Alternate names: Moshe, Moise
Alternate spellings: Maurizio, Mauricio, Maurissio, Morisyo, Moritz, Maurice
Moritz Abraham, my grand-father, was born in Bulgaria, lived in Constantinople, lived in Germany and spent the last part of his life in Paris. Orphaned at the age of ten, he was a self-made man who made, then lost, a fortune.
Date of birth
Moritz' exact date of birth is somewhat unclear, as he or his close family used no less than five different dates, including on official and legal documents.
- The most credible birthdate is what appears on the 1932 transcript of his birth certificate issued by the Sepharadic Congregation of Rustchuk: "Maurissio Abraham" was born on 13 January 1881.
- Surprisingly though, he most often used January 21, 1883, for his passports for example. However, this date is not credible since his brother Isak was born in 1883, less than 9 months later.
- In 1929, in the business registry of Constantinople, Moritz used January 1, 1883
- In 1942, during the German occupation in Paris, his identification card showed the impossible date of January 23, 1883, as his birthdate.
- Earlier, in Düsseldorf in the Thirties, he had used March 23, 1881
- His son Uriel used March 23, 1882 for legal documents - getting the day, the month and the year wrong.
- Finally, his wife Ronya simply used March 1881 in a couple of legal documents in the fifties, as if she didn't know the exact date.
Why did he use so many variations since he had in his possession an official birth certificate? Did he have reasons to obfuscate his age? Was he confused? Does this mean he never celebrated his birthday, as even his own son got the date wrong?
Nothing is known about Moritz's parents, save that Mamo, his father was a merchant in Rustchuk, and that the family belonged to the Sepharad community.
Moritz lost his mother to tuberculosis when he was eight or nine, then his father when he was only ten years old.
A group portrait taken while he was fifteen in Rustchuk is the only document from his early life.
Haim, Moritz, Isak and Mony Abraham. Rustchuk, 1896.
Moritz Abraham, age 15, Rustchuk, 1896.
The European-styled clothes Moritz and his brothers are wearing suggests a well-to-do, middle-class background - if these clothes were not borrowed for the shoot of course.
Very little is known about Moritz's early life in Rustchuk, however we can assume his life was similar to the life of his older brother Haim, for whom there is more information, and to whom he seemed to have been close.
He most likely received a modern, Western education and was probably closer in spirtit to Germany or France than to "the Orient".
Probably following the lead of his older brother Haim, he belonged to the Ruschuk Maccabi - the Jewish gymnastic association.
Nothing is known about Moritz's life between 1896 and 1908.
However, a pair of tickets to the Paris 1900 Exposition Universelle (World Fair) preserved with family papers suggest that he probably attended the World Fair, and travelled to Western European cities like his brother Haim did.
Exposition Universelle, Paris,1900
In the summer of 1908, Moritz and his brother Haim left Rustchuk and moved to Constantinople.
The event is mentioned in "HaMaccabi Be'Artzot HaBalkan" (The Maccabi in Balkan states) by David Rimon:
"A few weeks after the Young Turks revolution [July 1908, GR], the brothers Haim Abraham and Maurice Abraham, members of Maccabi Rustchuk in Bulgaria, came to Constantinople."
Moritz was born in Bulgaria - a province of the Ottoman Empire that had achieved autonomy in 1878 and would achieve full independance in September 1908.
I suppose that Moritz was an Ottoman citizen, as Bulgaria - although an autonomous province by the time of his birth - was still under Turkish control. However, he would have had to become a Bulgarian national when Bulgaria became independant.
During the Balkan Wars of 1912, Bulgaria and Turkey were ennemies, raising the question of where his loyalty would have been. By then, he resided in Constantinople, and Ronya, his Russian wife volunteered as a war nurse with the Turkish Red Crescent, suggesting that he was - either from self-interest, conviction or from cultural reasons - closer to Turkey than to Bulgaria.
However, the birth certificate for his first son Gisy was drawn by the "Community of Foreign Jews in Constantinople", indicating that he didn't hold Turkish nationality. Actually, the only passports under his name that have survived were issued by the Spanish consulate in Constantinople.
How did this happen?
The reasons and circumstances for his acquiring a new, somewhat artificial nationality - he had never even set foot in Spain - are not clear. This decision however would later prove extremely fortunate as it would provide him and his family some unusual consular protection during the German occupation of Paris during WWII.
I remember my mother telling me that after WW1, people where he lived were able to chose their nationality. According to her, he had at first considered applying for the Austrian nationality, because it seemed more desirable to have an Austrian passport than a Turkish one.
Why Austria? Article 1 of the peace treaty of Passarowitz signed between Austria and Turkey in 1718 granted Jews who were Turkish subjects the right to live and trade freely in Austria. This regulation was again confirmed in the Peace Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, and this is how Turkish Jews began to enjoy unrestricted movement in Austria, with a colony of Turkish Jews settling in Vienna in the eighteen century. This treaty worked both ways, granting similar protection to Austrian subjects in Turkey.
Were the terms of this treaty still recognized in the early twentieth century, and was this the basis for his attempt at Austrian nationality?
However - still according to my mother - upon learning that as an Austrian national he would have to serve in the army of the Emperor, he concluded that he was not so eager to become an Austrian citizen after all, and decided to apply for a Spanish passport instead.
Note: my mother's explanation doesn't seem to make complete sense, at least as described above, as there would not be an Emperor to fight for after the end of WW1. It is possible that Moritz could have considered the Austrian nationality before WW1 - then the issue of becoming a soldier would have made sense. It's also possible that he may have considered the option after WW1, but judged that after the defeat and the disintegration of the Empire, the Austrian nationality was not so attractive after all.
It's also possible that the whole Austrian nationality story is wrong altogether...
According to my father, Western European powers, including Spain, wanted to claim as many citizens as possible in the Ottoman Empire - in order to increase their position in regards to the Capitulations which gave them influence and economic rights in Turkey.
Coming from a town were all the Jews were Sepharad and spoke Ladino, he was considered by Spain a descendant of Jews expelled from Spain in 1492, and thus could claim Spanish citizenship.
However, the Primo de Rivera law which granted Spanish nationality to descendants of Sephardic Jews was passed in 1924; Yet Moritz and his wife Ronya already held Spanish passports by 1922. It seems however that the Spanish Consulate in Constantinople had already been providing passports to Sephardic Jews in the region before the existence of the 1924 law.
According to "The Spanish Consulate in Istanbul and the Protection of the Sephardim (1804-1913)" by Pablo Martín Asuero, Sepharad Jews were already granted Spanish protection by the Consulate in Constantinople before the 1924 law. According to this document, a number of Jews had left the new Balkan states in 1912/1913 to settle in Istanbul, and some of them requested the protection of the Spanish consulate. Asuero mentions "... 70 records of Sephardic protection that date to 1913 (...) (containing) information on around 220 people (including) the names of the spouses and children."
It seems that the request for Spanish protection was generally granted to Jews of Spanish origin, especially if they had sufficient means - their protection then beeing deemed beneficial for Spain.
The following could certainly have been applied in Moritz' case:
"The applicant has a good background and a wealthy position which in his capacity as trader and trade representative can serve Spanish interests."
Life in Constantinople
In Constantinople, Moritz owned a succesful import/export business with his oldest brother, Haim. The company, called "Abraham Freres", imported metal goods such as razor blades from Germany and distributed them all over the Levant.
Moritz, "Cospoli" (Constantinople), 1908 (lying, left)
Card: Tenth Anniversary of the Israelitischer Turnverein Konstantinopel
The "Israelitischer Turnverein Konstantinopel" ("Israelite Gymnastic Association of Constantinople") was founded in 1895 in Constantinople by Jews of German and Austrian extraction who had been rejected from participating in other social sport clubs. It would eventually evolve into the Maccabi Sports club.
The presence of this card among family photos and letters is the only reminder that Moritz belonged to the Jewish sports organisation in Constantinople. His brother Haim seemed to have played an important role with the group, and Moritz is also mentioned in a story of the organization "HaMaccabi Be'Artzot HaBalkan" (The Maccabi in Balkan states) by David Rimon:
"(...) the brothers Haim Abraham and Maurice Abraham, members of Maccabi Rustchuk in Bulgaria, came to Constantinople. The brothers started working immediately upon their arrival and contributed a lot of their time and energy to the development of the [Maccabi, DA] association."
Moritz, like his brother Haim, was a Zionist, as demonstrated by donations Abraham Freres made over the years, and his involvement with various proto-Zionist organizations (Maccabi, Bnei Brit.)
On the first anniversary of his marriage, Moritz purchased an olive tree in the Herzl forest in Jerusalem "for his wife, to commemorate her conversion to Zionism."
Tree certificate from the JNF, May 1913
However, this doesn't mean that Moritz considered immigration to Palestine. According to "Jews, Turks, Ottomans", by Avigdor Levy:
"[...] little evidence to suggest that Turkish Zionists were very concerned by the emigration to Palestine". [...] Turkish Zionism tended to be more cultural than political. It was a search for a "national" identity at a time when other religious communities in the empire were asserting their own national identities.
According to a 1962 testimonial written by his brother-in-law Asher Mallah, Moritz was President of the "Federation Sioniste d'Orient" in Constantinople. (The Federation Sioniste d'Orient was created in 1919 and recruited 4000 members in Istanbul, but stopped its activities around 1922 or 1923. In 1923, after the proclamation of the Turkish Republic, all Zionist activities became prohibited and Zionism became an underground movement.) However, since this is something I never heard mentioned at home, and since I didn't find any corrobating documents in the few family papers, I have to treat this with caution. I assume that if this had been the case, I would have heard a mention or found some document related to this leadership role.
Letter from Asher Mallah mentioning la Federation Sioniste d'Orient
One document that confirms Moritz's involvement in a Zionist organization is a paragraph from the Wiener Morgenzeitung dated July 27, 1922, with a mention of Moritz being the "National Commissar of the Jewish National Fund":
Article about Zionist activity in Constantinople. Wiener Morgenzeitung, 27 July 1922
Source: Bernd Philipsen.
"The Greek High Commissioner in Constantinople received the National Commissar of the Jewish National Fund, Mr. Moritz Abraham who had requested the permission to transfer donations from Adrianople to the main office of Keren Kayemet, assuring him that Greece had a genuine friendship for Zionism and that he wanted to do everything to facilitate the work of the National Fund in Thrace. The Chief Superintendent asked Mr. Abraham to inform the Zionist Executive (?) that it was not his personal opinion on Zionism that made his assistance possible, but the official policy of the Greek government, and authorized him to publish this statement."
Another document is the transcript of the twelfth Zionist Congress held in Carlsbad in September 1921. Maurice Abraham's name appears in the list of delegates who participated in the congress.
List of delegates, p 24
List of delegates who voted "Yes", p 619
Ronya's mother had died in 1909. Shortly thereafter, Ronya and her two younger siblings, Eva and Israel, came to Constantinople to stay with their older sister Berta. Berta's husband was a prominent member of the Jewish Community and through his contacts, Berta was able to arrange for her sister Ronya to find a "suitable" husband.
Ronya and Moritz got engaged in December of 1911.
Ronya and Moritz's Engagement Announcement in L'Aurore, Constantinople, May 1912
Moritz and Ronya Datnowsky were married in May 19, 1912 in Constantinople.
Ronya and Moritz, Constantinople, May 1912
Wedding announcement, in French. 1912
Wedding announcement, in German. 1912
Moritz and Ronya lived in Pera (now Beyoglu), a residential area. Their address (confirmed between 1917 and 1921) was:Sourp Agop
Arif Pascha Han
Constantinople Arif Pacha
Elmadag 14 (Pancalti) Notes from Mehmet Sadettin Fidan:
"Sourp agop and Elmadag are the same place. Arif Pasha Appartment is in Elmadag Street, located in Pera (now Beyoglu)"
This photo, showing the funeral procession for a German sailor, was taken from the apartment of Moritz and Ronya Abraham in 1913, and gives an idea of where their neighborhood.
View from Moritz and Ronya's apartment in "Cospoli" (Constantinople), 1913
In 1917, Moritz' and Ronya's first child, Gedeon (Gisi), was born
Moritz and Gisi, Constantinople, 1917 or 1918
22 March, 1918, L'Aurore announces that Moritz and Ronja have set up a prize to commemorate their son Gideon's first birthday, to be awarded every year to students from four schools belonging to the Hilfverein der Deutschen Juden showing excellence in Hebrew studies. Four students are selected for the first time in 1918.
Hebrew Prize to celebrate Gideon's first birthday. L'Aurore, 22 March 1918
In 1918, a second son, Uriel (Uly), was born
Moritz with Gisy and Uly, Constantinople, 1919
Note the announcement for the bris in French.
Moritz, ca. 1921
According to my mother, Ronja didn't want to live in Turkey and argued that since Moritz' business operated between Germany and Turkey, the family might as well live in Germany, which corresponded more to her expectations.
In 1922, Moritz purchased an empty lot in Düsseldorf on LindenmannStrasse, across from St Pauluskirche.
LindenmanStrasse, Düsseldorf. The empty lot where the house was built.
Düsseldorf is near Solingen, a region known for its cutlery/metal blade industry; the choice of Düsseldorf may have been caused - at least in part - by its proximity to several suppliers of Abraham Freres (Germania-Werk, Kamphausen & Plümacher, etc.)
It seems that first Ronya went to Germany with Uriel and Gisy, while Moritz stayed behind in Constantinople, taking care of business. While the house was being built, Ronya, the children, and their nurse stayed in a pension in Düsseldorf. After the house was finished, the family moved in and, in December 1922, Moritz came to Düsseldorf.
Moritz's Passport, 1922
Four pages covered with stamps - required to travel to Germany in December 1922 - January 1923, with transit through Serbia, Greece, Hungary, Holland and more... A few more stamps are for travel to Vienna, Constantinople and Bulgaria in 1923
This travel document was delivered by the Spanish consulate in Constantinople in November 1922.
According to a December 8, 1922, letter from Elfriede (Mädi) Abraham (wife of Mony) to Ronya, Moritz's departure had been delayed because:
"something happened that nobody could have predicted. [...]"
"Moritz had to postpone his trip. He already had his passport with all his visas [...]"
"Now he's not going to leave until the situation with Haim is taken care of. He is hoping it will be resolved in about 12 days. "
The acrimonious dispute between Haim and Moritz resulted in their company Abraham Freres being dissolved. From now on, Moritz continued to operate a similar business - he retained an office in the same location - but I assume was now on his own.
Moritz Abraham's business card: Düsseldorf & Constantinople - 1920's.
Moritz's primary residence was now in Düsseldorf but he still retained an office in Constantinople: Stamboul, Emin Bey Han 23, although it was now reduced to a single office (#23).
23 LindenmanStrasse, Düsseldorf. The house is the first one on the corner.
The house in Düsseldorf
The house in Düsseldorf
The living room, 1925
The Dining Room and "Winter Garden", LindenmanStrasse. 1924
Photo Marcel Fresco.
In 1923 or 1924, Moritz sold an appartment in the Shahkulu district in Constantinople. The address doesn't correspond to where the family used to live, so it's not clear what this appartment was. (Note: need scan?)
The only photo of Ronya and Moritz together after leaving Constantinople.
Moritz uses a cane.
Ronya and Moritz with friends, Bachrach on the Rhine, 1927
Moritz and Ronya's lifestyle was somewhat extravagant - Uriel said that at one point they had up to five employees in the house: a gardener, a butler, a chauffeur, a nurse and a cook. This was most likely Ronya's idea.
This lifestyle however didn't last. According to Toni, Moritz came home one evening and announced to the family: "It's over - it's all gone." Whether this story is real or apocryphal, something did happen with Moritz's fortune. All his money was invested in the market, and he lost it all - seemingly overnight.
It seems also as though the Abraham Freres business may have not been around anymore - maybe the brothers had split and Moritz was on his own now, and not as successful?
According to the story I was told, this loss of money prompted the family to leave Düsseldorf and move to Paris.
A few things aren't clear though. I was told that this coincided with the 1929 market crash; however, there is a certificate "de fin de sejour" (end of stay) dated December 24, 1928, indicating that the family was planning to leave Düsseldorf and go to Paris.
This either means then that this reversal of fortune had happened before the crash of October 1929 - it was then the result of bad investments. Otherwise, it would mean that they had planned to go to Paris before losing their fortune.
What then would have been the reason for moving to Paris? Ronya's sister Eva (Liska) was now living in Paris (or was it Bertha? or both?)
Confusing the timeline, there are some photos with Ronya and the children in Düsseldorf dated 1930. The earliest photos of the family in Paris date from 1930, so it's not clear why they had this "end of sojourn" certificate dated December 1928.
Registry Entry - January 1929:
|Registry Book 1928-1930|
|Family Name||Given Name||Name of Parents||Date of Birth||Place of Birth||Profession||Registry Date|
|Abram||Morisyo||Mamo and Lea||23 January 1883||Ruse (Rustchuk)||Merchant, J. Emin b-h.||29 January 1929|
In July 1929, Moritz still retained the same business address - Emin Bey Han, No 23.
Although the Abraham Freres had ceased to exist since the early 20's, Moritz continued to be involved in a similar import business.
Note that Alex Mallat believed that in Düsseldorf Moritz owned a large steel company named MORA, however I've never heard this mentioned at home nor have I found any documents to confirm this.
Alex' recollection may actually have come from Morris Halle's memoir:
"Moritz Abraham was in the steel business in Germany. At one time he produced safety razor blades which my father tried to sell in Latvia. The attempt was unsuccessful, but we had thousands of sample blades about the house. In fact, we first began to buy blades several years after we came to America. Until that time, the MORA blades that my father had at home made such purchases unnecessary."
The following "Certificate of Good Conduct" was issued by the "Association of Foreign Israelites of Constantinople" for Moritz:
Certificate of Good Conduct, 1929.
Constantinople, July 11, 1929
Foreign Israelite Community of Constantinople.
Certificate of good conduct
We, the Foreign Israelite Community of Constantinople, certify that Mr Mauricio Abraham, originally from Ruschuk, 46 years old, married, merchant, residing in this city, Stamboul, Emin Bey Han, number 23, of Jewish religion, is part of this community (under the number ?) 339 B.
He has always enjoyed the same perfect moral standard and to our knowledge there is no motive that could affect in the most minimal way his name and honor.
Consequently, we expedite this petition for the interested party and we affix our seal of the Community of Foreign Jews of Constantinople.
11 july 1929.
This document seems to have been made as a prerequisite for acquiring the Spanish nationality.
Moritz had been using a Spanish passport as early as 1922. Maybe he had only been "under the protection" of Spain until then, and was now applying for the full-fledged Spanish citizenship?
Was this because, with the move to Paris, he would stop having also a presence in Constantinople and would now need something more official?
Moritz Abraham's Spanish Nationality Certificate, 1929
Moritz, late 20's
At first, it seems the family moved quite a few times: they had two addresses in 1930, both in the 16th arrondissement. One was Boulevard Exelmans, the other 67, rue Erlanger - apparently a sublet, as a card from Gisy that year was addressed to Abraham, Chez Santon.
The appartments were a far cry from the lifestyle they had enjoyed in Düsseldorf. Rue Erlanger may have been not very big as Gisy and Uriel first went to Lycee Lakanal, a boarding school on the outskirts of Paris. (this is my assuption - there may have been other reasons why they went there, apparently this school attracted a lot of foreign students.)
By 1933, the family had moved again, this time to 122 Boulevard Murat - still in the 16th.
Moritz, Paris, 30's
His business couldn't compare with what Abraham Freres had been however, and he struggled.
Every few months, Moritz was away for his business. These visas cover a six month period:
July 1934: Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Switzerland, Serbia
October 1934: Austria
December 1934: Romania, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary
Paris - 1939-1943
In 1942, Moritz and Ronya lived 35, rue de Lubeck, in the 16th arrondissement.
Moritz's certificate of Spanish nationality, 1942
By 1942, according to this Alien Identification Card, Moritz was not working - most likely not by choice but because as a Jew he was not allowed to own a business anymore.
Moritz's Alien ID card. Paris, 1942
Alien ID Card
Spouse: Ronya Datnowski
Nationality: Russian, Spaniard by marriage
On July 16 and 17, 1942, the French Police, under Nazi orders, rounded up over 13 000 foreign Jews in Paris (Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv.) As holder of a Spanish passport, Moritz and Ronya were not targetted.
As a child, I was told that my grandparents had been protected during the German occupation thanks to the official policy of Franco's Spain, which didn't have racial laws and would't let Germans extend their policies to Spanish citizens.
However, it appears that the reason they were protected was because of the action of one man, Bernardo Rolland, who was the Spanish Consul in France from 1939 to 1943.
Bernardo Rolland resisted German orders and directives from his own government, instead providing letters of protection for Jews with Spanish nationality, the great majority of whom actually came from the Balkans, like Moritz Abraham.
Letter from the Spanish Consul Bernardo Rolland, January 1943
The Spanish Consulate in France certifies that Mr Mauricio ABRAHAM JACOB, a Sepharad, is a Spanish national, and as such benefits from the provisions of the French-Spanish covenents concerning the treatment of Spanish subjects in France.
Paris, January 18, 1943.
The General Consul
Letter from the Spanish Consul Bernardo Rolland, January 1943
Paris, January 18, 1943.
Mr Mauricio ABRAHAM and family.
I would like to inform you that I have engaged the Police Department regarding the ongoing negociations between the French Goverment and the Spanish Embassy in Vichy concerning the new legal regulations regarding the reference(*) to include on food tickets of Sepharads with the Spanish nationality.
I send you this letter for all intents and purposes.
The General Consul,
*: meaning stamping the word "Jew".
The following excerpts are from: http://www.raoulwallenberg.net/?en/saviors/diplomats/spanish/diplomats/bernardo-rolland-de-miota.2820.htm
Bernardo Rolland, Consul General of Spain in Paris since 1939, distinguished himself for defending the Jewish people, and occasionally confronting his ambassador, José Felix de Lequerica, who wasn't willing to excessively contradict the pro-nazi government of Vichy and the Germans. After Vichy adopted the "Statut des Juifs" (which distinguished the Jews from the rest of the population), imposing them all kind of restrictions, Rolland concentrated his efforts in avoiding the confiscation of their goods.
In august 1941, Rolland made an active intervention in favor of 14 Sephardic Jews that had been arrested and sent to the concentration camp of Drancy. By the same date, Rolland assumed a risky initiative documented in a German Memo dated September 14th. He appealed to the German authorities of Paris, proposing the transfer of 2000 Jews (included the ones in Drancy) to the Spanish Morocco in the term of a few weeks. After that, though without much success, he tried to ease the exit of the Jews from France, while continuing with his denouncements against persecutions which were more severe every time.
In 1942, Rolland's measures succeeded. It was impossible for the authorities of Vichy to confiscate the Jewish people's patrimony
In September 1943 and despite the German's pressures, the Spanish government started the evacuation of French citizens from the coast of Cadiz, Algeciras and Malaga. Even when Rolland finished his term in Paris by the middle of 1943, it is certain that his efforts in favor of the Jewish people contributed decisively in making these evacuations possible.
Letter by the Spanish Consul General to France in Paris Bernardo Rolland with regards to anti-Semitic laws imposed on all Jews, including Spanish nationals living in France, by the French Government at the behest of the Germans in 1942:
"Spanish law does not discriminate among (Spanish) citizens because of their religion, and for that reason it regards Jews who *originally* came from Spain as Spaniards, despite their Jewish religion. For this reason, I would be grateful if the French authorities and the occupying power (Germans) would be good enough not to impose upon them (the Spanish Jews) those laws that apply to Jews"
Source: Note 49 CDJC, 32/180A, reply from Rolland, July 23,1942, to letter from the Commissariat General aux Questions Juives, July 22, 1942
From: VISAS for freedom (pdf)
In October 1940, the Spanish Consul in Paris, Bernardo Rolland, informed the Minister of Foreign Affairs about the new anti-Jewish measures that also affected the 2,000 Sephardic Jews with Spanish nationality residing in the French capital. The Statut des Juifs envisaged a gradual stepping up of discriminatory measures, viz., registration, expropriation and, ultimately, detention and deportation.
By means of "letters of protection" Rolland succeeded in having the Spanish Sephardim excluded from most of the anti-Jewish laws. "There being no Act referring to a Statute on Jews in Spain", wrote Rolland to the Minister on 24th October, "no Foreign State or Authority may classify Spaniards and accept these measures (...)".
However, the Madrid government had no wish to associate itself with the Consul's stance, and on 9th November the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Serrano Suñer, wrote to his Ambassador in Paris, José Felix Lequerica, leaving no doubt as to Spain's position:
"While it is certainly true that in Spain no race law exists, the Spanish Government cannot raise objections, even in the case of its subjects of Jewish origin, to prevent them from being subjected to general measures, its sole duty being to consider itself informed of such measures and, if the worst comes to the worst, place no obstacles in the way of their enforcement by maintaining a passive attitude".
In the latter part of 1941, Rolland again wrote to his superiors in Madrid inquiring as to the course of conduct to be followed in the event of the possible confiscation of assets of Spanish subjects of Jewish persuasion. Here, Madrid's reply was more active; however, it did not entail the task of protecting the persecuted parties but rather that of responding to Germany wherever Spanish sovereignty might be encroached upon. In this case, Spain's -not disinterested- position marginally benefited Spanish Jews (nationals and protected persons alike), because Consul Rolland managed to protect their assets and prevent their expropriation, by appointing non-Jewish Spanish administrators.
In August 1941, after a massive raid in Paris in which 7,000 people were apprehended, Rolland interceded to secure the freeing of 14 Spanish Jews who had been sent to the Drancy transit camp. Rolland did not apply the Ministry's restrictive orders regarding establishment of Spanish nationality to the letter, and in some cases also extended consular protection to persons that had the nationality but for a variety of reasons had not been entered on the Citizens' Register created by the 1924 Decree. At all times, the Spanish Sephardic Jews' desperate requests for protection or repatriation were forwarded by Rolland to Madrid.
In 1943 Bernardo Rolland began to organise the repatriation of 77 Jewish subjects, a task that was to be completed by his successor in the post, Alfonso Fiscowich
On January 31, 1943, Moritz died at home.
The only thing I was ever told was that he had been sick and bed-ridden for quite a while, although I was never told what his ailments were - the only explanation being that, due to the "circumstances" - being a Jew in Paris during the German occupation - "he wasn't well and hadn't received the treatment he needed".
Which doesn't explain much.
Looking at photos of Moritz at the end of his life, he seemed beat, a sad, exhausted man. Once he had lost his fortune, and had never been able to regain it, he hadn't been treated kindly by Ronya who didn't feel much love for him. The loss of his first son Gisy had affected him. The business he once had was gone, maybe he'd even had falling outs with his siblings, and by now two of them had also died. Finally, despite having had until then some protection as a Spanish national, he was a foreign Jew in occupied Paris - trapped and could feel the world closing in on him.
After burying him, Ronya would flee Paris and found temporary refuge in Spain.
- Special Thanks:
- Mehmet Sadettin Fidan, for providing records related to Moritz Abraham's professional activity.
- Pablo Martín Asuero, for copies of the 1929 "Certificate of Good Conduct" and 1928-1930 Spanish Consulate Registry Book
- Bernd Philipsen, for uncovering the Wiener Morgenzeitung, 27 July 1922 article mentioning Moritz role as "National Commissar of the Jewish National Fund".
- "HaMaccabi Be'Artzot HaBalkan" (The Maccabi in Balkan states), by David Rimon
- "The Spanish Consulate in Istanbul and the Protection of the Sephardim (1804-1913)", by Pablo Martín Asuero
- "Morris in Latvia 1923 - 1940", by Morris Halle (private publishing)
- "De l'Egée et de la Baltique à la Seine", by Alex Mallat (unpublished memoir)