the Holocaust. His sister Elli survived and moved back to Germany in 1957 with her family.
|Sonnenberg, Fritz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||14.8.21||Koblenz||German|
|Spatz, Max (Maks)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||1.4.20||Worms||Polish|
|Spitzer, Gerda||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||26.8.18||Baden||German|
|Spuch, Oskar (Oscar)||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||2.1.18||Wieden||Polish|
|Steiner, Ladislaw (Laszlo)||The Deventer Society (Deventer)||DEVENTER||Papenstraat 45, Deventer||5.11.11||Hüdin||Hungarian|
|Steinhof, Ludwig||The Deventer Society (Gouda)||GOUDA||Catharina-Hoeve,R.v. Catsweg 61, Gouda||13.11.17||Mattesberg||German|
|Stern, Günter||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||29.9.21||Breslau||German|
|Sternberg, Rafael (Raphael)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||4.5.20||Berlin||German||
Changed name in Israel to Kochavi Raphael (Rafi)
|Sternfeld, Fritz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||15.8.14||Halle||German|
|Stoppelmann, Max||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||19.5.19||Hamburg||German|
|Stopper, Arthur||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||25.12.20||Bochum||Stateless|
|Strassburger, Berthold||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||13.10.18||Ulm||German|
|Strauss, Hans||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||8.11.14||Westemburg||German|
|Strauss, Josef||The Deventer Society (Krajenburg bij Hengelo)||KRAJENBURG bij HENGELO||Papenstraat 45, Deventer||5.4.16||Bamberg||German|
|Taubes, Mirjam||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||13.11.19||Baden||German|
|Tausz, Jene (Jennö)||The Deventer Society (Assenburg)||ASSENBURG: "Heemskerk"||Jeugdherberg, "Assumberg", Heemskerk||30.7.18||Pápa||Hungarian||
"He came from Budapest on 16 June 1938 to the association building at the Brink 70 in Deventer and left for Deurningen a week later."
|Teichmann, Benno||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||19.10.21||Breslau||German|
|Timmendorfer, Heinrich||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||Uithoornstr. 44||7.4.17||Pless,||German|
|van Amerongen, Emil||The Deventer Society (Buurssen, em. Haaksbergen)||BUURSSEN (em. Haaksbergen)||13.6.18||Haarlem||Dutch|
|Verdoner, Alida||The Deventer Society (Amsterdam)||Amsterdam||22.?.18||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Wajntrob, Dwojra (Waintrob, Dwoire, Deborah)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Beverwijk: Velsen-Noord||6.10.17||Warschau||Polish|
|Warschawzik, Ernst||The Deventer Society (Hengelo)||HENGELO||Deldenerstr. 57||4.5.19||Kopenhagen||Danzig||
Name (?): Iron Varshevchik David Ernest
|Weinberg, Carla (Karla)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||29.6.09||Hamburg||German|
|Weinberg, Klaus||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||27.5.16||Wupperthal||German|
|Weinberg, Ruth||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||2.3.22||Dortmund||German|
|Weisskopf, Herwarth (Herward)||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||7.3.17||Ratiber||German||
Weisskopf Zvi Herward, married Mary Gottlieb (Miriam Weisskopf), another passenger on the Dora.
||The Deventer Society||29.10.15||Emden||Stateless||
Born 23 October 1915 in Emden, Germany. Deceased 1 January 1999 in Israël.
Isaak Windmüller and his family left Germany in 1933 and moved to the Netherlands. He then left Holland on the the Dora and arrived in Mandate Palestine in August 1939. During the war he served in the British army. After 1945, Isaak Windmüller found a new home in Israel. He died in 1999.
When Isaak embarked on the ship 'Dora', his brother Max accompanied him. At the last moment he let himself be talked to stay in the Netherlands to give co-guidance to the Palestine pioneers. In early 1942 Max Windmüller ended up Camp Westerbork, from where he escaped. Later that year he joined the resistance group of Joop Westerweel. Max Windmüller was involved in the escape route to Spain that the Westerweel group organized for Palestine Pioneers. It is estimated that around 400 of them including his own brother Emil were saved from certain death thanks to his work. He was betrayed and arrested while attempting to free Palestine pioneers from a prison in Paris. Deported to Buchenwald, he was killed by a guard during the death march to Dachau on April 21, 1945, one day before the column of prisoners were to be liberated by the US army, and two weeks before the end of the war.
|Wittner, Franz||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||7.9.16||-||German|
|Wodlenberg, Rita||The Deventer Society (Brummen)||BRUMMEN||p.a. Beker||23.7.20||Elberfeldt||German|
|Wolff, Fritz||The Deventer Society (Deurningen)||DEURNINGEN||H. Leufeld, Deutningen H.6o||1.10.14||Bingerbrück||German|
|Wolff, Willy, Günter||(Delden)||Delden: Wiene G.79||G.Wijnbergen,G.79, Wiene, Ambt-Delden||15.2.18||Strigau||German|
|Wolkowicz, Szyje, (Wollkowicz, Szyje)||Mizrachi Kibbutz Dat-va-Eretz, Beverwijk||Amsterdam||Jekerstr. 5||4.3.19||Zelow||Stateless|
|Worms, Hetty||The Deventer Society (Den Haag)||DEN HAAG||15.12.16||Amsterdam||Dutch|
|Wreschinsky, Walter (Wreschinski)||The Deventer Society (Warnsveld)||WARNSVELD|| Rouvenhorst
Gasthuismolensteeg 14, Amsterdam
|ZobeI, AIfred||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||Werkdorp Wieringermeer||4.2.11||Berlin||German|
List of refugees who boarded the Dora in Antwerp, 19 July 1939
Source: The Foreign Police in Belgium ARA; Foreign Police files, A177.761 (via Janiv Stamberger)
The list contains 171 names.
|Name||Date of Birth||Notes|
|Arndt, Erna||14.11.1906||Erna Koenigsberger, born November 1906 in Liegnitz, Poland. Married Georg Arndt in 1929. One daughter: Rosemarie Arndt. (Source: Jewishgen)|
|Arndt, Georg||30.5.1896||Georg Arndt, born in May 1896 in Regenwalde, Poland. Married Erna Koenigsberger in 1929. One daughter: Rosemarie Arndt. (Source: Jewishgen)|
Israel Austern's name appears in the Palestine Gazette of 25th November, 1943, for the registration of a newly formed business partnership named Sabon "Esther" dealing in perfumery and cosmetic goods, (10th October, 1943.)
The address is : 18b, King George Street, Tel Aviv
Place of birth: Germany
|Gallewski , Josef||21.5.1917|
|Goldberg, Ruth||7.7.??||(year unreadable)|
|Goldenhar, Abraham (Goldenhaar)
Photo source: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger
|Goldenhar, Hanni (Hani Einhorn)
Photo source: Foreign Police files, A177.761, via Janiv Stamberger
|Gutmann, Eva||16.3?.1920||(month not clear)|
|Halpern, Leo||31.12.192? (1920?)||(year not clear)|
photo source: maapilim
|Katz, Lous (Louis?)||22.7.1904|
Toni Katz did her hachshara in Flensburg, Germany, which was cut short by the events of Kristallnacht. Back home in Gera, she hid with friends for several months until she received a notice that a boat was beeing readied for Palestine - did she want to go?. She made her way across Germany into Belgian illegally (she was a statelss Jew, and so couldn't get an visa) and spent a month in Belgium, further waiting for the arrival of the Dora. She first lived in a kibbutz in Raanana, then started a new kibbutz in Maoz Chaim. Later moved to Tel Aviv, then in the early 50's went to Paris, where she resided until her death.
|Malz, Emil||2.10.1915 *||Year unclear|
|Maml(ot?), Rosa||23.4.1905||(first name unreadable)|
Changed his name in Israel to Pinchas Sachsenhaus.
Born in Munich
Possibly same person as Miriam Sachsenhaus; wife of Pinchas (Philip) Sachsenhaus.
Maiden name: Berkhausen.
Born in Lünen, Germany.
Married name, changed first name in Israel to: Neuhaus Yael.
Born in Germany.
Günter Stillmann (born: 2nd May 1912, † 27.01.1986), a Jewish communist and German resistance fighter. His resistance work included printing pamphlets, providing assistance to detaines and acting as messenger courrier for the for the KPD.
"After the pogroms of the Nazis, he travelled to Palestine, but came back after a short time."
He returned to Germany in 1948. As a Jewish communist, he decided to live in the GDR. He is buried in the cemetery of the Socialists in Berlin-Friedichsfelde.
Günter Stillmann: Berlin - Palästina und zurück Erinnerungen
Born in Aurich, Lower Saxony, Germany.
He was then taken to Antwerp with others "in a box with the inscription" 'Beware of Glass'". From there he took a boat to Palestine (the Dora).
In 1957, Siegfried, his wife Edith (formerly Kahn) and son Gerschon moved back to Germany, to the state of Bremen. He was a member of the board of the the Israelite community of Bremen, then chairman of the community.
Additional names from maapilim.org and other sources, not on the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists. Assuming these passengers boarded in Amsterdam as the Antwerp list seems to be an official, complete list, unlike the list from Amsterdam.
Total number: 6
|Name||D.O.B||Place of birth||Notes|
|Erster, Jakob (previous first name: Oskar)||22/11/1903||Nowosielec, Galicia, Poland||
(Source and photo:
|Brant, Lutz (Bar Neta, Shaul)||Germany||
Changed his name in Israel: Bar Neta, Shaul
|Waller, Heinz (Haim)||21/05/1920||Schwiebus, Germany||
Changed his name in Israel to Waller, Haim
Appears on geni.com as Heinz (Chaim) Waller, but different date - born 1918
Also listed on www.heimatkreis-zuellichau-schwiebus.de as Waller, Chaim (Heinz) 21.05.1920
|Weinberg, Lutz||26/05/1920||Berlin, Germany||
Changed name in Israel to Karmi Dan
Changed his name in Israel to Mohl, Raphael
|Oppenheimer, Jacob||Frankfurt am Main, Germany||
Jacob Oppenheimer came to Holland in 1936 from Frankfurt am Main.
He said: In 1939, we were brought to Heemskerk (15 miles from Amsterdam), where we had to wait for a couple of weeks. On July 14th, I was brought to the house of Dr. Pinkhof in Amsterdam. I was very religious and couldn't travel on Shabbat. Dr. Pinkhof's house wasn't far from the harbor, so on Saturday, they came and picked me up and they took me straight to the Dora. It was a small ship, full of people, but we never felt unsafe on the ship. The only danger we feared would come from the British."
He later lived in the moshav Kfar HaRoeh and worked for the Israeli Ministry of (?)Source: Chaya Brasz.
Possible Additional Names or Duplicates
Additional names from maapilim.org not on the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists. Since these are all Hebrew names, they could represent passengers already listed under their original German names in the Amsterdam or Antwerp lists.
Total number: 4
|Name||D.O.B||Place of birth||Notes|
This could be an unlisted passenger, or could be the Hebraized name of one of these passengers:
Justus Cohen, Paul Cohen or Artur Cohen.
This could be the same person as Frydmann, Mejer
(Friedmann, Meyer), although listed as Polish, and was born in 1917.
- Special Thanks:
- Chaya Brasz, for graciously allowing me to post a translation of her article on the Dora
- Bernd Philipsen, for the scans of contemporary newspaper articles about the Dora odyssey
- Janiv Stamberger, for sharing a copy of the passenger list who boarded the Dora in Antwerp. (The Foreign Police in Belgium ARA; Foreign Police files, A177.761)
- Rina Offenbach, Director BeNetivei Haapalah, Illegal immigrant database and information center, Atlit Detention Camp, Israel. for sharing a copy of the list of passengers who boarded the Dora in Amsterdam.
- Erik Post, for translating the Dora article
- Liron Katz, for translating Hillel Yarkoni's article
- Related Links:
- Dora page on the Maapilim.org site
- Partial list of passengers aboard the Dora
- Yoel Golomb's testimony on www.palyam.org
- The "Dora" - The story of the illegal immigrant ship. Original Hebrew article Sfinot maapilim me’alef ad tav. Tel Aviv, 2005.
- Wertheimer Haapalah Project
- Paul H. Silverstone's Aliyah Bet Project
- "Be Strong and Brave! A small youth movement in a sea of history. The Hashomer Hatzair Antwerp (1920-1948)". . Master thesis History Department University of Ghent 2012-2013..
- Ha'Mossad Le'Aliya Bet
- References and Publications:
- "Dodenschip Dora; Een oude kolenboot redde honderden Joden ondanks Nederlandse tegenwerking". Vrij Nederland, May 1, 1993.
- Sfinot maapilim me’alef ad tav. Tel Aviv, 2005.
- "Be Strong and Brave! A small youth movement in a sea of history. The Hashomer Hatzair Antwerp (1920-1948)".. Master thesis History Department University of Ghent 2012-2013.
- "From Lioness: Golda Meir and the Nation of Israel".. Schocken, 2017
- The Ambiguity of Virtue: Gertrude van Tijn and the fate of the Dutch Jews. Harvard University Press, 2014